The Move to Community Policing: Making Change Happen
Publication Year: 2002
Community policing continues to be of great interest to policy makers, scholars and, of course, local police agencies. Successfully achieving the transformation from a traditional policing model to community policing can be difficult. This book aims to illuminate the path to make that change as easy as possible. Morash and Ford have produced a contributed anthology with original articles from a variety of well-known researchers, police trainers and leaders.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Transforming Police Organizations
- Stage Model of Change
- Exploration and Commitment
- Planning and Implementation
- Monitoring and Institutionalization
- Organization of the Book
- Developing Data-Driven Approaches
- Changing the Police Culture
- Creating Partnerships for Community Policing
- Dealing with Ongoing Challenges in the Shift to Community Policing
Part I: Developing Data-Driven Systems
- Chapter 2: Using Assessment Tools to Jump-Start the Move to Community Policing
- Data Gathering as a Process
- A Data-Driven Model
- Characteristics of Effective Data
- Strategies for Collecting Qualitative Data
- Strategies for Collecting Quantitative Data
- Facilitated Assessment
- Open Discussion
- Structured Self-Assessment
- Developing an Action Plan
- Community-Policing Organizational Survey
- Survey Results: A Case Example
- Organizational Survey Feedback Process
- Implications for Planning and Implementing a Change Effort
- Benefits of Using Both Assessment Tools
- Impact of Assessment Tool Data
- Next Steps
- Chapter 3: Citizen Input and Police Service: Moving beyond the “Feel Good” Community Survey
- Citizen Satisfaction as Feedback in the Police Context
- Police Encounters and Citizen Satisfaction
- Quality of Life and Citizen Satisfaction
- Reviving Encounter-Level Satisfaction Research
- An Integrative Strategy for Acquiring Citizen Input
- The Middletown Police Department: A Hypothetical Case
- Chapter 4: Using Multiple Methods in Community Crime Prevention and Community-Policing Research: The Case of Project ROAR
- Project ROAR Overview
- Research Questions and Design
- Key Findings
- Discussion of Research Methods and Implementation
- Process Evaluation
- Survey Research
- Offenses Known and Arrest Data
- Physical and Social Inventory of Neighborhoods
- Quasi-Experimental Design
Part II: Changing the Police Culture
- Chapter 5: Styles of Patrol in a Community Policing Context
- Research on Patrol Styles
- Richmond and Its Community-Policing Program
- Data and Methods
- Styles of Policing
- The Professional
- The Reactor
- The Tough Cop
- The Avoider
- Styles of Policing in a Community-Policing Context
- Shift Work and Police Style
- Community Policing and Police Styles: A New Paradigm?
- Chapter 6: Dual Responsibilities: A Model for Immersing Midlevel Managers in Community Policing
- The Role of Midlevel Managers
- Traditional Roles
- New Roles for Cultural Change
- Engaging Midlevel Managers in Community Policing
- Geographic Accountability
- The Move to Dual Responsibilities
- The Challenges of Dual Responsibility
- Handling Shift and Geographic Responsibilities
- Strategies for Meeting the Challenges
- Chapter 7: Organizational Change and Development: Fundamental Principles, Core Dilemmas, and Leadership Challenges in the Move toward a Community-Policing Strategy
- Fundamental Principles of Organizational Change and Development
- Viewing Organizations as Integrated Systems
- High Involvement
- A Continuous Learning Perspective
- Implications for the Transformation to Community Policing
- Dealing with the Dilemmas of Change
- Organizational Change Dilemmas
- Leadership Challenges for Transforming Police Agencies
- Preparing the Organization: Creating a Sense of Urgency for the Change
- Planning for the Change: Creating a Powerful Guidance Team for Change
- Implementing Change: Creating Opportunities for Innovation
- Monitoring the Change Effort: Showing Constancy of Purpose
- Institutionalizing the Change: Building on Successes
Part III: Creating Partnerships
- Chapter 8: Focus on Internal Partnerships: A Framework for Implementing Community Policing in a Unionized Department
- Working with a Unionized Police Force
- Chapter Focus
- The Context for Partnership
- Union-Management Partnerships
- Characteristics of Effective Union-Management Partnerships
- Scope of Authority of the Union-Management Partnership
- Reducing Resistance
- A Framework for Building a Union-Management Partnership
- Stage One: Getting Started
- Stage Two: Preparing to Change
