Some students don't achieve their full potential, while others of similar ability achieve more than predicted. This book shows how important students' motivational mindsets can be in influencing the way they learn.


This chapter provides a rationale for schools to move from a control culture to one that emphasizes self-motivation.

The Need for Change

Student management in Britain's schools was dominated until the 1980s by corporal punishment. Although replaced by a system of paper punishments, the predominant philosophy of corrective punishment prevailed. Phasing out of corporal punishment however stimulated for the first time in schools a need to look at the conditions that encouraged good behaviour and effective learning. In 1989 the Elton Report, a government review of discipline, moved the debate forwards by seeking a greater balance between sanctions and rewards (DES, 1989). By the late 1990s most school initiatives involved positive reward-based approaches to student management. The 1997 Education Act in England and Wales moved schools ...

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