In this provocative and broad-ranging work, the authors argue that the ways in which knowledge - scientific, social and cultural - is produced are undergoing fundamental changes at the end of the twentieth century. They claim that these changes mark a distinct shift into a new mode of knowledge production which is replacing or reforming established institutions, disciplines, practices and policies. Identifying features of the new mode of knowledge production - reflexivity, transdisciplinarity, heterogeneity - the authors show how these features connect with the changing role of knowledge in social relations. While the knowledge produced by research and development in science and technology is accorded central concern, the
Chapter 1: Evolution of Knowledge Production
Evolution of Knowledge Production
In this chapter we begin by defining the distinctive characteristics of Mode 1 and Mode 2 knowledge production, emphasising that the latter has evolved out of the disciplinary matrix of the former and continues to exist alongside it. The new mode of knowledge production involves different mechanisms of generating knowledge and of communicating them, more actors who come from different disciplines and backgrounds, but above all different sites in which knowledge is being produced. The problems, projects or programmes on which practitioners temporarily focus constitute new sites of knowledge production which are moved into and take place more directly in the context of application or use. There is no pressure to institutionalise these activities in a permanent way ...