- Stage Three: Working Cooperatively
- Stage Four: Sustaining the Change
- Ongoing Concerns
- Chapter 9: The Nexus of Community Policing and Domestic Violence
- An Examination of the Nexus
- Federal Efforts
- Community Policing and the Nexus with Domestic Violence
- Potential for Cooperation at the Nexus
- Challenges to Cooperation
- Contemporary Police Practices and Domestic Violence
- Efforts to Create a Cooperative Nexus of Community Policing and Domestic Violence
- Community Police Interacting with Parties Involved in Domestic Violence
- Problem Solving Applied to Domestic Violence
- Police-Public Partnerships
- Conclusions and Recommendations
- Chapter 10: Action Research for Community-Oriented Policing and Comprehensive School Safety Planning
- Research Methodology
- Identifying the Components of a Safety Plan
- Action Research
- Survey Results
- Importance of Key Aspects of a Comprehensive School Safety Plan
- Social Capital to Promote School Safety
- County-Specific Results
- Appendix: School Safety Summit Survey
- Chapter 11: Social Capital, Collective Action, and Community Policing: A Case Study in Sioux City, Iowa
- Overview of Recent Sioux City History
- Changing Demographics and Economic Base
- Policing in Sioux City: An Example of Community Policing
- Cast: Successes and Problems
- Collective Action
- Social Capital
- Social Capital and Social Responsibility
- Research Focus
- Data Collection and Methods
- Analysis of Community Cohesion
Part IV: Dealing with Ongoing Challenges
- Chapter 12: The Challenge of Effective Organizational Change: Lessons Learned in Community-Policing Implementation
- Impediments to Organizational Change
- Organizational Issues
- Human Issues
- A Case Study of Community Policing in Motor City
- Historical Perspective
- Evaluating the MCPD Model
- Lessons Learned
- Chapter 13: Reflections on the Move to Community Policing
- Developing a Perspective
- The Past as Future
- Project STAR
- Integrated Criminal Apprehension Program (ICAP)
- Problem-Oriented and Community Policing: Development and Integration
- Breaking the Bonds of Tradition
- Quality Management and Change to Community Policing
- Final Thoughts
- Chapter 14: Directing the Future of Community-Policing Initiatives
- The Core Elements of Community Policing
- Key Challenges
- A Customer-Based Organizational Transformation
- Unlimited Partnerships
- Unified Effort to Solve Problems
- Decision Points
Copyright © 2002 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Main entry under title:
The move to community policing: Making change happen / editors, Merry Morash, J. Kevin Ford.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-2472-8 (cloth: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-7619-2473-6 (pbk.: alk. paper)
1. Community policing. 2. Organizational change. 3. Police administration. 4. Police training. I. Morash, Merry, 1946- II. Ford, J. Kevin (John Kevin)
HV7936.C83 M69 2002
01 02 03 04 05 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Jerry Westby
Editorial Assistant: Vonessa Vondera
Production Editor: Diana E. Axelsen
Typesetter: Marion Warren
Cover Designer: Michelle Lee
Since 1996, the Michigan State University (MSU) School of Criminal Justice has embarked on a plan to work intensely and over an extended time with police departments to address the complexities of making community-oriented policing a reality. The definition of community policing that has guided the work emphasizes that this form of policing involves customer-based organizational transformation, unlimited partnerships, and an information-based, unified effort to solve problems.
The work has been funded through a special grant from the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) in the U.S. Department of Justice. The grants led to the creation of the Michigan Regional Community Policing Institute (RCPI), which has focused on organizational change to support community policing. These efforts have been organized around a creative mix of faculty from several academic disciplines and organizational change specialists who work at the School of Criminal Justice with police agencies. An explicit objective of the RCPI has been to field-test models for carrying out problem solving or action-oriented research to enable police departments to transform towards the goals of community-oriented policing. These research and direct assistance efforts have been defined broadly to include feedback to police and community regarding organizational context, organizational structure, and police-community relationships that might impede or support community-oriented policing.
