The Politics of Nuclear Weapons


Andrew Futter

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright


    About the Author

    Andrew Futter is a Senior Lecturer in International Politics at the University of Leicester, UK. He is the author of Ballistic Missile Defence and US National Security Policy (2013), and has published widely on nuclear strategy, nuclear proliferation and contemporary nuclear challenges. He is an Honorary Fellow at the Institute for Conflict, Cooperation and Security at the University of Birmingham, a member of the Euro-Atlantic Security Initiative run by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the co-convenor of the BISA Global Nuclear Order working group.


    There are many people to thank in putting this book together, but particular mention must be made of Wyn Bowen, Stephen Cimbala, Oliver Daddow, James Davidson, David Dunn, Stephen Ellis, Tom Fretwell, Nicola Horsburgh, Michael McNally, Jamie Missing, Jonna Nyman, Mark Phythian, Nick Ritchie, Nick Wheeler, Arn Wilkins, Heather Williams and Ben Zala, as well as the useful comments from the various anonymous reviewers, and Natalie Aguilera and James Piper at SAGE. Above all this work would not have been possible without the support and guidance of Jon Moran, and of my mum Alison and brother Jack.

  • Appendices

    • Appendix 1: Nuclear weapons timeline
    • Appendix 2: Glossary of key terms and acronyms
    • Appendix 3: Countries with civilian nuclear power
    • Appendix 4: Nuclear weapons in fiction, film and TV
    Nuclear Weapons Timeline
    SeptemberAlbert Einstein publishes his special theory of relativity (E = mc2)
    DecemberOtto Hahn and Fritz Strassman discover fission in uranium
    1 OctoberA letter warning about nuclear weapons by Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard is delivered to US President Franklin Roosevelt
    9 OctoberPresident Roosevelt creates the US Atomic Project
    DecemberEnrico Fermi's ‘nuclear pile’ goes critical in Chicago
    16 JulyThe USA conducts the Trinity Test in the New Mexico desert
    6 AugustThe USA drops the ‘Little Boy’ uranium bomb on Hiroshima
    9 AugustUS drops the ‘Fat Man’ plutonium bomb on Nagasaki
    JanuaryThe UN forms the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)
    JuneBernard Baruch outlines a plan for international control of atomic weapons – the so-called ‘Baruch Plan’
    AugustThe US McMahon bill prohibits sharing any nuclear information with any other country
    4 AprilThe North Atlantic Treaty is signed creating NATO
    29 AugustThe Soviet Union detonates its first nuclear device at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan
    JuneThe Korean War begins (1950–1953)
    3 OctoberThe UK conducts its first nuclear test in the Montebello Islands, Australia
    31 OctoberThe USA explodes its first hydrogen bomb, codenamed ‘Ivy Mike’
    12 AugustThe first Soviet hydrogen bomb test is conducted
    8 DecemberThe Atoms for Peace programme is launched by US President Dwight Eisenhower
    21 January‘Nautilus’ – the first nuclear-powered submarine – is launched by the USA
    JuneThe first nuclear power plant is opened in the Soviet Union
    MarchThe USA conducts ‘Castle Bravo’ tests in the Marshall Islands
    10 MayThe USSR proposes an nuclear test ban
    14 MayThe Warsaw Treaty Organization (Warsaw Pact) is formed
    12 JulyIndian proposal to end nuclear weapons tests
    15 MayThe UK explodes its first hydrogen bomb
    29 JulyThe International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is established
    26 AugustThe Soviet Union launches the Sputnik satellite into orbit
    SeptemberThe Mayak nuclear incident in the Soviet Union
    Pugwash, SANE and CND are established
    JulyThe USA–UK Mutual Defense Agreement (MDA) is signed
    10 OctoberThe Windscale nuclear reactor catches fire in the United Kingdom
    FebruaryThe first Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) become operational
    OctoberThe first US ICBMs become operational
    DecemberThe first US ballistic missile submarine becomes operational
    The Antarctic Treaty is signed
    13 FebruaryThe first French nuclear test is conducted in the Algerian desert
    MarchThe UN Conference on Disarmament (CD) is established in Geneva
    NovemberThe first Soviet ballistic missile submarine is launched
    JanuaryThe Goldsboro nuclear accident in the USA
    30 OctoberThe Soviet Union tests the Tsar Bomba nuclear device
    JuneThe first Permissive Action Links (PALs) are fitted to nuclear weapons
    16–28 OctoberThe Cuban Missile Crisis brings the world to the edge of nuclear war
    18 DecemberThe Nassau or ‘Polaris’ agreement is signed between the USA and the UK
    5 AugustThe USA, Soviet Union and the UK sign the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT)
    21 JulyThe declaration of the denuclearisation of Africa
    16 OctoberChina explodes its first nuclear device
    17 JanuaryA US bomber carrying four hydrogen bombs crashes at Palomares, Spain
    27 JanuaryThe Outer Space Treaty is signed
    14 FebruaryA Latin American nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) is established
    1 JulyThe nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) opens for signature
    1969A secret agreement is reached between the USA and Israel over the Israeli nuclear programme
    11 FebruaryThe Seabed Treaty is signed
    26 MayRichard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) I and Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty
    18 MayIndia detonates a ‘low-yield’ nuclear device under the Rajasthan desert, codenamed ‘Smiling Buddah’
    3 JulyThe nuclear Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) is signed
    23 AprilThe Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is created
    28 MayThe Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty is signed
    JulyA.Q. Khan establishes the Kahn Research Laboratories in Pakistan
    MayThe first UN Conference on Disarmament is convened
    28 MarchThe Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in the USA suffers a partial meltdown
    18 JuneThe SALT II agreement is signed by the USA and Soviet Union
    22 SeptemberA suspected South African–Israeli nuclear test takes place in the southern Indian Ocean
    OctoberThe last atmospheric nuclear test is conducted (by China)
    7 JuneIsrael attacks and destroys the Osirak nuclear reactor in Iraq
    29 JuneThe START treaty negotiations begin between the USA and Soviet Union
    DecemberThe Greenham Common protests take place in the UK
    23 MarchRonald Reagan announces the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
    NovemberAble Archer 83 – a huge NATO nuclear exercise – is conducted
    6 AugustThe Treaty of Rarotonga creates the South Pacific NWFZ
    5 OctoberSunday Times publishes Mordachai Vanunu's revelations about the secret Israeli nuclear arsenal
    AprilThe Chernobyl nuclear reactor suffers a critical meltdown in the Ukraine
    11–12October The Reykjavik summit between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev takes place
    8 DecemberThe Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty is signed by the United States and the Soviet Union
    31 JulyGeorge H.W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev sign the first START Treaty
    27 NovemberThe Nuclear Threat Reduction Act is passed by the US Congress
    4 DecemberCartagena Declaration creating a NWFZ in Latin America and the Caribbean
    25 DecemberThe Soviet Union dissolves
    20 JanuaryA Joint Declaration on Denuclearisation of the Korean Peninsula is signed
    17 JulyThe Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty is signed by Russia and NATO
    3 AugustFrance signs the NPT
    OctoberThe United States announces a unilateral moratorium on nuclear testing
    3 JanuaryThe START II Treaty is signed by the USA and Russia
    MarchSouth Africa declares and then renounces nuclear weapons
    25 JanuaryThe Norwegian rocket incident takes place
    23 MarchNegotiations begin on a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT)
    May178 nations renew the NPT in New York
    DecemberA NWFZ is established in Southeast Asia
    11 AprilThe Pelindaba Treaty is signed creating an African NWFZ
    10 SeptemberThe Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is adopted by the United Nations
    A.Q. Khan begins to transfer nuclear components to Libya
    13–15 MayIndia conducts five nuclear weapons tests
    28–30 MayPakistan conducts six nuclear weapons tests
    31 AugustNorth Korea launches the three-stage Taepo-dong ballistic missile over the Sea of Japan
    DecemberIraq expels United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) weapons inspectors
    May–JuneThe Kargil War between India and Pakistan takes place
    13 OctoberThe US Senate fails to ratify the CTBT
    11 SeptemberTerrorists attack the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in the USA
    13 DecemberPresident George W. Bush announces the US abrogation of the ABM Treaty
    24 MayThe Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty between USA and Russia is signed
    14 AugustThe Iranian nuclear programme is publicly revealed
    10 JanuaryNorth Korea announces its intention to leave the NPT
    MayThe Proliferation Security Initiative is launched
    AugustThe six-party talks about North Korea's nuclear programme begin
    19 DecemberLibya agrees to give up its weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programmes
    JanuaryThe A.Q. Khan nuclear smuggling network is revealed
    28 AprilUN Security Council Resolution 1540 is signed
    JuneA nuclear hotline between India and Pakistan is established
    MayThe third NPT Review Conference is held in New York
    18 JulyThe US–India Civil Nuclear Agreement is signed
    AprilIran announces that it has mastered uranium enrichment
    8 OctoberNorth Korea tests its first nuclear device
    4 JanuaryThe ‘four horsemen of the nuclear apocalypse’ publish their first op-ed piece in The Wall Street Journal
    6 SeptemberIsrael attacks a suspected Syrian nuclear weapons facility
    The International Campaign for the Abolition of Nuclear Weapons is established
    SeptemberThe Nuclear Suppliers Group grants India a waiver
    DecemberThe Global Zero campaign is launched
    FebruaryUK and French ballistic missile submarine, collide in the Atlantic Ocean
    5 AprilUS President Barack Obama makes a speech on nuclear disarmament in Prague, Czech Republic
    JulyAn African NWFZ is announced
    8 AprilThe New START Treaty is signed by the USA and Russia
    12 AprilThe first Nuclear Security Summit is held in Washington, DC
    3–28 MayThe fourth NPT Review conference takes place in New York
    JuneThe Stuxnet computer virus is discovered in the Iranian nuclear programme
    11 MarchThe Fukushima nuclear disaster takes place in Japan
    MarchGermany announces that it will phase out nuclear energy by 2020
    26 MarchThe second Nuclear Security Summit is held in Seoul, South Korea
    12 FebruaryNorth Korea conducts its third nuclear test
    4–5 MarchA Conference on the Humanitarian Effects of Nuclear Weapons is held in Oslo, Norway
    28 NovemberA temporary deal is agreed between the P5+1 and Iran to temporarily freeze certain aspects of Iran's nuclear programme
    FebruarySecond meeting on the Humanitarian Impacts of Nuclear Weapons takes place in Nayarit, Mexico
    MarchThe third Nuclear Security Summit takes place in The Hague, Netherlands
    Glossary of Key Terms and Acronyms

    For an extensive overview of terms relating to nuclear weapons, readers should consult Rodney Carlisle's ‘Encyclopaedia of the atomic age’ (New York, Facts on Fact Inc: 2001) or Jeffrey Larsen and James Smith's ‘Historical dictionary of arms control’ (Oxford, The Scarecrow Press: 2005).

    Able Archer 83

    A NATO military exercise in October 1983 that significantly raised tensions between East and West in the Cold War.

    Active defence

    Measures taken to lessen the impact of a nuclear attack before detonations (missile and air defence for example).

    Additional Protocol (IAEA)

    Grants the IAEA legal authority for extra monitoring and verification of nuclear facilities.

    Air burst

    A nuclear detonation above the intended target, designed to maximise the extent of blast damage.

    Air-launched cruise missile (ALCM)

    A cruise missile delivered by an aircraft that can be nuclear armed.

    Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty

    A treaty agreed in 1972 by the USA and USSR to prohibit the deployment of strategic ballistic missile defences. Abrogated by the United States in 2002.

    A.Q. Khan network

    Nuclear smuggling network established by Pakistani scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan which provided nuclear technology to Pakistan and a number of aspiring nuclear states.

    Atom bomb (A-bomb)

    A nuclear bomb that uses nuclear fission, such as those dropped on Japan in 1945.

    Atoms for Peace

    US President Dwight Eisenhower's programme to supply civilian nuclear technology to the world in the 1950s.

    Ballistic missile

    A missile that follows a ballistic trajectory before falling to earth to hit its target. Longer-range missiles travel into space.

    Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD)

    Systems designed to intercept and destroy nuclear-armed missiles in various stages of their flight before they hit their intended target.

