Written by two world-leading academics in the field of attitudes research, is a brand new textbook that gets to the very heart of this fascinating and far-reaching field. Greg Maio and Geoffrey Haddock describe how scientific methods have been used to better understand attitudes and how they change. With the aid of a few helpful metaphors, the text provides readers with a grasp of the fundamental concepts for understanding attitudes and an appreciation of the scientific challenges that lay ahead.

The External World

The external world

Questions to Ponder

  • How does message repetition influence attitudes?
  • Do sets of messages have to be on the same topic to influence agreement with each message?
  • How do people maintain a “balance” between their attitudes and those of other people?
  • How can relationships affect attitudes?
  • Do minorities influence attitudes in the same way as majorities?
  • How do people respond to messages promoting values from Western and Eastern cultures?


Research is often about snapshots. We take pictures of processes that are occurring and attempt to draw conclusions from the patterns that we see. Psychological research takes snapshots of processes inside people, and psychological research on attitudes is no exception. All of the research described in the prior chapters – and particularly the chapter before this one – has ...

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