The four years of support as an RCPI occurred in a statewide context that is unique because of the long history of the MSU School of Criminal Justice in working directly with police agencies to promote [Page xiv]the adoption of what was initially known as neighborhood foot patrol. Beginning in 1982, Professor Robert Trojanowicz, with funding from the Mott Foundation, established the National Center for Community Policing. He assumed leadership of a decade-long project to promote neighborhood foot patrols and other progressive community-policing techniques. Police departments throughout the United States, and in some cases from other countries, were exposed to the concepts, the approach, and the models for implementation of this new form of policing. Numerous conferences, workshops, and training programs, along with extensive technical assistance—much of it provided through a telephone hot line or through site visits by Dr. Trojanowicz and others employed by the project—disseminated information. A series of publications provided detailed information and summarized various studies conducted as part of the Mott Foundation-supported program.
The seminal work that shaped Trojanowicz's ideas about neighborhood foot patrol was a study in Flint, Michigan. Flint, an industrial “auto city” in economic decline during the two decades before he undertook his research, faced numerous social problems, including high unemployment and correspondingly high crime rates. The emphasis on foot patrol was intended to get officers out of their patrol cars and walking in both residential and business areas so that they could communicate with and be held accountable by citizens, and so that they could engage in crime prevention and alleviating fear of crime. Over time, Michigan police agencies other than Flint were heavily represented among those with which Trojanowicz and his colleagues worked, and police in Michigan made up several of the cadre of speakers, trainers, and providers of technical assistance who worked on the Mott Foundation grant. Overlapping with the last years of the Mott Foundation grant, the MSU School of Criminal Justice embarked on a decade of growth in externally funded initiatives to provide outreach to criminal justice agencies and practitioners. Consistent with the MSU land grant mission, School of Criminal Justice faculty had been active in outreach, defined at the university as the application of research to design and implement initiatives, and the extension of education, training, and research into a myriad of settings outside of the university. At various points, between one and three personnel had been hired to provide training and technical assistance. However, between 1990 and 2000, the number of personnel involved in outreach grew substantially to include such programs as the Michigan Victim Assistance Academy (which provided a week of intensive training to people who work with crime victims), Internet-delivered master's degree programs with security management and international crime-control emphases, [Page xv]and the Michigan Training Center for DARE. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) officers. It has also included the Michigan RCPI.
This book, then, is a culmination of years of efforts to facilitate the transformation of police agencies to community-oriented policing. Over time, the formal processes of assisting chiefs, sheriffs, and police agencies in general has led to the development of strategies for enhancing the move to community policing. The authors in this book have codified a number of these strategies for making change happen in police organizations. We believe that this book can be used in a number of undergraduate and graduate courses on contemporary issues in policing. Leadership academies and specialized educational programs for police should also find this selection of readings valuable for generating discussion and identifying lessons learned for making change happen in police organizations. More generally, police chiefs and other police leaders should find the emphasis on making change happen useful in their own attempt to transform their agency to a community-oriented policing philosophy. In each chapter, there are specific suggestions on how to implement the various aspects of community policing in a systematic way. The book has been developed to also inform research-oriented academics in the United States and internationally. Throughout the book, research needs in the area of transformational change and community policing are identified. Given that police and citizens throughout the world are struggling to reform or develop community-oriented approaches to policing, the exposure to research and examples in this book will, we hope, provide direction for exploring, planning, implementing, monitoring, and institutionalizing the move to community policing.[Page xvi]
We want to acknowledge the support of the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice, for our efforts to facilitate the organizational transformation of police agencies to the community-policing approach. We also want to acknowledge the efforts of the over 30 police agencies who have partnered with the Michigan RCPI over the last four years. We have learned much about the opportunities and the challenges of making change happen in police agencies from this partnership.[Page xviii]
About the Editors[Page 293]
Merry Morash is Professor of Criminal Justice at the Michigan State University School of Criminal Justice, where she served as director from 1991 to 2001. She also is founder, director, and faculty instructor of the Michigan Victim Assistance Academy, which provides education for individuals who work with crime victims; director of the Michigan Regional Community Policing Institute; and secretary of the Michigan DARE Advisory Board. Her primary research emphasis is on gender and crime, and current research is on domestic violence among Asian Americans and gender-responsive programming for women offenders. She has also done extensive research on women in policing and is currently engaged in research to follow up on women who participated in a study nearly a decade ago. She recently served on the Domestic Violence Homicide Prevention Task Force and on the advisory board for the Michigan Judicial Institute's bench book to assist judges in their work with crime victims. Dr. Morash is a coauthor of the textbook Juvenile Delinquency: Concepts and Control, and she has written and published extensively on women as offenders, police, and crime victims. Additional publications focus on assessment and implementation of criminal justice policy and juvenile delinquency programming and causation.