    Baruch Plan

    A proposal by the United States in the late 1940s to create an international organisation to regulate all nuclear technology.

    Bolt from the blue

    A nuclear strike without any warning.


    Pushing your opponent to the brink of disaster to test their resolve.

    Broken arrow

    The term used to describe accidents involving nuclear-armed aircraft.

    Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND)

    An organisation that campaigns for the United Kingdom to unilaterally abolish its nuclear weapons.


    The mechanism used to separate different isotopes of uranium in order to enrich it.


    An area of Pakistan (in the Ras Koh Hills of Balochistan) that gives its name to the nuclear tests conducted there in May 1998.

    Chain reaction

    The process whereby the release of neutrons from one atomic nuclear reaction begins a nuclear reaction in another atom, which then initiatives further atomic reactions.


    A civilian nuclear disaster that occurred in the Ukraine in 1986.

    Cold start

    The Indian military doctrine that would target Pakistani nuclear forces in the event of nuclear hostilities.

    Cold test

    (also Sub-critical test) Nuclear test without an explosion.

    Cold War

    Military and geopolitical stand-off between a Western bloc led by the United States and NATO against an Eastern bloc led by the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact, 1945–1991.

    Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    Treaty to eliminate all nuclear testing, which opened for signature in 1996.


    Radioactive particles deposited after a nuclear blast that remain harmful and lethal to humans.

    Continuation of Government (CoG)

    Plans to ensure the continuation of government following a nuclear strike – part of civil defence.

    Continuous-at-sea Deterrence (CASD)

    Policy adopted by the UK whereby one nuclear ballistic missile armed submarine is always at sea ready to fire its nuclear weapons.

    Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    An international agreement that seeks to protect nuclear materials established in 1980 and updated in 2005.


    Targeting strategy based on destroying the enemy's nuclear and military installations.


    Targeting strategy based on destroying large population centres.

    Critical mass

    The necessary amount of fissile material required to sustain a nuclear fission reaction.

    Cuban Missile Crisis

    US–Soviet crisis over the placement of Soviet nuclear-capable missiles in Cuba in 1962. Regarded as the closest we have ever been to nuclear war.

    Dead Hand

    The name of the semi-autonomous Soviet nuclear response system. Also known as the Perimeter system.


    The removal of nuclear forces from instant, hair-trigger alert, and from fire on warning.


    The process to remove nuclear weapons from active status in order to dismantle them.

    Depleted uranium

    High-density material containing very low levels of U235 used for civilian purposes and armour plating and armour-piecing projectiles. Can be produced as a by-product of enrichment.


    Ensuring bombs/warheads have no fixed target before they have to be used.

    Dirty bomb

    A weapon designed to maximise the distribution of radioactive material via a conventional explosion. Also known as a radiological dispersal device (RDD).

    Doomsday Clock

    Indication of nuclear threat run by the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

    Dual-use technology

    Technology that can be used for both civilian and nuclear weapons purposes.

    E = mc2

    Formula devised by Albert Einstein that paved the way for nuclear energy.

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP)

    A burst of energy from a nuclear explosion that is highly destructive to any electric-based equipment.

    Enhanced radiation weapon (ERWs)

    Weapons designed to maximise radiation rather than blast to kill enemy forces but not destroy infrastructure. The neutron bomb was an example of an ERW.

    Enola Gay

    Name of the B-29 aircraft that dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

    Extended nuclear deterrence

    The provision of a nuclear deterrent guarantee by a nuclear-armed state to another state that does not possess nuclear weapons.

    Fat Man

    Name of the plutonium atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki.

    Fissile material

    A chemical element able to perform fission (be split).

    Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT)

    Treaty to ban the production of new fissile material (U235 and PU239).


    The process whereby a nucleus of an atom is split, emitting excess neutrons.

    Force de dissuasion

    The name given to the French nuclear weapons force. Previously know as the force de frappe.

    Four horsemen of the nuclear apocalypse

    Henry Kissinger, Sam Nunn, William Perry and George Schultz.

    Fuel cycle

    The process from mining through to use (in a reaction or weapon) to the reprocessing and storage of nuclear fuel.


    Civilian nuclear disaster that occurred at the Fukushima–Daiichi plant in Japan in March 2011.


    The process whereby atoms are fused together to create enormous heat and energy – used in a hydrogen bomb.

    Geiger counter

    Instrument for measuring nuclear radiation.

    Geneva Interim Agreement

    Temporary agreement reached by the P5+1 and Iran in November 2013 to halt parts of the nuclear programme in return for sanctions relief.

    Global Zero

    Global movement seeking the abolition of nuclear weapons.

    Gravity bomb

    Nuclear bomb dropped by aircraft that falls to earth to hit its intended target.

    Highly enriched uranium (HEU)

    Uranium that has been enriched to very high levels of U235 (80 per cent +) for use in a nuclear bomb or warhead.

    Horizontal proliferation

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons to new actors.

    Hydrogen bomb (also known as the H-bomb, ‘the super’ or thermonuclear bomb)

    A nuclear bomb based on the process of nuclear fusion.

    Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)

    A missile able to strike targets anywhere in the world in a very short space of time. Normally armed with one or more nuclear warheads.

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    International institution set up to promote and regulate the peaceful use of nuclear energy.

    International fuel bank

    (also known as nuclear fuel bank) is a proposal to manage the supply of enriched uranium.


    A variation of a chemical element with a different number of neutrons.

    Joe 1

    The name of the first Soviet atomic bomb exploded in 1949. Also known as RDS 1.

    Kargil War

    The only time two nuclear-armed states (India and Pakistan) have fought each other directly (in 1999).

    Kiloton (Kt)

    The unit of measurement equal to one thousand tonnes of conventional explosive.

    Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT)

    The 1963 treaty banning nuclear testing in the atmosphere, in space and under water. Also known as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT).

    Little Boy

    The name of the uranium bomb dropped on Hiroshima in August 1945.

    Loose nukes

    Nuclear weapons or material not accounted for after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    Low-enriched uranium (LEU)

    Uranium enriched to low levels of U235 to be used in a nuclear reactor (typically around 5 per cent).

    Manhattan Project

    The name of the US-led programme to build the first atomic bombs.

    Megaton (Mt)

    Unit of measurement equal to one million tonnes of conventional explosive.


    The consequence of a nuclear reactor overheating, where fissile products are released.

    Minimum deterrence

    Smallest number of weapons needed to retain a credible nuclear posture.

    Mixed oxide fuel (MOX)

    Mixture of reprocessed uranium and plutonium fuel that can be used in a nuclear reactor.

    Multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle (MIRV)

    Missile with multiple nuclear warheads that can be targeted individually.

    Mushroom cloud

    Large distinctive cloud produced by a nuclear explosion.

    Mutual assured destruction (MAD)

    Condition whereby nuclear weapons will not be used against another nuclear-armed actor because to do so would be suicidal.

    North Atlantic Treaty (NATO)

    A multi-national military and defence organisation established in 1949.

    Neutron bomb

    A bomb designed to maximise radiation and effects on humans while minimising its effect on infrastructure.

    New START Treaty

    The treaty between the United States and Russia signed in 2010 limiting deployed strategic nuclear forces.

    No first use (NFU)

    A declared policy not to use nuclear weapons first in a conflict.

    Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

    A large group of states not aligned to any major power block, critical of the lack of progress made towards disarmament by the NWS.

    Non-nuclear-weapon state(NNWS)

    A state signatory to the NPT that can never possess nuclear weapons under the treaty.

    Norwegian Rocket Incident

    A nuclear scare in 1995 after Russian leaders mistook a Norwegian rocket launch for a NATO nuclear missile strike.

    Nuclear apartheid

    The condition whereby under the NPT some states can legally have nuclear weapons while others cannot.

    Nuclear deterrence

    Using the threat of nuclear weapons to deter nuclear use by another actor.

    Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

    The treaty opened for signature in 1968 with three main pillars: (1) signatories must work towards nuclear disarmament; (2) all signatories have the right to civilian nuclear power; (3) states must not proliferate nuclear weapons or materials to others.

    Nuclear opacity

    The policy adopted by Israel of neither confirming nor denying its possession of nuclear weapons.

    Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

    A multinational body that controls the manufacture and sale of nuclear-related material and technologies.

    Nuclear taboo

    A normative concept that has developed against any use of nuclear weapons.

    Nuclear waste

    The by-products of nuclear fission reactions that must be suitably disposed of.

    Nuclear weapon

    A weapon that derives its power from the nucleus of an atom of a particular chemical isotope.

    Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC)

    A proposed multilateral treaty to outlaw nuclear weapons.

    Nuclear-weapon free zone (NWFZ)

    A geographical zone where the manufacture, testing, deployment and stockpiling of nuclear weapons is prohibited.

    Nuclear-weapon state (NWS)

    One of the five states legally recognised as possessing nuclear weapons under the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty (the USA, Russia, the UK, France and China).

    Nuclear winter

    The possible result of large-scale nuclear use leading to reduced sunlight and cold weather for a sustained period, which in turn could lead to death and environmental destruction.

    Operation Plowshare

    The US programme to develop nuclear devices for peaceful construction and engineering purposes.


    An Iraqi nuclear reactor attacked by Israel in 1981.


    The five permanent members of the UN Security Council. Also the five recognised nuclear weapons states under the NPT (the USA, Russia, the UK, France and China).

    P5 process

    An initiative to facilitate steps towards nuclear disarmament by the P5 as warranted by the NPT.

    Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT)

    See Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT).

    Passive defence

    Measures taken to lessen the impact of a nuclear attack once it has happen (bomb shelters, emergency response, etc.).

    Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs)

    Nuclear detonations for non-military purposes.

    Permissive Action Links (PALs)

    Various mechanisms to ensure nuclear weapons cannot be detonated without proper authorisation.


    The code name for the Iraqi nuclear weapons programme initiated in 1990.


    Predominantly man-made chemical element that can be used for atomic fission. Plutonium is separated from other products following a nuclear reaction of uranium.


    Name given to the Indian nuclear tests – named after the test site in Rajasthan. Pokhran I refers to the ‘peaceful test’ of 1974 and Pokhran II to the overt weapons test of 1998.


    The particles released naturally by certain chemical isotopes and through nuclear reactions.

    Radiation sickness

    The severe health effects of high exposure to radiation that can lead to various illnesses and death. Also known as acute radiation syndrome (ARS).

    Radioactive fallout

    The radioactive particles of earth and other material scattered into the air as a result of a nuclear blast, many of which are highly dangerous for humans.


    The method used to transform spent nuclear fuel into either new MOX fuel for a reactor or to separate plutonium for a bomb.

    Roentgen equivalent man (rem)

    Unit used to measure ionising radiation.

    Samson Option

    The strategy of massive nuclear response purportedly to be adopted by the Israeli government if the existence of the state is threatened.

    Ship submersible ballistic nuclear(SSBN)

    A nuclear-powered submarine armed with nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles.

    Six-party talks

    The diplomatic effort to prevent and then curb North Korea's nuclear ambitions involving the USA, Russia, China, Japan, South Korea and North Korea (2006–).

    Smiling Buddha

    The name given to the ‘peaceful’ nuclear test conducted by India in 1974.

    Solimoes Project

    The name given to the secret Brazilian nuclear weapons programme.


    The name of the first artificial earth orbiting satellite launched by the Soviet Union in 1957.

    Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)

    A plan to build a shield against ballistic missile attack announced by US President Ronald Reagan.


    The computer virus discovered within the Iranian uranium-enrichment programme in 2010.

    Submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM)

    A ballistic missile (which can be nuclear armed) launched from a submarine.

    Submarine-launched cruise missile (SLCM)

    A cruise missile (which can be nuclear armed) launched from a submarine. An SLCM has a far shorter range than an SLBM.

    Suitcase bomb

    A tactical nuclear weapons that is small enough to be carried by a single person in a backpack.

    Technological determinism

    A theory that suggests that advances in technology drive social and political developments.

    The Gadget

    The name given to the first nuclear bomb exploded as part of the Trinity Test in 1945.

    Three Mile Island

    A civilian nuclear reactor meltdown in the United States in 1979.

    Threshold nuclear weapons capability

    State with the necessary capabilities to build nuclear weapons in a relatively short space of time if it chose to but is not current considered as nuclear armed.

    Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT)

    Treaty signed in 1974 limiting underground nuclear tests to a maximum of 150kt yield.

    Trinity Test

    The first test of a nuclear weapon in Alamogordo, in the New Mexico desert, USA, in July 1945.

    Tsar Bomba

    The largest nuclear weapon ever tested – detonated by Russia in October 1961.

    Tube Alloys

    The name of the secret British nuclear weapons research programme established in the early 1940s.


    A third possible source of fissile fuel for a nuclear reactor bred from thorium.

    Ummah Tameer-e-Nau (UTM)

    A militant organisation based in Pakistan believed to have discussed supplying Al-Qaeda with nuclear material.

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540

    The UN resolution agreed in 2004, seeking to prevent the spread of nuclear and other WMD material to non-state actors.


    A naturally occurring chemical element that can be enriched to be used in a nuclear reactor or a nuclear weapon. Only U235 can be used in a nuclear bomb.

    Uranium enrichment

    The process to increase the concentration of the fissile isotope U235 in uranium so that it can be used in a reactor or bomb.

    Uranverein Project

    The name of the nuclear weapons project conducted by Nazi Germany during the Second World War.

    US–India Civil Nuclear Agreement

    The agreement signed in 2005 allowing India access to US civilian nuclear technology in return for placing Indian civilian nuclear facilities under IAEA safeguards. Also known as the 123 Agreement.

    Vela Incident

    Suspected nuclear detonation carried out in the southern Indian Ocean in 1979, widely rumoured to have been a joint South African–Israeli nuclear test.

    Vertical proliferation

    An increase in the numbers of nuclear weapons held by current nuclear-armed states.

    Virtual nuclear-weapon state

    A state with latent a nuclear weapons capacity – i.e. it has the fissile material and weapons complex but has not built the bomb.


    Placing nuclear waste in a glass compound to ensure its security.

    Weapons of mass destruction (WMD)

    Usually refers to nuclear, but also includes chemical, biological and radiological weapons. Anything designed to cause mass casualties and destruction.


    The first major nuclear accident in the UK in 1957 after a civilian power reactor caught fire.


    Material containing partially refined uranium oxide.


    Measurement of energy released in a nuclear explosion.

    Countries with Civilian Nuclear Power
    Nuclear ReactorsTotal Capacity (MW)
    Republic of Korea2320,739
    United Kingdom169,231
    Czech Republic63,804
    South Africa21,860
    The Netherlands1482
    United Arab EmiratesUnder construction

    i Germany has recently declared its intention to close all of its nuclear power plants by 2022 – partly as a result of the Fukushima disaster in 2011. On this see, for example, Detlet Jahn and Sebastian Korolczuk, ‘German exceptionalism: the end of nuclear energy in Germany!’, Environmental Politics, 21:1 (2012) pp.159–164.

    Source: See International Atomic Energy Agency, ‘Power Reactor Information System’, Statistics/OperationalReactorsByCountry.aspx.

    Nuclear Weapons in Fiction, Films and TV

    Nuclear weapons have a rich history in popular culture, particularly in books, on TV and in film, and a selection of these – along with some non-fiction and official media – are included below. These lists are by no means exhaustive and you might also be interested in Scott Zeman and Michael Amundson (eds.) ‘Atomic culture’ (2004).

    Arc light’ (1994) A novel by Eric Harry about a limited global nuclear war.
    Broken Arrow (1996) A Hollywood film about the theft of two nuclear weapons.
    Countdown to Looking Glass (1984) A made-for-TV film depicting the lead-up to a limited nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union.
    Crimson Tide (1995) A Hollywood film portraying the stand-off between the captain and the executive officer of a US nuclear-armed submarine following an incomplete nuclear launch order.
    Dr Strangelove (1964) A black comedy film in which a US airforce officer orders a nuclear first strike on the Soviet Union.
    Fail safe’ (1962) A fictional thriller by Eugene Burdick and Harvey Wheeler depicting an accidental nuclear attack by the United States on the Soviet Union as the result of a computer failure. The book was later made into a film (1964 and 2000).
    Fat Man and Little Boy (1989) A Hollywood film telling the story and re-enacting the Manhattan Project during the Second World War. Released in the UK as Shadow Makers.
    Hiroshima (1995) A film about the lead-up to the decision to drop the first atomic bomb in 1945.
    K-19: The Widowmaker (2002) A Hollywood thriller about the disasters that befall a Soviet nuclear submarine.
    London after the bomb’ (1982) A book by Owen Greene, Barry Rubin, Neil Turok, Philip Webber and Graeme Wilkinson about what London might look like after a nuclear attack.
    Lucky Dragon No. 5 (1959) A Japanese film based on the shipping vessel that was hit by fallout following US nuclear testing in 1954.
    Octopussy (1983) A James Bond film about a possible nuclear attack on NATO forces designed to force nuclear disarmament.
    On the beach’ (1957) A novel written by Nevil Shute depicting people in Australia as they await the arrival of deadly radiation from a nuclear exchange in the northern hemisphere. The book was later made into a film (1959) and a TV movie (2000).
    Special Bulletin (1983) A film based on the fictional live broadcasts of a terrorist plot to blackmail the US government by placing a nuclear bomb in Charleston harbour.
    The China Syndrome (1979) Thriller about a fictional nuclear meltdown.
    The Day After (1983) An American television film depicting the build-up to and the effects of a nuclear war between the USA and the Soviet Union on several groups of people living in Missouri.
    The fourth protocol’ (1984) A novel by Frederick Forsyth about a Soviet plot to detonate a nuclear bomb in the United Kingdom weeks before a general election.
    The letter of last resort’ (2012) A play by David Greig dealing the decisions taken by UK prime ministers on what to do in the event of nuclear war.
    The sum of all fears’ (1991) A novel by Tom Clancy describing a terrorist plot to detonate a nuclear bomb at an American Super Bowl game. The book was later turned into a Hollywood film of the same name (2002).
    The War Game (1965) A television docudrama depicting the effects of a nuclear war on the United Kingdom.
    The world set free’ (1914) A novel by H.G. Wells predicting a future world dominated by nuclear weapons.
    Third world war’ (1982) A novel written by John Hackett in the style of a historical account of a nuclear war between NATO and the Warsaw Pact countries set in 1985.
    Thirteen Days (2000) A Hollywood portrayal of the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.
    Threads (1984) A British television drama describing the effects of a nuclear attack on a number of different families in the British city of Sheffield.
    Trinity's child’ (1983) A novel by William Prochnau depicting the events of a fictional Third World War between East and West. It was later turned into film called By Dawn's Early Light (1990).
    Thunderball (1965) A James Bond film based around the theft of two NATO nuclear weapons.
    ‘Warday’ (1984) A novel by Whitely Strieber and James Kunetka providing a fictional account of a journey across America five years after a limited nuclear attack.
    War Games (1983) A film about a computer hacker who accidentally begins to initiate a nuclear war by hacking into the Pentagon's supercomputer.
    When the Wind Blows (1986) A graphic novel by Raymond Briggs that shows the effects of a nuclear attack on a retired couple in the United Kingdom. It was made into an animated film in 2005.
    Z for Zachariah’ (1974) The story of a 16-year-old girl who survives a nuclear war, by Robert O'Brien. It is to be made into a film in 2015.
    America's Atomic Bomb Tests (2005) A documentary looking at early Cold War American nuclear testing.
    Beating the Bomb (2010) A documentary charting the history of the British peace movement and their campaigns against nuclear weapons.
    Blowing up Paradise (2006) Archival footage chronicling French nuclear weapons testing in the South Pacific between the 1960s and the 1990s.
    Countdown to Zero (2010) A documentary film warning against the growing threat of nuclear weapons, particularly from nuclear terrorism.
    Duck and Cover (1951) An American civil defence film geared towards children.
    Nuclear Tipping Point (2010) A documentary film making the case for the elimination of nuclear weapons.
    Protect and Survive (2010) A collection of secret films made by the UK government in the 1970s providing information on what to do in the event of a nuclear war.
    The Atomic Bomb Movie (1995) A documentary film telling the story of the development and testing of nuclear weapons between 1945 and 1964.
    The Atomic Café (1982) A documentary film based on archival footage of the early atomic era.


