In this provocative and broad-ranging work, the authors argue that the ways in which knowledge - scientific, social and cultural - is produced are undergoing fundamental changes at the end of the twentieth century. They claim that these changes mark a distinct shift into a new mode of knowledge production which is replacing or reforming established institutions, disciplines, practices and policies. Identifying features of the new mode of knowledge production - reflexivity, transdisciplinarity, heterogeneity - the authors show how these features connect with the changing role of knowledge in social relations. While the knowledge produced by research and development in science and technology is accorded central concern, the
Chapter 2: The Marketability and Commercialisation of Knowledge
The Marketability and Commercialisation of Knowledge
In Mode 2, knowledge production becomes part of a larger process in which discovery, application and use are closely integrated. One important mechanism by which this happens is the expansion of the market for knowledge and the increased marketability of science (and not only of technology). The driving force behind the accelerated supply and demand of marketable knowledge lies in the intensification of international competition in business and industry. In many cases in-house research is no longer sufficient to meet competitive demands. In order to commercialise knowledge, firms have to look for new types of links with universities, government laboratories as well as with other firms. In this chapter we explore some of the ...