The Psychology of Ethnic Groups in the United States


Pamela Balls Organista, Gerardo Marín & Kevin M. Chun

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    In the same fashion as most software manuals, this book should probably begin by stating, “Congratulations …” not just because you bought this book but because you have acknowledged the fact that in our multicultural society, we need to better understand the relationship between ethnicity and culture and psychology. Indeed, in the 21st century it is practically impossible not to encounter cultural and ethnic diversity among one's friends, neighbors, and colleagues, at school and on the street. Interestingly, the same is true of many other nations across the globe, including in the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

    In writing this book we wanted to acknowledge that the ethnic and cultural diversity that we encounter in our lives is a central reason for our nation's richness and strength. We hope that by reading this book you will become an informed member of our ethnically diverse community.

    This book will help you to become familiar with some of the most pressing issues that need to be understood when we study the psychology of all the people who reside in the United States—European Americans and people of color. For many of the questions raised in this book, the final answers are not yet available, but the joint efforts of current and future researchers will provide some new parameters and guidelines to follow. Our hope is that this book will help you to be a conscientious and critical consumer of psychological research. We also hope that the book may interest you in contributing to this important enterprise of building an ethnic psychology.

    Contemporary psychological research in the United States includes de facto the presence of a variety of members of ethnic groups. One reason for this situation is the high proportion of the country's population that belongs to one of the four major ethnic groups (African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Hispanics/Latinos). But, as we implied above, demographics is just one argument for the need to study a culturally appropriate psychology. More important is the need to obtain an appropriate understanding of what are accurate and valid scientific findings and what information is tainted by poor methodologies or faulty interpretations. Indeed, it is difficult to accept the implicit premise of some social science research that would propose that members of one culture or ethnic group (usually non-Hispanic Whites) are representative of all humanity. This is what happens when researchers fail to include sufficient numbers of members of appropriate ethnic and cultural groups in their research projects. Just as psychologists have questioned the validity of behavioral rules derived from research with college undergraduates, social and behavioral scientists must question the validity and reliability of findings based on a select and unique group of individuals from one ethnic group.

    This book is not intended to replace basic psychological books and textbooks. Rather, the book provides a survey of essential issues that need to be understood when studying the behavior of all peoples. We invite you to join us in this exploration of the relationship of ethnicity and psychology as you read the pages that follow. The introductory section to the book presents an overview of the book including how it is organized and also how to make best use of its various sections. Although most readers tend to overlook the Introduction section in textbooks, we urge you to take a look at this section because it will help you to understand the book and to better learn the principles and facts we are presenting. But first, we would like to tell you a little about how the book came to be and who we are.

    The Road we Have Traveled

    This book is the third joint book publication we have produced in the last few years. More than 10 years ago, we started the search for a textbook that could be used in courses on ethnic psychology. There were a few books on the market, but they did not quite fit our understanding of ethnic psychology as a field that was continuously evolving yet also mature enough to offer important contributions to the analysis of diverse human behaviors. Our early disappointment with available texts led us to edit a book of classic and contemporary readings that was published in 1998 by Routledge, titled Readings in Ethnic Psychology. That book was one of the first to use the label “ethnic psychology” to talk about the psychology of ethnic/racial minority groups in the United States. A few years later, we realized that acculturation was one of the key principles in ethnic psychology and that it was time to update the early work in the field, to identify theoretical developments as well as new applications of this construct. We held a conference at the University of San Francisco centered on acculturation, and some of the presentations from that conference were later collected in the book Acculturation: Advances in Theory, Measurement, and Applied Research, published in 2003 by the American Psychological Association.

    We would like to tell you something about ourselves so that you see how our experiences and lives have shaped what you will read.

    Pamela Balls Organista was born in St. Louis, Missouri. She attended Washington University in St. Louis where she obtained a B.A. in Psychology and Black Studies. She attended Arizona State University for graduate studies in clinical psychology, obtaining her Ph.D., and then the University of California, San Francisco, where she completed a postdoctorate in clinical psychology with an emphasis in public service and minorities. She has been at the University of San Francisco (USF) since 1992 and currently serves as Professor and Chair in the Department of Psychology and the founding and current director of Ethnic Studies in the College of Arts and Sciences. Her research interests have centered on health risks and protective factors in primarily underserved populations including poor medical patients, Mexican migrants, and ethnic minority youth.

    Gerardo Marín was born in Pereira, Colombia, and raised in Cali, Colombia. His family immigrated to the United States when he was 17 years old. He attended Miami Dade Community College for two years and then transferred to Loyola University in Chicago where he obtained a B.S. in Psychology in 1970. He attended graduate school at DePaul University obtaining an M.S. in Psychology in 1972 and his Ph.D. in 1979. Gerardo has been at USF since 1982 and currently holds the position of Professor of Psychology and Vice Provost for Academic Affairs. He has published over 125 articles, chapters, and books mostly on topics such as acculturation, culturally appropriate research methods, AIDS, and tobacco and alcohol use among ethnic minority groups. He was involved in developing two of the most widely used acculturation scales for Latinos and served as the scientific editor for the Surgeon General's report on tobacco use among ethnic minorities. He also has been interested in cross-cultural psychology and in international activities and has been an active member of various international psychological associations including the Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP). He has been honored by various psychological associations and nongovernmental organizations and was awarded a doctorate honoris causa by the Catholic university in Hungary (Pázmany Péter Katolikus Egyetem). Gerardo has a granddaughter (Sienna M. Lindamood) and two children, Melisa (married to Kevin Lindamood) and Andrés Daniel (married to Kathleen Broderick).