    James Acton, ‘Deterrence during disarmament: deep nuclear reductions and international security’, Adelphi Paper 417, (London, Routledge for the International Institute for Strategic Studies: 2011)
    Samina Ahmed, ‘Pakistan's nuclear weapons programme: turning points and choices’, International Security, 23:4 (1999) pp.178204
    Muthiah Alagappa (ed.), ‘The long shadow: nuclear weapon and security in 21st century Asia’, (Stanford, Stanford University Press: 2008)
    David Albright, ‘Peddling peril: how the secret nuclear trade arms America's enemies’, (London, The Free Press: 2010)
    David Albright, Paul Brannan & Andrea Schell-Stricker, ‘Detecting and disrupting illicit nuclear trade after A.Q. Khan’, The Washington Quarterly, 33:2 (2010) pp.85106
    David Albright, Kathryn Buehler & Holly Higgins, ‘Bin Laden and the bomb’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 58:1 (2002) pp.2324
    David Albright & Corey Hinderstein, ‘Algeria: a big deal in the desert?’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 57:3 (2001) pp.4552
    David Albright & Corey Hinderstein, ‘Unravelling A.Q. Khan and future proliferation networks’, The Washington Quarterly, 28:2 (2005) pp.111128
    Brian Alexander and Alistair Miller (eds.), ‘Tactical nuclear weapons: emergent threats in an evolving security environment’, (Dulles VA, Potomac Books Inc: 2003)
    Svetlana Alexievich & Keith Gesen, ‘Voices from Chernobyl: the oral history of a nuclear disaster’, (New York, St. Martin's Press: 2006)
    William Alley & Rosemarie Alley, ‘Too hot to handle: the problem of high-level nuclear waste’, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 2012)
    Graham Allison, ‘Nuclear terrorism: the ultimate preventable catastrophe’, (New York, Times Books: 2009 [2004])
    Graham Allison, ‘How to stop nuclear terror’, Foreign Affairs, 83:1 (2004) pp.6474
    Graham Allison, Owen Cote, Steven Miller & Richard Falkenrath, ‘Avoiding nuclear anarchy: containing the threat of loose Russian nuclear weapons and fissile material’, (Cambridge, MA, The MIT Press: 1996)
    Graham Allison & Phillip Zelikow, ‘Essence of decision: explain the Cuban Missile Crisis’, (Boston, MA, Little, Brown & Company: 1999 [1971])
    Jason Andress & Steve Winterfeld, ‘Cyber warfare: techniques, tactics and tools for security practitioners’, (London, Syngress: 2011)
    Ian Anthony, Christer Ahlstrom & Vitaly Fedchenko, ‘Reforming nuclear export controls: the future of the Nuclear Suppliers Group’, (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 2007)
    David Armstrong and Joseph Trento, ‘America and the Islamic bomb: the deadly compromise’, (Hanover NH, Steerforth Press: 2007)
    Laura Arnold, ‘Britain, Australia and the H-bomb’, (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan: 2001)
    Laura Arnold, ‘Windscale 1957: anatomy of an accident’, (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan: 2007)
    Jim Baggot, ‘Atomic: the first war of physics and the secret history of the Atom Bomb 1939–49’, (London, Icon Books Ltd: 2009)
    Desmond Ball, ‘The MX basing decision’, Survival, 22:2 (1980) pp.5865
    Desmond Ball, ‘Can a nuclear war be controlled?’, (London, International Institute for Strategic Studies: 1981)
    Howard Ball, ‘Justice downwind: America's atomic testing program in the 1950s’ (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 1986)
    Frank Barnaby, ‘How to build a nuclear bomb and other weapons of mass destruction’, (London, Granta Books: 2003)
    Frank Barnaby & Douglas Holdstock (eds.), ‘The British nuclear weapons programme, 1952–2002’, (London, Routledge: 2003)
    Claudia Baumgart & Harald Müller, ‘A nuclear weapons free zone in the Middle East: a pie in the sky?’, Washington Quarterly, 28:1 (2004) pp.4558
    Andrea Berger & Malcolm Chalmers, ‘Great expectations: the P5 process and the Non-Proliferation Treaty’, RUSI Whitehall Report 3–13, (August 2013),
    Frans Berkhout, Oleg Bukharin, Harold Feiveson & Marvin Miller, ‘A cutoff in the production of fissile material’, International Security, 19:3 (1994–1995) pp.167202
    Barton J. Bernstein, ‘The perils and politics of surrender: ending the war with Japan and avoiding the third atomic bomb’, Pacific Historical Review, 46:1 (1977) pp.127
    Jeremy Bernstein, ‘Hitler's uranium club: the secret recordings at Farm Hall’, (New York, Copernicus Books: 2001)
    Jeremy Bernstein, ‘Nuclear weapons: what you need to know’, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 2008)
    Ken Berry, Patricia Lewis, Benoît Pélopidas, Nikolai Sokov & Ward Wilson, ‘Delegitimizing nuclear weapons’, (Monterey, CA, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, the Monterey Institute of International Studies: 2010)
    Pierre Billaud & Venance Journé, ‘The real story behind the making of the French hydrogen bomb: chaotic, unsupported, but successful’, The Nonproliferation Review, 15:2 (2008) pp.353372
    Kai Bird & Martin Sherwin, ‘‘American Prometheus: the triumph and tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer’, (London, Atlantic Books: 2009)
    David Blades & Joseph Siracusa, ‘A history of nuclear testing and its influence on nuclear thought’, (Washington DC, Rowman & Littlefield: 2014)
    Bruce Blair, ‘The logic of accidental nuclear war’, (Washington DC, The Brookings Institution Press: 1993)
    David Blair, ‘Iran's nuclear programme “may spark Middle East” weapons race’, Telegraph, (20 May 2008),
    Stephen Blank (ed.), ‘Russian nuclear weapons: past, present and future’, (Carlisle Barracks PA, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College: 2012)
    Barry Blechman, ‘Crawling towards nuclear zero’, The Nonproliferation Review, 19:3 (2011) pp.597600
    Hans Blix, ‘Verification of nuclear proliferation: the case of Iraq’, The Washington Quarterly, 15:4 (1992) pp.5765
    Hans Blix, ‘Why nuclear disarmament matters’, (Cambridge MA, The MIT Press: 2008)
    Paul Bolt & Albert Willner (eds.), ‘China's nuclear future’, (Boulder CO, Lynne Reiner: 2005)
    Ken Booth & Nicholas Wheeler, ‘The security dilemma: fear, cooperation and trust in world politics’, (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan: 2008)
    John Borrie, ‘Humanitarian reframing of nuclear weapons and the logic of a ban’, International Affairs, 90:3 (2014) pp.625646
    John Borrie & Tim Caughlet (eds.), ‘Viewing nuclear weapons through a humanitarian lens’, (Geneva, Switzerland, The United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research: 2013)
    Olivia Bosch & Peter Van Ham, ‘Global non-proliferation and counter-terrorism: the impact of UNSCR 1540’, (Washington DC, Brookings Institution Press: 2007)
    Wyn Bowen, ‘Libya and nuclear proliferation: stepping back from the brink’, (London, Routledge for the International Institute for Strategic Studies: 2006)
    Wyn Bowen & Jonathan Brewer, ‘Iran's nuclear challenge: nine years and counting’, International Affairs, 87:4 (2011) pp.923943
    Wyn Bowen, Matthew Cottee & Christopher Hobbs, “Multilateral cooperation and the prevention of nuclear terrorism: pragmatism over idealism”, International Affairs, 88:2 (2012) pp.349368
    Paul Bracken, ‘The command and control of nuclear forces’, (New Haven CT, Yale University Press: 1983)
    Paul Bracken, ‘The second nuclear age: strategy, danger and the new power politics’, (New York, St. Martin's Press: 2013)
    Victor Bragin, John Carlson & John Hill, ‘Verifying a fissile material production cut-off treaty’, The Nonproliferation Review, 6:1 (1998) pp.97107
    Tania Branigan, ‘North and South Korean navies exchange fire’, Guardian, (10 November 2009),
    William Broad, ‘“Tellers’ war”: the top secret story behind the star wars deception’, (New York, Simon & Schuster: 1992)
    William Broad, ‘Why they called it the Manhattan Project’, New York Times, (30 October 2007),
    William Broad, John Markoff & David Sanger, ‘Israeli test on worm called crucial in Iran nuclear delay’, New York Times, (15 January 2011),
    Bernard Brodie, ‘Nuclear weapons: strategic or tactical?’, Foreign Affairs, 32:3 (1954) pp.217229
    Bernard Brodie, ‘The anatomy of deterrence’, The RUSI Journal, 104:613 (1959) pp.3244
    Bernard Brodie, ‘Escalation and the nuclear option’, (Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press: 1966)
    Bernard Brodie, ‘The development of nuclear strategy’, International Security, 2:4 (1978) pp.6583
    Bernard Brodie, ‘Strategy in the missile age’, (Santa Monica CA, The RAND Corporation: 2008 [1959])
    Bernard Brodie, Frederick Dunn, Arnold Wolfers, Percy Corbett & William Fox, ‘The absolute weapon: atomic power and world order’, (New York, Harcourt: 1946)
    Harold Brown, ‘The strategic defense initiative: defensive systems and the strategic debate’, Survival, 27:2 (1985) pp.5564
    Kate BrownPlutopia: nuclear families, atomic cities, and the great Soviet and American plutonium disasters’ (New York, Oxford University Press: 2013)
    Michael Brown, Owen Cote, Sean Lynn-Jones & Steven Miller, ‘Going nuclear: nuclear proliferation in the 21st century’, (London, The MIT Press: 2010)
    Hedley Bull, ‘The control of the arms race’, (Westport CT, Praeger: 1961)
    Richard Dean Burns & Lester H. Brune, ‘The quest for missile defenses, 1944–2003’, (Claremont CA, Regina Books: 2003)
    Richard Dean Burns & Joseph Siracusa, ‘A global history of the nuclear arms race: weapons, strategy, and politics’, (Santa Barbara CA, Praeger Security International: 2013)
    Declan Butler, ‘France seeks to clean up nuclear image’, Nature, 380:6569 (1996)
    Daniel Byman, ‘Iran, terrorism and weapons of mass destruction’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31:3 (2008) pp.169181
    Kurt Campbell, Robert Einhorn & Mitchell Reiss (eds.), ‘The nuclear tipping point: why states reconsider their nuclear choices’, (Washington DC, The Brookings Institution Press: 2004)
    Julio Carasales, John Redick & Paulo Wrobel, ‘Nuclear rapprochement: Argentina, Brazil, and the nonproliferation regime’, The Washington Quarterly, 18:1 (1995) pp.107122
    Mario Carranza, ‘An impossible game: stable nuclear deterrence after the Indian and Pakistani tests’, The Nonproliferation Review 6:3 (1999) pp.1124
    Mario Carranza, ‘From non-proliferation to post-proliferation: explaining the US–India nuclear deal’, Contemporary Security Policy, 28.3 (2007) pp.464493
    Ashton Carter, John Steinbruner & Charles Zraket, ‘Managing nuclear options’, (Washington DC, The Brookings Institution Press: 2001)
    Victor Cha, ‘The second nuclear age: proliferation pessimism versus sober optimism in South Asia and East Asia’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 24:2 (2001) pp.79120
    Bhumitra Chakma (ed.), ‘The politics of nuclear weapons in South Asia’, (Farnham, Ashgate: 2011)
    Malcolm Chalmers, “Bombs away”? Britain and nuclear weapons under New Labour’, Security Dialogue, 30:1 (1999) pp.6174
    Malcolm Chalmers, ‘Towards the UK's nuclear century’, The RUSI Journal, 158:6 (2013) pp.1828
    Malcolm Chalmers & William Walker, ‘Unchartered waters: the UK, nuclear weapons and the Scottish question’, (East Lothian, Tuckwell Press: 2001)
    Malcolm Chalmers & William Walker, ‘Will Scotland sink the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent?’, The Washington Quarterly, 36:3 (2013) pp.107122
    Glenn Alan Cheney, ‘They never knew: the victims of nuclear testing’, (Jacksonville FL, Franklin Watts: 1996)
    Mike Chinoy, ‘Meltdown: the inside story of the North Korean nuclear crisis’, (New York, St. Martin's Press: 2009)
    Jae Ho Chung & Myung-hae Choi, ‘Uncertain allies or uncomfortable neighbors? Making sense of China–North Korea relations, 1949–2010’, The Pacific Review, 26:3 (2013) pp.243264
    Shahram Chubin, ‘Does Iran want nuclear weapons?’, Survival, 37:1 (1995) pp.86104
    Stephen Cimbala, ‘Shield of dreams: missile defense and US–Russian nuclear strategy’, (Annapolis MD, Naval Institute Press: 2008)
    Stephen Cimbala, ‘New START or not? US–Russia nuclear arms reductions in perspective’, Comparative Strategy, 29:3 (2010) pp.260277
