The Internet and the Mass Media


Lucy Küng, Robert G. Picard & Ruth Towse

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    List of Figures and Tables

    • 2.1 ‘3-C’ model of convergence 37
    • 3.1 Media and communication technologies/applications: timeline 46
    • 7.1 Value chain in the movie industry 143
    • 1.1 Households with access to the Internet as a percentage of all households 6
    • 4.1 Selected Web size indicators 71
    • 4.2 Websites and documents accessible via Yahoo! Directory (on 10/01/06) 75
    • 5.1 Percentage of European 16–24 year olds intending to use their mobile/PDA/Blackberry to … 91
    • 5.2 World Internet usage and population 92
    • 5.3 Time spent (in minutes) on different media in six countries, 2001–2006 97

    List of Contributors

    Marko Ala-Fossi is senior lecturer in radio at the Department of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Tampere, Finland. Prior to his academic career, hehas worked for YLE (Finnish Broadcasting Company) as a radio journalist, producer, training advisor and market analyst (1989–2004). He holds a PhD (2005) from the University of Tampere on the quality cultures in Finnish and US commercial radio. Besides different forms of local, commercial and digital radio content and production cultures, his research interests also include political economy and social shaping of the new media delivery technologies.

    Piet Bakker studied political science at the University of Amsterdam. He worked as a journalist for several newspapers, magazines and radio stations, and was a teacher at the School for Journalism in Utrecht. He also organised workshops for newspaper publishers and worked as a consultant on newspaper innovation. Since 1985, he works at the Department of Communications at the University of Amsterdam/Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR) as an associate professor, and since 2007, he is also professor of cross media content at Hogeschool Utrecht. He has edited and published books and articles on reading habits, media history, local journalism, the Internet, Dutch media, international news, investigative journalism, the music industry and free newspapers. He teaches mass communication and journalism at undergraduate and MA levels.

    Hanna-Kaisa Ellonen is senior lecturer in knowledge management at the School of Business, Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT). She holds an MSc degree in economics and business administration from Helsinki School of Economics, and a DSc(Econ) from LUT. Her doctoral dissertation was about the impact of the Internet in magazine publishing. Her research interests are in the areas of media management, the Internet and technological change. Her work has been published in the International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, International Journal of Technology Marketing and International Journal of Web-Based Communities.

    Des Freedman is senior lecturer in communications and cultural studies in the Department of Media and Communications, Goldsmiths, University of London. He is the author of The Television Policies of the Labour Party, 1951–2001 (Frank Cass, 2003), The Politics of Media Policy (forthcoming, Polity) and co-editor of War and the Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (Sage, 2003).

    Anders Henten is associate professor at Center for Communication, Media and Information Technologies at Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Aalborg University in Denmark. He is a graduate in communications and international development studies from Roskilde University and holds a PhD from the Technical University of Denmark. His main areas of research are regulation of telecommunications, information and communication technology innovation, service innovation and internationalisation, socio-economic implications of information and communication technologies including e-commerce and business models. Anders Henten has worked professionally in the areas of communications economy and policy for 20 years. He has participated in numerous research projects financed by the European Union, the Nordic Council of Ministers, Danish Research Councils and Ministries, and in consultancies financed by World Bank, UNCTAD, ITU, etc. He has published in over 200 academic publications.

    Lucy Küng is associate professor at the Media Management Transformation Centre at Jönköping International Business School and a member of the executive board of the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation, SRG. Her research focusses on strategic change in the media sectors, particularly the impact of ‘soft’ factors such as culture, cognition, leadership and creativity on performance. She holds a PhD and Habilitation from the University of St. Gallen, where she was director of the Competence Centre for the Media and Communication Industries, an international research consortium/think tank examining strategic, management and organisational challenges facing the media industry. She is the author of Inside the BBC and CNN: Managing Media Organisations (Routledge, 2000) and Strategic Management in the Media Industry (Sage, 2007), as well as numerous academic articles and conference papers. She is a Research Fellow at Ashridge, and holds or has held many advisory positions in the field of media management, including being the Swiss Representative for EU COST Action 20 on ‘The impact of the Internet on the Mass Media in Europe’ (since 2001), Founding Board Member of the European Media Management Association (since 2005), Visiting Fellow in New Media at the BBC (2001–2002) and Member of UK Government Foresight Taskforce ‘The Future and Development of Information Relationships’ (2000–2001).