J. Kevin Ford is Professor of Psychology at Michigan State University. His major research interests involve improving training effectiveness by advancing our understanding of training needs assessment, design, evaluation, and transfer. He also concentrates on building continuous learning and improvement orientations within organizations. He has published over 50 articles, chapters, and technical reports, and serves on the [Page 294]editorial board of Human Performance. He was the lead editor of the book Improving Training Effectiveness in Work Organizations and is coauthor, with Dr. Irwin Goldstein, of Training in Organizations (4th ed.). He is an active consultant with private industry and the public sector on training, leadership, and organizational development issues. Over the past 3 years, to facilitate the institutionalization of the community-policing philosophy, Dr. Ford has worked on issues of transformational change with the Michigan Regional Community Policing Institute. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. He received his PhD in psychology from Ohio State University. Further information about Dr. Ford and his research and consulting activities can be found at http://www.io.psy.msu.edu.
About the Contributors[Page 295]
Mark E. Alley is Chief of Police in the Lansing, Michigan, Police Department, where, beginning in 1986, he has been promoted through the ranks. His experience includes the design and implementation of numerous innovative programs and initiatives to improve the quality of life for city residents and visitors. He teaches courses at the Michigan State University School of Criminal Justice and is a trainer in Human Diversity and the Incident Command System.
Jerome G. Boles III is Associate Director of the Michigan Regional Community Policing Institute at Michigan State University. He is the former Chief of Police in the Lansing, Michigan, Police Department, where he served as a police officer for over 30 years, the last 6 as chief. As chief in Lansing, he began the process of implementing community policing on a department-wide basis. His experience includes transforming the department by involving members from all work groups, the community, and political leadership. He was able to institute changes that have been lasting and that continue to be enhanced.
Elizabeth M. Bonello is a detective at the Lansing, Michigan, Police Department and holds a Master of Science degree from Michigan State University. She is conducting research on the socialization of firstline supervisors in police organizations for her doctoral dissertation, which she anticipates completing in 2003. The Criminal Justice Women of Michigan have recognized Officer Bonello as the 2000 Clarissa Young Officer of the Year for outstanding performance.
[Page 296]Julie L Brockman is a PhD student in the College of Education at Michigan State University and a consultant for PIERS (Project for Innovative Employee Relations) in the university's School of Labor and Industrial Relations. Her publications include “What Do Police Unions Want?” and (with Michael J. Polzin) “A Labor-Management Approach to Community Policing,” both of which appeared in the 1999 volume of the Journal of Community Policing.
David L. Carter is Professor of Criminal Justice in the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University. A former Kansas City, Missouri, police officer, he has worked with police agencies and command colleges throughout the United States and in several foreign countries. He also served at the Federal Bureau of Investigation Academy's Behavioral Science Unit in the first academic faculty exchange with the bureau. He is the author or coauthor of five books and numerous articles on policing issues, and is a member of the editorial boards of various professional publications. His most recent book is The Police and Community (7th ed.).
Mark E. Correia is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at the University of Nevada, Reno. His primary research interests include the influence that social norms and networks have on crime, innovative policing, and citizen-government collaborative initiatives. He is the author of Citizen Involvement: How Community Factors Affect Progressive Policing and coeditor of Policing Communities: Understanding Crime and Solving Problems.
Cori A. Davis is a PhD student in the Industrial/Organizational Psychology program at Michigan State University. Her areas of interest include reactions to performance feedback, training, and organizational development. She works with the Michigan Regional Community Policing Institute analyzing organizational survey data, developing training, and assisting local departments with the move to community policing.
Monique Fields is a PhD student in Criminal Justice at Michigan State University. In addition to police data analysis, she has expertise in the area of race and crime. Her research includes juvenile antisocial behavior and juvenile justice. She has worked extensively with Michigan State Police Crime Data Program.