    Stephen Cimbala, ‘Nuclear crisis management and “cyberwar”: phishing for trouble?’, Strategic Studies Quarterly, Spring (2011) pp.117-131
    Stephen Cimbala, ‘Nuclear weapons in the information age’, (London, Continuum International Publishing Group: 2012)
    Joseph Cirincione, ‘Bomb scare: the history and future of nuclear weapons’, (New York, Columbia University Press: 2007)
    Rodger Claire, ‘Raid on the sun: inside Israel's secret campaign that denied Saddam the bomb’, (Random House Digital, Inc: 2004)
    Ian Clarke, ‘Limited nuclear war: political theory and war conventions’, (Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press: 1982)
    Richard Clarke & Robert Knake, ‘Cyber war: the next threat to national security and what to do about it’, (New York, HarperCollins: 2010)
    Daniel Clery, ‘A piece of the sun: the quest for fusion energy’, (London, Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd: 2013)
    Andrew Cockburn & Leslie Cockburn, ‘One point safe’, (New York, Little, Brown & Company: 1997)
    Anver Cohen, ‘Israel and the bomb’, (New York, Columbia University Press: 1998)
    Anver Cohen, ‘The worst kept secret: Israel's bargain with the bomb’, (New York, Columbia University Press: 2010)
    Anver Cohen & Joseph Pilat, ‘Assessing virtual nuclear arsenals’, Survival, 40:1 (1998) pp.129144
    Anver Cohen & Marvin Miller, ‘Bringing Israel's bomb out of the basement: has nuclear ambiguity outlived its shelf life?’, Foreign Affairs, 89:5 (2010) pp.3044
    Yoel Cohen, ‘Whistleblowers and the bomb: Vanunu, Israel and nuclear secrecy’, (London, Pluto Press: 2005)
    Paul Cole, ‘Atomic bombast: nuclear weapons decision making in Sweden 1946–72’, The Washington Quarterly, 20:2 (1997) pp.233251
    Craig Collie, ‘Nagasaki: the massacre of the innocent and unknowing’, (London, Portobello Books: 2011)
    Tom Collina & Daryl Kimball, ‘Going back: 20 years since the last US nuclear test’, The Arms Control Association Issue Brief, 3:14 (20 September 2012),
    Jean Conant, ‘109 East Palace: Robert Oppenheimer and the secret city of Los Alamos’, (New York, Simon & Schuster: 2005)
    Gordon Corera, ‘Shopping for bombs: nuclear proliferation, global insecurity and the rise and fall of the A.Q. Khan network’, (London, Hurst & Company: 2006)
    David Cortright & Raimo Vayrynen, ‘Towards nuclear zero’, Adelphi Paper 410, (London, Routledge for the International Institute for Strategic Studies: 2010)
    Campbell Craig and Sergey Radchenko, ‘The atomic bomb and the origins of the Cold War’, (New Haven CT, Yale University Press: 2008)
    Peter Crail, ‘Implementing UN Security Council resolution 1540: a risk-based approach’, Nonproliferation Review, 13:2 (2006) pp.355399
    Ivo Daalder & Jan Lodal, ‘The logic of zero: toward a world without nuclear weapons’, Foreign Affairs, 87:6 (2008) pp.8095
    Ola Dahlman, Svein Mykkwltveit & Hein Haak, ‘Nuclear test ban: converting political visions into reality’, (New York, Springer: 2009)
    Tracey Davies, ‘Stages of emergency: Cold War nuclear civil defense’, (Durham NC, Duke University Press: 2007)
    Lynn Davis, ‘Lessons of the INF treaty’, Foreign Affairs, 56:4 (1988) pp.720734
    Therese Delpech, ‘Nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: lessons for a new era of strategic piracy’, (Santa Monica CA, RAND Corporation: 2012)
    Anatoli Diakov, Eugene Miasnikov & Timur Kadyshev, ‘Nuclear reductions after New START: obstacles and opportunities’, Arms Control Today, 41:4 (2011) pp.1522
    Jane Dibblin, ‘Day of two suns: US nuclear testing and the pacific islanders’, (New York, New Amsterdam Books: 1990)
    Michael Dobbs, ‘One minute to midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev and Castro on the brink of nuclear war’, (London, Arrow: 2009)
    Joel Dobson, ‘The Goldsboro broken arrow: the B52 crash of January 24, 1961, and its potential as a tipping point for nuclear war’, ( 2013)
    The Economist, ‘North Korea: bad or mad? Kim Jong Un is likely to realise his nuclear ambitions, but the two sides already face military stalemate’, (26 October 2013),
    Eric Edelman, Andrew Krepinevich & Evan Braden Montgomery, ‘The dangers of a nuclear Iran’, Foreign Affairs, 90:1 (2011) pp.6681
    Rob Edwards, ‘Swiss planned nuclear bomb’, New Scientist, 2031, (25 May 1996)
    Mohamed ElBaradei, ‘The age of deception: nuclear diplomacy in treacherous times’, (London, Bloomsbury: 2011)
    David Fairhall, ‘Common ground: the true story of Greenham’, (London, I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd: 2006)
    Nazila Fathi, ‘Iran's Ayatollah affirms peaceful nuclear plans’, New York Times, (19 January 2006),
    Peter Feaver, ‘Guarding the guardians: civilian control of nuclear weapons in the United States’, (London, Cornell University Press: 1992)
    Peter Feaver, ‘Command and control in emerging nuclear nations’, International Security, 17:3 (1992) pp.160189
    Charles Ferguson, ‘The long road to zero’, Foreign Affairs, 89:4 (2010) pp.8694
    Charles Ferguson, ‘Nuclear energy: what everyone needs to know’, (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 2011)
    Charles Ferguson & William Potter, ‘The four faces of nuclear terrorism’, (London, Routledge: 2005)
    Mark Fitzpatrick, ‘Can Iran's nuclear capability be kept latent?’, Survival, 49:1 (2007) pp.3358
    Mark Fitzpatrick, Alexander Nikitin & Sergey Oznobischev, ‘Nuclear doctrines and strategies’, (London, IOS Press: 2008)
    Christopher Ford, ‘Debating disarmament: interpreting Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons’, The Nonproliferation Review, 14:3 (2007) pp.401428
    Philip Fradkin, ‘Fallout: an American nuclear tragedy’, (Boulder CO, Johnson Books: 2004)
    Benjamin Frankel (ed.), ‘Opaque nuclear proliferation: methodological and policy implications’, (London, Frank Cass & Company Ltd: 1991)
    M. Taylor Fravel & Evan Medeiros, ‘China's search for assured retaliation: the evolution of Chinese nuclear strategy and force structure’, International Security, 35:2 (2010) pp.4887
    Lawrence Freedman, ‘The evolution and future of extended nuclear deterrence’, Adelphi Papers, 29:236 (1989) pp.1831
    Lawrence Freedman, ‘Prevention, not preemption’, The Washington Quarterly, 26:2 (2003) pp.105114
    Lawrence Freedman, ‘The evolution of nuclear strategy’, (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan: 2003)
    Lawrence Freedman, ‘Deterrence’, (Cambridge, Polity Press: 2004)
    Lawrence Freedman, ‘Disarmament and other nuclear norms’, The Washington Quarterly, 36:2 (2013) pp.93108
    Robin Frost, ‘Nuclear terrorism after 9-11’, Adelphi Paper 378, (Abingdon, Routledge for the International Institute for Strategic Studies: 2005)
    Michael Fry & Patrick Keating (eds.), ‘Nuclear non-proliferation and the non-proliferation treaty’, (New York, Springer-Verlag: 1990)
    Matthew Fuhrmann, ‘Spreading temptation: proliferation and peaceful nuclear cooperation agreements’, International Security, 34:1 (2009) pp.741
    Matthew Fuhrman, ‘Atomic assistance: how “Atoms for Peace” programs cause nuclear instability’, (London, Cornell University Press: 2012)
    Matthew Fuhrman, ‘Splitting atoms: why do countries build nuclear power plants?’, International Interactions, 38:1 (2012) pp.2957
    Matthew Fuhrmann & Bryan Early, ‘Following START: risk acceptance and the 1991–1992 presidential nuclear initiatives’, Foreign Policy Analysis, 4:1 (2008) pp.2143
    Matthew Fuhrmann & Todd Sechser, ‘Signaling alliance commitments: hand-tying and sunk costs in extended nuclear deterrence’, American Journal of Political Science, (2014)
    Alexandr Fursenko & Timothy Naftali, ‘One hell of a gamble: Khrushchev, Castro, and Kennedy, 1958–1964: the secret history of the Cuban Missile Crisis’, (New York, W.W. Norton & Company: 2001 [1997])
    Andrew Futter, ‘Getting the balance right: US ballistic missile defense and nuclear nonproliferation’, Comparative Strategy, 30:3 (2011) pp.254267
    Andrew Futter, ‘Ballistic missile defence and US national security policy’, (London, Routledge: 2013)
    Andrew Futter & Benjamin Zala, ‘Advanced US conventional weapons and nuclear disarmament’, The Nonproliferation Review, 20:1 (2013) pp.107122
    Robert Gale, ‘Radiation: what it is, what you need to know’, (New York, Vintage Books: 2013)
    Carole Gallagher, ‘American ground zero: the secret nuclear war’, (Cambridge MA, MIT Press: 1993)
    Pierre Gallios, ‘The balance of terror: strategy for the nuclear age’, (Boston MA, Houghton Mifflin: 1961)
    Sumit Ganguly & Devin Hagerty, ‘Fearful symmetry: India–Pakistan crises in the shadow of nuclear weapons’, (Seattle WA, University of Washington Press: 2005)
    Samit Ganguly & S. Paul Kapur (eds.), ‘Nuclear proliferation in South Asia: crisis behaviour and the Bomb’, (Abingdon, Routledge: 2010)
    Samit Ganguly & S. Paul Kapur, ‘India, Pakistan and the bomb: debating nuclear stability in South Asia’, (New York, Columbia University Press: 2012)
    Dee Garrison, ‘Bracing for Armageddon: why civil defense never worked’, (New York, Oxford University Press: 2006)
    Anne Gearan & Joby Warrick, ‘Iran, world powers reach historic nuclear deal’, The Washington Post, (23 November 2013),
    Paul Gibson, ‘Nuclear weapons of the United States: an illustrated history’, (Atglen PA, Schiffer Publishing Ltd: 1996)
    Samuel Glasstone & Philip Dolan, ‘The effects of nuclear weapons’, (United States Department of Defense: 1977)
    Ami Gluska, ‘The Israeli military and the origins of the 1967 war: government, armed forces and defence policy 1963–67’, (Abingdon, Routledge: 2006)
    Patrick Glynn, ‘Closing Pandora's box: arms races, arms control, and the history of the Cold War’, (New York, Basic Books: 1992)
    Dore Gold, ‘The rise of nuclear Iran: how Tehran defies the west’, (Washington DC, Regnery Publishing Inc: 2009)
    Jozef Goldblat, ‘Nuclear free zones: a history and assessment’, The Nonproliferation Review, 4:3 (1997) pp.1832
    Margaret Gowing, ‘Britain and atomic energy 1939–1945’, (London, Palgrave Macmillan: 1964)
    Matthew Grant, ‘After the bomb: civil defence and nuclear war in Britain, 1945–68’, (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan: 2010)
    Colin Gray, ‘Nuclear strategy: the case for a new theory of victory’, International Security, 4:1 (1979) pp.5487
    Colin Gray, ‘The second nuclear age’, (Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers: 1999)
    Colin Gray & Keith Payne, ‘Victory is possible’, Foreign Policy, 39 (1980) pp.1427
    Owen Greene, Barry Rubin Neil Turok, Philip Webber & Graeme Wilkinson, ‘London after the bomb: what a nuclear attack really means’, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982)
    Owen Greene, Ian Percival and Irene Ridge, ‘Nuclear winter: the evidence and the risks’, (Cambridge, Polity Press: 1985)
    Shaun Gregory, ‘The hidden cost of nuclear deterrence: nuclear weapons accidents’, (London, Brassey's Ltd: 1990)
    Shaun Gregory, ‘The terrorist threat to nuclear weapons in Pakistan’, European Leadership Network, (4 June 2013),
    Gerald de Groot, ‘The bomb: a life’, (London, Jonathan Cape: 2004)
    Leslie Groves, ‘Now it can be told: the story of the Manhattan Project’, (Cambridge MA, Da Capo Press: 1983)
    David Halberstam, ‘The coldest winter: America and the Korean War’, (London, Pan Macmillan Ltd: 2009)
    Paul Ham, ‘Hiroshima Nagasaki: the real story of the atomic bombings and their aftermath’, (London, Transworld Publishers: 2013)
    Michael Hamel-Green, ‘Nuclear weapon-free zone initiatives: challenges and opportunities for regional cooperation on non-proliferation’, The Nonproliferation Review, 21:3 (2009) pp.357376
    Susan Allen Hannah, ‘The determinants of economic sanctions success and failure’, International Interactions, 31:2 (2005) pp.117138
    Keith Hansen, ‘The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: an insider's perspective’, (Stanford, Stanford University Press: 2006)
    Marianne Hanson, ‘The future of the NPT 1’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 59:3 (2005) pp.301316
