This reference is a comprehensive study guide to the city. The text explains and evaluates the key ideas, informed by the latest research, adding the necessary historical context to situate the student in the literature and the essential debates. Organized in four sections The SAGE Companion to the City provides a systematic A-Z to understanding the city that explains the interrelations between society, culture, and economy.

Science and Technology

Science and technology

This Chapter

  • Argues that the relationship between urbanization and technological innovation is both long-standing and intimate
  • Insists that this relationship is reciprocal and complex
  • Shows, through examples, that cities have been both mirror and mould of technology in pre-industrial, industrial and post-industrial times


The contributions of science and technology to urban development have very often been overlooked; conversely, when they are considered they are often over-egged. A balance therefore needs to be struck. But clarity is elusive, for the ‘scientific’, ‘technological’ and ‘urban’ between them connote a vast range of interlocking and overlapping human activities and institutions. To consider the relations between them is potentially to raise countless questions. In a short chapter, these need to be simplified. An obvious starting ...

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