In this provocative and broad-ranging work, the authors argue that the ways in which knowledge - scientific, social and cultural - is produced are undergoing fundamental changes at the end of the twentieth century. They claim that these changes mark a distinct shift into a new mode of knowledge production which is replacing or reforming established institutions, disciplines, practices and policies. Identifying features of the new mode of knowledge production - reflexivity, transdisciplinarity, heterogeneity - the authors show how these features connect with the changing role of knowledge in social relations. While the knowledge produced by research and development in science and technology is accorded central concern, the
Chapter 5: Competitiveness, Collaboration and Globalisation
Competitiveness, Collaboration and Globalisation
In this chapter we put the growth of Mode 2 knowledge production in to the wider context of international economic competitiveness, collaboration and globalisation. With the spread of modernisation and of industrial capitalism beyond the United States and Europe to Japan and the new industrialising countries, the comparative advantage on which advanced industrialised economies rely depends increasingly upon their ability to reconfigure knowledge. The strategy adopted by advanced industrial nations and established firms has been to rely on technological innovation to counter imitation of existing production methods by countries with otherwise lower wages or a more favourable capital structure.
This strategy has put pressure on firms of how to maintain successive productivity gains. It has led, for instance, to ...