    Matthew Harries, ‘Britain and France as nuclear partners’, Survival, 54:1 (2012) pp.730
    Mark Harwell, ‘Nuclear winter: the human and environmental consequences of nuclear war’, (New York, Springer-Verlag: 1984)
    Jason Healy (ed.), ‘A fierce domain: conflict in cyber space, 1986 to 2012’, (USA, Cyber Conflict Studies Association: 2013)
    Siegfried Hecker & William Lious, ‘Dangerous dealings: North Korea's nuclear capabilities and the threat of export to Iran’, Arms Control Today, 37:2 (March 2007)
    Yoaz Hendel, ‘Iran's nukes and Israel's dilemma’, Middle East Quarterly, (Winter 2012) pp.3138
    Peter Hennessey, ‘The hidden state: preparing for the worst 1945–2010’, (London, Penguin Books Ltd: 2010)
    Greg Herken, ‘The brotherhood of the bomb: the tangled lives and loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller’, (Basingstoke, Macmillan: 2003)
    John Hersey, ‘Hiroshima’, (London, Penguin Books: 2001)
    Seymour Hersh, ‘The Samson option: Israel's nuclear arsenal and American foreign policy’, (New York, Random House: 1991)
    Seymour Hersh, ‘A reporter at large: on the nuclear edge’, The New Yorker, (29 March 1993)
    Rudolph Herzog, ‘A short history of nuclear folly’, (London, Melville House: 2013)
    Richard Hewlett & Jack Holl, ‘Atoms for peace and war, 1945–1961’, (Berkeley CA, University of California Press: 1992)
    Mark Hibbs, ‘Will South Korea go nuclear?’, Foreign Policy, (15 March 2013),
    Christopher Hill, ‘The elusive vision of a non-nuclear North Korea’, The Washington Quarterly, 36.2 (2013) pp.719
    Theodore Hirsch, ‘The IAEA Additional Protocol: what it is and why it matters’, The Nonproliferation Review, 11:3 (2004) pp.140166
    Christopher Hobbs & Matthew Moran, ‘Nuclear dominoes: exploring regional responses to a nuclear Iran’, (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan: 2013)
    David Hoffman, ‘Dead hand: Reagan, Gorbachev and the untold story of the Cold War arms race’, (London, Icon Books Ltd: 2011)
    Daniel Horner, ‘South Korea, US at odds over nuclear pact’, Arms Control Today, (September 2012),
    Michael Howard, ‘On fighting a nuclear war’, International Security, 5:4 (1981) pp.317
    Roger Howard, ‘Operation Damocles: Israel's secret war against Hitler's scientists, 1951–1967’, (New York, Open Road Media: 2013)
    Kate HudsonCND – now more than ever: the story of a peace movement’ (London, Vision Paperbacks: 2005)
    Jacques Hymans, ‘The psychology of nuclear proliferation: identity, emotions and foreign policy’, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 2006)
    Jacques Hymans, ‘Theories of nuclear proliferation: the state of the field’, The Nonproliferation Review, 13:3 (2006) pp.455465
    Jacques Hymans, ‘When does a state become a nuclear weapon state? An exercise in measurement validation’, The Nonproliferation Review, 17:1 (2010) pp.161180
    Jacques Hymans, ‘Achieving nuclear ambitions: scientists, politicians and proliferation’, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 2012)
    Fred Ikle, ‘The coming of the second nuclear age’, Foreign Affairs, 75:1 (1996) pp.119128
    Maxwell Irvine, ‘Nuclear power: a very short introduction’, (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 2011)
    Igor Ivanov, ‘The missile-defense mistake: undermining strategic stability and the ABM Treaty’, Foreign Affairs, 79:5 (2000) pp.520
    Alireza Jafarzadeh, ‘The Iran threat: President Ahmadinejad and the coming nuclear crisis’, (New York, Palgrave Macmillan: 2007)
    Detlef Jahn & Sebastian Korolczuk, ‘German exceptionalism: the end of nuclear energy in Germany!’, Environmental Politics, 21:1 (2012) pp.159164
    Douglas Jehl, ‘CIA nominee wary of budget cuts’, New York Times, (3 February 1993),
    Bruce Jentleson & Christopher Whytock, ‘Who “won” Libya? The force-diplomacy debate and its implications for theory and policy’, International Security, 30:3 (2005/06) pp.4786
    Robert Jervis, ‘Perception and misperception in international politics’ (Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press: 1976)
    Robert Jervis, ‘Cooperation under the security dilemma’, World Politics, 30:2 (1978) pp.167214
    Robert Jervis, ‘The meaning of the nuclear revolution: statecraft and the prospect of Armageddon’, (Ithaca NY, Cornell University Press: 1989)
    Shashank Joshi, ‘The permanent crisis: Iran's nuclear trajectory’, (Abingdon, Routledge for the Royal United Services Institute: 2012)
    Shashank Joshi, ‘Pakistan's tactical nuclear nightmare: déjà vu?’, The Washington Quarterly, 36:3 (2013) pp.159172
    Daniel Joyner, ‘Interpreting the Non-proliferation Treaty’, (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 2011)
    Colin Kahl & Kenneth Waltz, ‘Iran and the bomb: would a nuclear Iran make the Middle East more secure?’, Foreign Affairs, 91:5 (2012) pp.157162
    Chen KaneDetecting nuclear weapons: the IAEA and the politics of proliferation’ (Basingstoke, Routledge: 2015)
    S. Paul Kapur, ‘India and Pakistan's unstable peace: why nuclear South Asia is not like Cold War Europe’, International Security, 30:2 (2005) pp.127152
    David Karl, ‘Proliferation pessimism and emerging nuclear powers’, International Security, 21:3 (1996) pp.87119
    Michael Karpin, ‘The bomb in the basement: how Israel went nuclear and what it means for the world’, (London, Simon & Schuster: 2006)
    Kerry Kartchner, ‘Negotiating START: Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty and the Quest for Strategic Stability’, (Piscataway NJ, Transaction Publishers, 1992)
    Milton Katz, ‘Ban the bomb: a history of SANE, the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, 1957–1985’, (Westport CT, Greenwood Press: 1986)
    Scott Kaufman, ‘Project Plowshare: the peaceful use of nuclear explosives in Cold War America’, (New York, Cornell University Press: 2012)
    Cynthia Kelly (ed.), ‘The Manhattan Project: The birth of the atomic bomb in the words of its creators, eyewitnesses, and historians’, (New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers: 2007)
    R. Scott Kemp, ‘The nonproliferation emperor has no clothes: the gas centrifuge, supply-side controls, and the future of nuclear proliferation’, International Security 38:4 (2014) pp.3978
    Ian Kenyon & John Simpson (eds.) ‘Deterrence and the new global security environment’, (Abingdon, Routledge: 2006)
    Feroz Hassan Khan, ‘Challenges to nuclear stability in South Asia’, The Nonproliferation Review, 10:1 (2003) pp.5974
    Feroz Hassan Khan, ‘Eating grass: the making of the Pakistani bomb’, (Stanford, Stanford University Press: 2012)
    Herman Khan, ‘Thinking about the unthinkable in the 1980s’, (New York, Simon & Schuster: 1984)
    Herman Khan, ‘On thermonuclear war’, (Piscataway NJ, Transaction Publishers: 2007 [1960])
    Saria Khan, ‘Iran and nuclear weapons: protracted conflict and proliferation’, (Abingdon, Routledge: 2010)
    Zafar Khan, ‘Cold Start doctrine: the conventional challenge to South Asian stability’, Contemporary Security Policy, 33:3 (2012) pp.577594
    Scott Kirsch, ‘Proving grounds: Project Plowshare and the unrealized dream of nuclear earthmoving’, (Piscataway NJ, Rutgers University Press: 2005)
    Henry Kissinger, ‘Nuclear weapons and foreign policy’, (New York, Harper & Brothers: 1957)
    Jeffrey Knopf, ‘Recasting the proliferation optimism-pessimism debate’, Security Studies, 12:1 (2002) pp.4196
    Jeffrey Knopf, ‘Nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation: examining the linkage argument’, International Security, 37:3 (2012) pp.92132
    Dean Kohlhoff, ‘Amchitka and the bomb: nuclear testing in Alaska’, (Seattle WA, University of Washington Press: 2003)
    Sarah Kreps & Matthew Fuhrmann, ‘Attacking the atom: does bombing nuclear facilities affect proliferation?’, The Journal of Strategic Studies, 34:2 (2011) pp.161187
    Hans Kristensen & Robert Norris, ‘Indian nuclear forces, 2012’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 68:4 (2012) pp.96101
    Matthew Kroenig, ‘Exporting the bomb: technology transfer and the spread of nuclear weapons’, (Ithaca NY, Cornell University Press: 2010)
    A. Vinod Kumar, ‘India and the nuclear non-proliferation regime: the perennial outlier’, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 2014)
    William Langewiesche, ‘The atomic bazaar: dispatches from the underground world of nuclear trafficking’, (London, Penguin Books Ltd: 2007)
    Jeffrey Larsen & James Smith, ‘Historical dictionary of arms control’, (Oxford, Scarecrow Press, Inc.: 2005)
    Thomas Lehrman, ‘Rethinking interdiction: the future of the proliferation security initiative’, The Nonproliferation Review, 11:2 (2004) pp.145
    Paul Lettow, ‘Ronald Reagan and his quest to abolish nuclear weapons’, (New York, Random House: 2005)
    Paul Leventhal & Sharon Tanzer (eds.) ‘Averting a Latin American nuclear arms race’, (New York, St. Martin's Press: 1992)
    Michael Levi, ‘On nuclear terrorism’, (New York, Council on Foreign Relations: 2007)
    Michael Levi & Michael O'Hanlon, ‘The future of arms control’, (Washington DC, The Brookings Institution Press: 2005)
    Jeffrey Lewis, ‘The minimum means of reprisal China's search for security in the nuclear age’, (Cambridge MA, The MIT Press: 2007)
    Patricia Lewis, ‘A Middle East free of nuclear weapons: possible, probable or pipe dream?’, International Affairs, 89:2 (2013) pp.433450
    Peter Liberman, ‘The rise and fall of the South African bomb’, International Security, 26:1 (2006) pp.4586
    Kier Lieber & Daryl Press, ‘Why states won't give the bomb to terrorists’, International Security, 38:1 (2013) pp.80104
    Robert Lifton, ‘Destroying the world to save it: Aum Shinrikyo, apocalyptic violence and the new global terrorism’, (New York, Henry Holt & Company Inc.: 2000)
    James Lindsay & Ray Takeyh, ‘After Iran gets the bomb: containment and its complications’, Foreign Affairs, 89:2 (2010) pp.3350
    Robert Litwak, ‘Non-proliferation and the dilemmas of regime change’, Survival 45:4 (2003) pp.732
    David Lochbaum, Edwin Lyman & Susan Stranahan, ‘Fukushima: the story of a disaster’ (New York, New Press: 2014)
    Sverre Lodgaard, ‘Nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation: towards a nuclear-weapon-free world’, (London, Routledge: 2011)
    George Lopez & David Cortright, ‘Containing Iraq: sanctions worked’, Foreign Affairs, 84:3 (2004) pp.90103
    Kenneth Luongo, ‘Loose nukes in new neighborhoods: the next generation of proliferation prevention’, Arms Control Today, May 2009,
    Ewen MacAskill & Chris McGreal, ‘Israel should be wiped off map, says Iran's president’, The Guardian, (27 October 2005),
    Richard Macey, ‘Laser enrichment could cut cost of nuclear power’, The Sydney Morning Herald, (27 May 2006),
    Jenifer Mackby & Paul Cornish (eds.), ‘US–UK nuclear cooperation after 50 years’, (Washington DC, The CSIS Press: 2008)
    Shane Maddock, ‘Nuclear Apartheid: the quest for American atomic supremacy from World War II to the present’, (Chapel Hill NC, University of North Carolina Press: 2010)
    Morten Bremer Maerli & Sverre Lodgaard (eds.), ‘Nuclear proliferation and international security’, (London, Routledge: 2007)
    Arnav Manchanda, ‘When truth is stranger than fiction: the Able Archer incident’, Cold War History, 9:1 (2009) pp.111133
    Michael Mandelbaum & Strobe Talbott, ‘Reykjavik and beyond’, Foreign Affairs, 65:2 (1986) pp.215235
    Oishi Matashichi, ‘The day the sun rose in the west: Bikini, the Lucky Dragon, and I’, (Honolulu HI, University of Hawaii Press: 2011)
    Randall Maydew & Julie Bush, ‘America's lost H-bomb: Palomares, Spain, 1966’, (Manhattan KS, Sunflower University Press: 1997)
    Michael Mazaar, ‘Nuclear weapons in a transformed world: the challenge of virtual nuclear arsenals’, (Basingstoke, Macmillan Press: 1997)
    Catherine McArdle Kelleher & Judith Riply (eds.), ‘Getting to zero: the path to nuclear disarmament’, (Stanford CA, Stanford University Press: 2011)