[Page 297]Andrew L. Giacotnazzi is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice Administration at Boise State University. He received his PhD in political science at Washington State University in 1995. He is coauthor of Community Policing in a Community Era: An Introduction and Exploration and recent articles have appeared in such journals as Justice Research and Policy, Crime and Delinquency, Police Quarterly, and Justice Quarterly. His research interests include community policing, organizational change, and family violence. Giacomazzi is principal investigator of an evaluation to determine the effects of organizational and community assessments on change toward community policing in five western states
Stephen D. Mastrofski is Professor of Public and International Affairs and Director of the Administration of Justice Program at George Mason University. His research interests include testing theories of police behavior, applying organization theory to police reform, and measuring the performance of police organizations. He and several colleagues recently conducted the Project on Policing Neighborhoods, a study for the U.S. Department of Justice on community policing at the street level. In 2000, the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences gave him the O. W. Wilson Award for outstanding contributions to police education, research, and practice.
Audrey Z. Martini, MS, is Director of Outreach for the School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University. She was instrumental in the organization and continued facilitation of the Michigan Safe Schools Initiative workgroup, and works closely with various key stakeholders in school safety to identify needs and maximize resources. Before joining the School of Criminal Justice, she was a special projects coordinator for the Lansing Community College Criminal Justice and Law Center. She retired with the rank of lieutenant from the Detroit Police Department in 1986.
Edmund F. McGarrell is Professor of Criminal Justice and Director of the Michigan State University School of Criminal Justice. He has served as Director of the Crime Control Policy Center at the Hudson Institute in Indianapolis. He is currently involved in an experiment on the use of restorative justice conferences as a response to juvenile crime, and is the research partner in the Indianapolis Violence Reduction Partnership, which is utilizing collaborative problem-solving strategies to reduce violence as part of the National Institute of Justice's Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative.
[Page 298]Tracy Goss McGinley is a doctoral candidate at Michigan State University. Her main research interests are on policing and private security. She has experience working in various areas of the criminal justice system, including police departments, community correction programs, and private security. She is Assistant Director of the Identity Theft University-Business Partnership being developed at Michigan State University to help understand the crime of identity theft and develop policies to assist law enforcement become more reactive in their approach to this crime.
Michael J. Polzin is Director of and Senior Consultant for the Project for Innovative Employee Relations in the School of Labor and Industrial Relations, Michigan State University. His recent publications include “What Do Police Unions Want?” and (with Julie L. Brockman) “A Labor-Management Approach to Community Policing,” both of which appeared in the 1999 volume of the Journal of Community Policing.
Michael D. Reisig is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University. His general interests include organizations, survey research, and applied statistical modeling. His research has been published in various journals, including Criminology, Justice Quarterly, and Crime & Delinquency.
Amanda L. Robinson is a Lecturer in Criminology and Criminal Justice in the School of Social Science at Cardiff University in Wales. Her research interests include police and society; race, class, and gender in criminal justice; violence against women; trends in sentencing practices; social theory; and qualitative and quantitative methods. She has published articles in Women and Criminal Justice, Crime and Delinquency, Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, Journal of Criminal Justice, and Criminal Justice and Behavior.
Joseph A. Schafer is Assistant Professor at the Center for the Study of Crime, Delinquency & Corrections at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. His current research interests include police behavior, police organizations, community policing, perceptions of the police, fear of crime, criminal justice policy, and extremist organizations. He is the author of Community Policing: The Challenges of Successful Organizational Change, as well as numerous book chapters. His recent scholarly [Page 299]works have appeared in the Justice System Journal and the Journal of Criminal Justice.
Jeffrey B. Snipes is the Rockefeller Brothers Fellow in Nonprofit Law at New York University's School of Law and the Vera Institute of Justice in Manhattan. He is completing his JD at Stanford University and his PhD at the State University of New York at Albany. Previously he was an analyst at the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice, and Assistant Professor at Florida State University and Seattle University. His research interests include policing, theoretical criminology, and applied statistical models.
Jane P. White is Associate Director of the National Center for Community Policing for the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University. She has worked nationally as a consultant to numerous police agencies on reorganization as it relates to community policing. She was formerly Director of the Criminal Justice and Law Center at Lansing Community College, where she also headed the Mid-Michigan Police Academy,
James J. Willis is Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Massachusetts, Boston. His research interests are police behavior and policy, and the relationship between culture, punishment, and the state. Along with several colleagues, he is currently conducting research on computer-assisted statistical analysis. In addition, he continues to investigate the transportation of British convicts to America and Australia in the 18th and 19th centuries.[Page 300][Page 301][Page 302]