    Kevin M. Chun is a fifth generation Chinese American with long-standing family roots in San Francisco. He received a B.S. in Psychology from Santa Clara University in 1990 and his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1995. While at UCLA, he worked with his mentor and adviser, Dr. Stanley Sue, at the National Research Center on Asian American Mental Health. He completed a psychology internship at Palo Alto VA Medical Center and received an Irvine Scholar Dissertation Fellowship at USF in 1995. Soon after, Kevin joined USF as a full-time faculty member and is currently Professor of Psychology and Director of Asian American Studies. His research focuses on family acculturation processes and health issues for Chinese American immigrants. Kevin and his University of California, San Francisco, colleague Dr. Catherine Chesla received two consecutive R01 grants from the National Institutes of Health to investigate cultural issues in diabetes management for Chinese American immigrant families, and to develop the first empirically supported diabetes management intervention for this ethnic group. Kevin is a contributing author to a number of scholarly works, including Handbook of Asian American Psychology (first and second editions), Acculturation and Parent-Child Relationships: Measurement and Development, and Handbook of Mental Health and Acculturation in Asian American Families. He was a recipient of the Early Career Award for Distinguished Contributions from the Asian American Psychological Association in 2005.


    The writing of this book has been “in process” for approximately four years, at times delayed by other pressing deadlines or by competitive demands on our time. Nevertheless, we are proud of the final product and thankful for all the support we received from a number of individuals. Jointly, we wish to thank our dean, Jennifer Turpin (Dean of Arts and Sciences at USF), who has always shown interest in our research and who encouraged us to complete the book. We also wish to thank our President, Fr. Stephen A. Privett, S. J., and our Provost, James L. Wiser, who have created the institutional climate necessary to make this book a reality. We also wish to thank our colleagues in the Psychology Department at USF who by their example and encouragement made it possible for us to work on our three books that were born of our collegial search for what is best for our students (the search for the Magis that characterizes Jesuit education). We also wish to thank the staff at Sage who from the beginning have been enthusiastic, supportive, and helpful and who gently prodded us to move on and complete the book. We have been fortunate to work with an excellent editorial staff over the years including Jim Brace-Thompson, Cheri Dellelo, Deya Saoud, Lindsay Dutro, and Erik Evans who assisted us through the completion of this project.

    Thanks are also due to the anonymous reviewers who provided thoughtful and thorough critiques of our manuscript.

    Individually, we also wish to express special thanks to a number of people who have supported us while writing the book. We hope they feel proud of their contributions and share in our joy to have completed an important task.

    Pamela is eternally grateful to work collaboratively with her esteemed friends and colleagues, Gerardo and Kevin. Together, they have had the opportunity to work on several projects (articles, presentations, books, and grants) that reflect the mission of the University of San Francisco and their values—namely, to continually create, through their scholarship and service, a more just and inclusive world. As a multicultural team, they are able to address issues through a variety of cultural lenses and provide a complex understanding of the psychosocial challenges, promises, and questions that still remain for ethnic minorities living in the United States. Taking on the writing of this manuscript has been a daunting process, and without the passion and support of others, its completion would have been dubious. In particular, she is grateful for her close family and friends. They are upbeat, bright, and good people that never cease to amaze her with their work and commitment to others. She wants to express her thanks to her two sisters, Zoneice and Tunderleauh, and nephews, Demerrio and Tory. She gives special thanks to her husband, Kurt Organista, who continually provides a rich source of inspiration, intellectual collaboration, and loving support. Their beautiful and beloved children, Zena Laura and Zara Luz, never fail to make her think and care more deeply, laugh/play, and recognize that they hold a special place of importance in one another's lives as “Momma” and “Daughters.” Finally, she wants to express her heartfelt gratitude to her parents, Zevonzell and Cynthia Balls, who provided a good upbringing, home, and a strong education to sustain her. Throughout her life, they love her, encourage her, and believe in her. These gifts are meaningful and invaluable and she would like to dedicate this book to them.

    Gerardo wishes to express a special appreciation to Pamela and Kevin, his respected colleagues who have been part of many “crazy” ideas and who have sustained his interest in these issues and taught him much. His daughter, Melisa, and his son, Andrés, have been instrumental in shaping the book and in making it a reality and he needs to thank them for their ever so gentle “Papi, how is the book coming?” questioning. In particular, he wishes to thank Lois Ann Lorentzen for her constant and caring companionship, her love, her emotional support, her example, and her disappointed face when other things stole time away from writing. As the book was being written, a little princess was born, his granddaughter Sienna M. Lindamood who has brought much happiness and hope to her family and especially to her “Ato.”

    She exemplifies in her background the realities of a multiethnic society and he would like to dedicate this book to her.

    Kevin also wishes to thank his dear friends and colleagues, Gerardo and Pamela, for their continued friendship and support throughout the years. He continues to be inspired by their professional expertise, intellectual curiosity, and abiding commitment to social justice. Kevin is also grateful for the generous and unconditional support of his partner, Anthony Ng; his family, Cynthia and Henry Lum Wilfred Chun, and Annett, Shaun, Garrett, and Harrison Wright; and his many caring friends and extended family members in the San Francisco Bay Area. He dedicates this book to his late grand aunt, Frances Chun Kan, a former singer and entertainer at the Forbidden City Nightclub in San Francisco's Chinatown, who was a loving family member, bon vivant, civil rights pioneer, and inspirational role model to all.

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