    David McDonough, ‘Nuclear superiority: the “new triad” and the evolution of nuclear strategy’, Adelphi Paper 383, (Abingdon, Routledge for the International Institute for Strategic Studies: 2006)
    Raja Menon, ‘A mismatch of nuclear doctrines’, The Hindu, (22 January 2014),
    David Meyer, ‘A winter of discontent: the nuclear freeze and American politics’, (New York, Praeger Publishers: 1990)
    Zia Mian & A.H. Nayar, ‘Playing the nuclear game: Pakistan and the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty’, Arms Control Today, (April 2010),
    Richard Miller, ‘Under the cloud: the decades of nuclear testing’, (The Woodlands TX, Two Sixty Press: 1991)
    Walter Miscamble, ‘The most controversial decision: Truman, the atomic bombs and the defeat of Japan’, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 2011)
    Zeev Maoz, ‘The mixed blessing of Israel's nuclear policy’, International Security, 28:2 (2003) pp.4477
    James Clay Moltz, ‘Future nuclear proliferation scenarios in Northeast Asia’, The Nonproliferation Review, 13:3 (2006) pp.591604
    James Clay Moltz and Alexander Mansourov (eds.) ‘The North Korean nuclear program: security, strategy and new perspectives from Russia’' (New York, Routledge: 2012)
    Barabara Moran, ‘The day we lost the H-bomb: Cold War, hot nukes and the worst nuclear weapons disaster in history’, (New York, Random House: 2009)
    Matthew Moran & Matthew Cottee, ‘Bound by history? Exploring challenges to French nuclear disarmament’, Defense & Security Analysis, 27:4 (2011) pp.341357
    RF Mould, ‘Chernobyl record: the definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe’, (London, Institute of Physics Publishing: 2000)
    John Mueller, ‘Atomic obsession: nuclear alarmism from Hiroshima to Al-Qaeda’, (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 2010)
    John Mueller & Karl Mueller, ‘Sanctions of mass destruction’, Foreign Affairs, 78:3 (1999) pp.4353
    Harald Müller, ‘The future of nuclear weapons in an interdependent world’, The Washington Quarterly, 31:2 (2008) pp.6375
    Harald Müller, ‘The 2010 NPT review conference: some breathing space gained, but no breakthrough’, The International Spectator, 45:3 (2010) pp.518
    Harald Müller, ‘A nuclear non-proliferation test: Obama's nuclear policy and the 2010 NPT Review Conference’, The Nonproliferation Review, 18:1 (2011) pp.219236
    Harald Müller & Carmen Wunderlich, ‘Norm dynamics in multilateral arms control’ (Athens GA, University of Georgia Press: 2013)
    Vipin Narang, ‘Five myths about India's nuclear posture’, The Washington Quarterly, 36:3 (2013) pp.143157
    John Newhouse, ‘Cold dawn: The story of SALT’, (New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston: 1973)
    John Newhouse, ‘The nuclear age: from Hiroshima to Star Wars’, (London, Michael Joseph: 1989)
    Paul Nitze, ‘The relationship of strategic and theatre nuclear forces’, International Security, 2:2 (1977) pp.122132
    Olav Njolstad (ed.), ‘Nuclear proliferation and international order: challenges to the Non-Proliferation Treaty’, (Abingdon, Routledge: 2011)
    Janne Nolan, ‘Guardians of the arsenal’, (New York, Basic Books Inc: 1989)
    Polmar Norman & Robert Norris, ‘The U.S. nuclear arsenal: a history of weapons and delivery systems since 1945’, (Annapolis MD, Naval Institute Press: 2009)
    Robert Norris & Hans Kristensen, ‘Global nuclear weapons inventories, 1945–2010’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 66:7 (July/August 2010) pp.7783
    Robert Norris & Hans Kristensen, ‘US tactical nuclear weapons in Europe, 2011’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 67:1 (2011) pp.6473
    Robert Norris & Hans Kristensen, ‘The British nuclear stockpile 1953–2013’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 69:4 (2013) pp.6975
    Joseph Nye, ‘Nuclear ethics’, (New York: The Free Press: 1986)
    Joseph Nye, ‘From bombs to bytes: can our nuclear history inform our cyber future?’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 69:8 (2013) pp.814
    Mahdi Obeidi & Kurt Pitzer, ‘The bomb in my garden: the secrets of Saddam's nuclear mastermind’, (Hoboken NJ, John Wiley & Sons: 2004)
    Tanya Ogilvie-White, ‘Is there a theory of nuclear proliferation: an analysis of the contemporary debate’, The Nonproliferation Review, 4:1 (1996) pp.4360
    Michael O'Hanlon, ‘A skeptic's case for nuclear disarmament’, (Washington DC, Brookings Institution Press: 2010)
    Harsh Pant, ‘The US–India nuclear pact: policy, process, and great power politics’, (New Delhi, Oxford University Press: 2011)
    Jan Parawitz, ‘Nuclear option to non-nuclear promotion: the Sweden case’, (Stockholm, Swedish Institute for International Affairs: 1995)
    Robert Paterson, ‘Britain's strategic nuclear deterrent: from before the V-bomber to beyond Trident’ (Abingdon, Routledge: 1997)
    T.V. Paul, ‘Power versus prudence: why nations forgo nuclear weapons’, (Montreal, McGill-Queen's University Press: 2000)
    T.V. Paul, ‘The tradition of non-use of nuclear weapons’, (Stanford, Stanford University Press: 2009)
    Keith Payne, ‘Deterrence in the second nuclear age’, (Lexington KT, The University of Kentucky Press: 1996)
    George Perkovich, ‘India's nuclear bomb: the impact on global proliferation’, (London, University of California Press: 2002)
    George Perkovich & James Acton, ‘Abolishing nuclear weapons’, Adelphi Paper 396, (London, Routledge for the International Institute for Strategic Studies: 2008)
    Charles Perrow, ‘Normal accidents: living with high-risk technologies’, (Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press: 1999)
    Steven Pifer & Michael O'Hanlon, ‘The opportunity: the next steps in reducing nuclear arms’, (Washington DC, Brookings Institution Press: 2012)
    Joseph Pilat & Robert Pendley, ‘A new beginning for the NPT’, (New York, Plenum Press: 1995)
    Anna Pluta & Peter Zimmerman, ‘Nuclear terrorism: a disheartening dissent’, Survival, 48:2 (2006) pp.5569
    Jonathan Pollack, ‘No exit: North Korea, nuclear weapons and international security’, Adelphi Paper 418–419, (Abingdon, Routledge for the International Institute for Strategic Studies: 2011)
    Kenneth Pollack, ‘Unthinkable: Iran, the bomb and American strategy’, (New York, Simon & Schuster: 2013)
    William Potter & Gaukhar Mukhatzhanova, ‘Divining nuclear intentions: a review essay’, International Security, 33:1 (2008) pp.139169
    William Potter with Gaukhar Mukhatzhanova (eds.), ‘Forecasting nuclear proliferation in the 21st century’, Volumes 1 & 2, (Stanford, Stanford University Press: 2010)
    William Potter & Gaukhar Mukhatzhanova (eds.), ‘Nuclear politics and the Non-Aligned Movement: principles vs. pragmatism’, Adelphi Paper 427, (Routledge for the International Institute for Strategic Studies: 2012)
    William Potter & John Shields (eds.), ‘Dismantling the Cold War: US and NIS perspectives on the Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program’, (London, The MIT Press: 1997)
    Ronald Powaski, ‘Return to Armageddon: the United States and the nuclear arms race 1981–1999’, (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 2000)
    Pavel Podvig (ed.), ‘Russian strategic nuclear forces’, (Cambridge MA, The MIT Press: 2004)
    Kenneth Pollack, ‘Unthinkable: Iran, the bomb, and American strategy’, (New York, Simon & Schuster: 2013)
    Larry Poole & Cheryl Poole (eds.), ‘EMP survival: how to prepare now and survive when an electromagnetic pulse destroys our power’, (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform: 2011)
    Charles Pritchard, ‘Failed diplomacy: the tragic story of how North Korea got the bomb’, (Washington DC, The Brookings Institution Press: 2007)
    Peter Pry, ‘War scare: Russia and America on the nuclear brink’, (Westport CT, Greenwood Publishing Group: 1999)
    Helen Purkitt & Stephen Burgess, ‘South Africa's weapons of mass destruction’, (Bloomington IN, Indiana University Press: 2005)
    George Quester, ‘Nuclear first strike: consequences of a broken taboo’, (Baltimore MA, Johns Hopkins University Press: 2005)
    George Quester, ‘Preemption, prevention and proliferation: the threat and use of weapons in history’, (London, Transaction Publishers: 2009)
    Michael Quinlan, “Thinking about nuclear weapons”: principles, problems, prospects’, (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 2009)
    Bennet Ramberg, ‘Nuclear power plants as weapons for the enemy: an unrecognised military peril” (London, University of California Press: 1992)
    Alisa Rebane (ed.), ‘The new START Treaty between the US and Russia’, Hauppauge NY, Nova Science Publishers Inc: 2011)
    John Redick, Julio Carasales & Paulo Wrobel, ‘Nuclear rapprochement: Argentina, Brazil, and the nonproliferation regime’, The Washington Quarterly, 18:1 (1995) pp.107122
    Thomas Reid & Danny Stillman, ‘The nuclear express: a political history of the bomb and its proliferation’, (Minneapolis MN, Zenith Press: 2009)
    Mitchell Reiss, ‘Bridled ambition: why countries constrain their nuclear capabilities’, (Washington DC, The Woodrow Wilson Centre Press: 1995)
    Richard Rhodes, ‘The making of the atomic bomb’, (London, Simon & Schuster: 1986)
    Richard Rhodes, ‘Dark sun: the making of the hydrogen bomb’, (London, Simon & Schuster: 1995)
    Richard Rhodes, ‘Arsenals of folly: the making of the nuclear arms race’, (London, Simon & Schuster: 2008)
    Richard Rhodes, ‘The twilight of the bombs’, (New York, Vintage Books: 2011)
    Wu Riang, ‘China's anxiety about US missile defences: a solution’, Survival, 55:5 (2013) pp.2952
    Jeffrey Richelson, ‘Spying on the bomb: American nuclear intelligence from Nazi Germany to Iran and North Korea’, (New York, W.W. Norton & Co.: 2007)
    Nick Ritchie, ‘A nuclear weapons-free world? Britain, Trident and the challenges ahead’, (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan: 2012)
    Nick Ritchie, ‘Valuing and devaluing nuclear weapons’, Contemporary Security Policy, 34:1 (2013) pp.146173
    Nick Ritchie, ‘Pathways and purposes for P-5 nuclear dialogue’, European Leadership Network Policy Brief, (September 2013), LN%20Policy%20Brief%20September%202013.pdf
    Alan Robock, Luke Oman & Georgiy Stenchikov, ‘Nuclear winter revisited with a modern climate model and current nuclear arsenals: still catastrophic consequences’, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, (1984–2012), 112: D13 (2007)
    Denny Roy, ‘Parsing Pyongyang's strategy’, Survival, 52:1 (2010) pp.111136
    Maria Rost Rublee, ‘Taking stock of the nuclear nonproliferation regime: using social psychology to understand regime effectiveness’, International Studies Review, 10:3 (2008) pp.420450
    Maria Rost Rublee, ‘Nonproliferation norms: why states choose nuclear restraint’, (Athens GA, University of Georgia Press: 2009)
    Maria Rost Rublee, ‘Nuclear threshold states’, The Nonproliferation Review, 17:1 (2010) pp.4970
    Bertrand Russell, ‘Common sense and nuclear weapons’ (London, Routledge: 2001)
    Jan Ruzicka, ‘Reflections on the 2010 NPT review conference’, Medicine, Conflict and Survival, 26:4 (2010) pp.259267
    Jan Ruzicka & Nicholas Wheeler, ‘The puzzle of trusting relationships in the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’, International Affairs, 86:1 (2010) pp.6985
    Randy Rydell, ‘Looking back: going for Baruch: the nuclear plan that refused to go away’, Arms Control Today, (June 2006),
    Lora Saalman, ‘The China–India nuclear crossroads: China, India and the new paradigm’, (Washington DC, The Carnegie Endowment: 2012)
    Carl Sagan, ‘Nuclear war and climatic catastrophe: some policy implications’, Foreign Affairs, 62:2 (Winter 1983–4) pp.257292
    Carl Sagan, Richard Turco, George W. Rathjens, Ronald H. Siegel, Starley L. Thompson, & Stephen H. Schneider, ‘The nuclear winter debate’, Foreign Affairs 65:1 (1986) pp.163178
    Scott Sagan, ‘The limits of safety: organizations, accidents and nuclear weapons”, (Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press: 1993)
    Scott Sagan, “The perils of proliferation: organization theory, deterrence theory, and the spread of nuclear weapons’, International Security, 18:4 (1994) pp.66107
