Some students don't achieve their full potential, while others of similar ability achieve more than predicted. This book shows how important students' motivational mindsets can be in influencing the way they learn.
Learning through Feedback
This chapter covers the general principles behind the feedback driver. It covers applications including dealing with failure, how to give critical feedback and apply punishments, reprimands, rewards and praise. It concludes with a consideration of a climate of open feedback and the nature of encouragement.
The way in which students are evaluated is perhaps the most important driver affecting the motivation mindsets. Student perception of the meaning of any evaluation is particularly important (Kamins and Dweck, 1998). Feedback has different purposes shaped, among other things, by the teacher's assumptions about learning (Askew and Lodge, 2000). The purposes of giving feedback to students are many and include:
- approving or disapproving
- giving recognition, encouraging and affirming
- raising self-competency beliefs.
The teacher's ...