    Scott Sagan, ‘Why do states build nuclear weapons? Three models in search of a bomb’, International Security, 21:3 (1996–7) pp.5486
    Scott Sagan, ‘How to keep the bomb from Iran’, Foreign Affairs, (2006) pp.4559
    Scott Sagan (ed.), ‘Inside nuclear South Asia’, (Stanford, Stanford University Press: 2009)
    Scott Sagan, ‘The causes of nuclear weapons proliferation’, Annual Review of Political Science, 14 (2011) pp.225244
    Scott Sagan & Jane Vaynman, ‘Introduction: reviewing the Nuclear Posture Review’, The Nonproliferation Review, 18:1 (2011) pp.1737
    Scott Sagan & Jane Vaynman, ‘Conclusion: lessons learned from the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review’, The Nonproliferation Review, 18:1 (2011) pp.237262
    Scott Sagan & Kenneth Waltz, ‘The spread of nuclear weapons: a debate renewed’, (London/New York, W.W. Norton & Company: [1995] 2003)
    Jean-Loup Samaan & David Gompert, ‘French nuclear weapons, Euro-deterrence, and NATO’, Contemporary Security Policy, 30:3 (2009) pp.486504
    Choe Sang-Hun, ‘South Korea publicly blames the North for ship's sinking’, New York Times, (19 May 2010),
    Tom Sauer & Bob Van Der Zwaan, ‘US tactical nuclear weapons in Europe after NATO's Lisbon summit: why their withdrawal is desirable and feasible’, International Relations, 26:1 (2012) pp.78100
    Robert Scheer, ‘With enough shovels: Reagan, Bush and nuclear war’, (New York, Vintage Books: 1983)
    Jonathan Schell, ‘The fate of the earth’, (London, Jonathan Cape Ltd: 1982)
    Thomas Schelling & Morton Halperin, ‘Strategy and arms control’, (New York, Twentieth Century Fund: 1961)
    Thomas SchellingArms and influence’, (New Haven CT, Yale University Press: 1966)
    Thomas Schelling, ‘The strategy of conflict’, (Cambridge MA, Harvard University: 1960)
    Thomas Schelling, ‘The nuclear taboo’, The Washington Post, (24 October 2005),
    Eric Schlosser, ‘Command and control’, (London, Penguin Books Ltd: 2013)
    Mark Schneider, ‘The nuclear forces and doctrine of the Russian Federation’, Comparative Strategy, 27:5 (2008) pp.397425
    Stephen Schwartz (ed.), ‘Atomic audit: the costs and consequences of US nuclear weapons since 1940’, (Washington DC, The Brookings Institution Press: 1998)
    Andrew Selth, ‘Myanmar's nuclear ambitions’, Survival, 52:5 (2010) pp.512
    Mohamed Shaker, ‘The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: origin and implementation 1959–1979’, (London, Oceana Publications, Inc.: 1980)
    Fred Shaprio (ed.), ‘The Yale book of quotations’, (Newhaven CN, Yale University Press: 2007)
    Michael Sheehan, ‘Arms control: theory and practice’, (Oxford, Basil Blackwell Ltd: 1988)
    John Shields & William Potter (eds.), ‘Dismantling the Cold War: US and NIS perspectives on the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program’, (London, The MIT Press: 1997)
    Marlise Simons, ‘Soviet atom test used thousands as guinea pigs, archives show’, New York Times, (7 November 1993),
    John Simpson, ‘Nuclear non-proliferation in the post-Cold War era’, International Affairs, 70:1 (1994) pp.1739
    John Simpson, ‘The nuclear non-proliferation regime: back to the future?’, Disarmament Forum, 1 (2004) pp.516
    Peter Singer & Allan Friedman, ‘Cybersecurity and cyberwar: what everyone needs to know’, (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 2014)
    Jaswant Singh, ‘Against nuclear apartheid’, Foreign Affairs, 77:5 (1998) pp.4152
    Joseph Siracusa, ‘Nuclear weapons: a very short introduction’, (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 2008)
    Scott Snyder & See-Won Byun, ‘Cheonan and Yeonpyeong: the Northeast Asian response to North Korea's provocations’, The RUSI Journal, 156:2 (2011) pp.7481
    Nikolai Sokov, ‘The origins of and prospects for Russian nuclear doctrine’, The Nonproliferation Review, 14:2, (2007) pp.207226
    Etel Solingen, ‘Sanctions, statecraft and nuclear proliferation’ (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 2012)
    Leonard Spector & Avner Cohen, ‘Israel's airstrike on Syria's reactor: implications for the nonproliferation regime’, Arms Control Today, 38:6 (2008) pp.1521
    Peter Stein & Peter Feaver, ‘Assuring control of nuclear weapons: evolution of Permissive Action Links’, (Washington DC, Rowman & Littlefield: 1987)
    Hannes Steyn, Richard Van Der Walt & Jan Van Loggerenberg, ‘Nuclear armament and disarmament: South Africa's nuclear experience’, (Lincoln, iUniverse Inc: 2007)
    Jeremy Stocker, ‘The United Kingdom and nuclear deterrence’, Adelphi Paper 386, (Abingdon, Routledge for the International Institute for Strategic Studies: 2007)
    Ronald Takaki, ‘Hiroshima: why America dropped the atomic bomb’, (London, Little, Brown & Company: 1995)
    Strobe Talbott, ‘Endgame: The inside story of SALT II’, (New York: Harper & Row: 1979)
    Nina Tannenwald, ‘The nuclear taboo: the United States and the normative basis of nuclear non-use’, International Organization, 53:3 (1999) pp.433468
    Nina Tannenwald, ‘The nuclear taboo: the United States and the non-use of nuclear weapons since 1945’, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 2007)
    Philip Taubman, ‘The partnership: five cold warriors and their quest to ban the bomb’, (New York, HarperCollins Publishers: 2012)
    Edward Teller, ‘The constructive uses of nuclear explosives’, (New York, McGraw-Hill Inc: 1968)
    Bruno Tertrais, ‘The last to disarm? The future of France's nuclear weapons’, The Nonproliferation Review 14:2 (2007) pp.251273
    Bruno Tertrais, ‘The illogic of zero’, The Washington Quarterly, 33:2 (2010) pp.125138
    Ramesh Thakur (eds.), ‘Nuclear-weapons free zones’, (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan: 1998)
    Bradley Thayer, ‘The causes of nuclear proliferation and the utility of the nuclear non-proliferation regime’, Security Studies, 4:3 (1995) pp.463519
    Phillip Traubman, ‘The partnership: five cold warriors and their quest to ban the bomb’, (New York: HarperCollins: 2013)
    Richard Turco, Owen Toon, Thomas Ackerman, James Pollack & Carl Sagan, ‘Climate and smoke: an appraisal of nuclear winter’, Science, 247:4939 (1990) pp.166176
    Mark Valencia, ‘The Proliferation Security Initiative: making waves in Asia’, Adelphi Paper 376, (Oxford, Routledge for the International Institute for Strategic Studies: 2005)
    J.W. de Villiers, Roger Jardine & Mitchell Reiss, ‘Why South Africa gave up the bomb’, Foreign Affairs, 72:5 (1993) pp.98109
    J. Samuel Walker, ‘Prompt and utter destruction: Truman and the use of atomic bombs against Japan’, (London, University of North Carolina Press: 1997)
    J. Samuel Walker, ‘Recent literature on Truman's atomic bomb decision: a search for middle ground’, Diplomatic History, 29:2 (2005) pp.311334
    J. Samuel Walker, ‘Three Mile Island: a nuclear crisis in historical perspective’, (Berkeley CA, University of California Press: 2006)
    Mark Walker, ‘Nazi science: myth, truth, and the German atomic bomb’, (New York, Basic Books, 2001)
    William Walker, ‘Nuclear weapons and the former Soviet republics’, International Affairs, 68:2 (1992) pp.255277
    William Walker, ‘A perpetual menace: nuclear weapons and international order’, (London, Routledge: 2011)
    William Walker, ‘International affairs in the nuclear age, 1946–2013’, International Affairs, 90:1 (2014) pp.107123
    Nick Paton Walsh, ‘Russian nuclear theft alarms US’, Guardian, (19 July 2002), Kenneth Waltz, ‘Why Iran should get the bomb’, Foreign Affairs, 91:4 (2012) pp.25
    Aiden Warren, ‘The promises of Prague versus nuclear realities: from Bush to Obama’, Contemporary Security Policy, 32:2 (2011) pp.432547
    Aidan Warren, ‘The Obama administration's nuclear weapons strategy: the promises of Prague’, (Abingdon, Routledge: 2014)
    Eileen Welsome, ‘The plutonium files: America's secret medical experiments in the Cold War’, (New York, Dial Press: 1999)
    Michael Wesley, ‘It's time to scrap the NPT’, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 59:3 (2005) pp.283299
    Robert Wilcox, ‘Japan's secret war: Japan's race against time to build its own atomic bomb’, (New York, Marlowe & Co.: 1995)
    Dean Wilkening, ‘Ballistic-missile defence and strategic stability’, Adelphi Paper 334, (Oxford, Oxford University Press for the International Institute for Strategic Studies: 2000)
    Clay Wilson, ‘High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and high power microwave (HPM) devices: threat assessments’, Congressional Research Service, (21 July 2008),
    P.D. Wilson, ‘The nuclear fuel cycle: from ore to waste’ (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 1997)
    Ward Wilson, ‘Five myths about nuclear weapons’, (New York, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt: 2013)
    Christine Wing & Fiona Simpson, ‘Detect dismantle, disarm: IAEA verification 1992–2005’, (Washington DC, United States Institute of Peace Press: 2013)
    Andrew Winner, ‘The proliferation security initiative: the new face of interdiction’, Washington Quarterly, 28:2 (2005) pp.129143
    James Wirtz and Peter Lavoy (eds.), ‘Over the horizon proliferation threats’, (Stanford CA, Stanford University Press: 2012)
    Joel Wit, Daniel Poneman and Robert Gallucci, ‘Going critical: the first North Korean nuclear crisis’, (Washington DC, The Brookings Institution Press: 2004)
    Lawrence Wittner, ‘The struggle against the bomb: one world or none: a history of the world nuclear disarmament movement through 1953’, (Stanford CA, Stanford University Press: 1993)
    Lawrence Wittner, ‘The struggle against the bomb: resisting the bomb: a history of the world nuclear disarmament movement, 1954–1970’, (Stanford CA, Stanford University Press: 1995)
    Lawrence Wittner, ‘Towards nuclear abolition a history of the world nuclear disarmament movement: 1971–present’, (Stanford CA, Stanford University Press: 2003)
    Lawrence Wittner, ‘Confronting the bomb: a short history of the nuclear disarmament movement’, (Stanford CA, Stanford University Press: 2009)
    Amy Woolf, ‘Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Programs: issues for Congress’, Congressional Research Service, (23 March 2001),
    Amy Woolf, ‘Nuclear arms control: the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty’, Congressional Research Service, (7 February 2011),
    Amy Woolf, ‘Non-strategic nuclear weapons’, Congressional Research Service, (3 January 2014),
    Amy Woolf, ‘The New START Treaty: central limits and key provisions’, Congressional Research Service, (8 January 2014),
    Toshi Yoshihra & James Holmes, ‘Strategy in the second nuclear age: power, ambition and the ultimate weapons’ (Washington DC, Georgetown University Press: 2012)
    David Yost, ‘France's new nuclear doctrine’, International Affairs, 82:4 (2006) pp.701721
    David Yost, ‘France's evolving nuclear strategy’, Survival, 47:3 (2005) pp.117146
    David Yost, ‘The US and extended deterrence in Europe’, Adelphi Paper 326, (Oxford, Oxford University Press for the International Institute for Strategic Studies: 1999)
    David Yost, ‘Assurance and US extended deterrence in NATO’, International Affairs 85:4 (2009) pp.755780
    Stephen Younger, ‘The bomb: a new history’, (New York, HarperCollins Publishers: 2009)
    Steven Zaloga, ‘The Kremlin's nuclear sword: the rise and fall of Russia's strategic nuclear forces, 1945–2000’, (Washington DC, Smithsonian Institution Press: 2002)
    Scott Zeman & Michael Amundson, ‘Atomic culture: how we learned to stop worrying and love the bomb’, (Boulder CO, University Press of Colorado: 2004)
    Micah Zenko & Michael Cohen, ‘Clear and present safety: the United States is more secure than Washington thinks’, Foreign Affairs, 91:2 (2012) pp.7993
    Baohui Zhang, ‘US missile defence and China's nuclear posture: changing dynamics of an offence–defence arms race’, International Affairs, 87:3 (2011) pp.555569
    Hui Zhang, ‘China's perspective on a nuclear-free world’, The Washington Quarterly, 33:2 (2010) pp.139155

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website