    Stephen Lax is lecturer in communications technology at the Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds. His research interests are in the social role of communications technologies. He is a member of the Digital Radio Cultures in Europe research group, and is on the steering committee of the UK Radio Studies Network. He is author of Beyond the Horizon: Communications Technologies Past Present and Future (University of Luton Press, 1997) and Media and Communication Technologies (forthcoming, Palgrave), and editor of Access Denied in the Information Age (Palgrave, 2001).

    Nikos Leandros is assistant professor at Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, where he teaches Media Economics and Economics of Culture, at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. He holds a BSc degree in Applied Economics from University of East London, an MSc in Economics and a PhD from Salford University. He has worked as lecturer at Salford University, at the Economic Research Division of the Bank of Greece and was Director of the Research and Documentation Observatory of the National Book Center. He teaches at the National Centre for Public Administration and Local Government. Nikos Leandros has published extensively in leading academic journals, and he is the author of a number of books and monographs, including Print Media in Greece. Economic and Technological Perspectives (1992), The Political Economy of Mass Media (2000) and The Internet: Development and Change (2005). He is the editor of The Impact of Internet on the Mass Media in Europe (2006). His current research interests include new media, information society, ICTs, e-Business and the new economy and cultural management.

    Robert G. Picard is director of the Media Management Transformation Centre at Jönköping International Business School. His research focusses on economic structures of media markets, media industries and firms, demand for media products and services, business models and strategies of media operations, productivity of media firms, financial performance and government policies affecting economic aspects of media. His research has involved newspapers, advertising, broadcasting and new media. Picard is the author and editor of 20 books, editor of the Journal of Media Business Studies and is the founding editor of the Journal of Media Economics. Picard has been a fellow at the Shorenstein Center at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, has consulted and carried out assignments for governments in North America and Europe and for international organisations including the European Commission, UNESCO and the World Intellectual Property Organisation. He has been a consultant for leading media companies in North America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America.

    Charo Sádaba is associate professor of interactive marketing and head of the Media Management Department at the School of Communication of the University of Navarra (Spain). She lectures Interactive Marketing and New Advertising Media for undergraduate students and New Media in the MSc in Corporate Communications at the University of Navarra. She acted as Vice-Chair for the A20 COST Action, a European research network on the Impact of the Internet on the mass media, where she coordinated the Television and Film Working Group. Her research focusses on the commercial uses of the new interactive media platforms, and on the special relationship between youth and information technologies.

    Roland Schroeder is professor of media management at the University of Applied Science Business and Information Technology School in Iserlohn, Germany. His research focus is on new media developments, network economy and comparative media systems. He is also the managing director of the Erich Brost Institute for Journalism in Europe at Dortmund University.

    Reza Tadayoni is associate professor at Center for Communication, Media and Information Technologies at Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Aalborg University. He holds an MScEE from Danish Technical University (DT), specialised in broadband communication, and holds a PhD from DTU, with the title ‘Technological, political and economic changes and their implications for the evolution of broadcasting services’. Between 1991 and 1997, he participated in several Danish and European research and development projects within the field of communication technologies partly at DTU and partly as an R&D engineer. From 1997 to the beginning of 2008, he worked as a part of scientific staff at DTU, first at Center for Tele-Information and later Center for Information and Communication Technologies. In this period, he has been involved in a variety of research and education projects. His main research focus is on media convergence, and he has published a number of scientific papers and research reports.

    Ruth Towse is professor of economics of creative industries at Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and at Bournemouth University, UK. She specialises in cultural economics and the economics of copyright. She has published widely on both fields in academic journals and books and has also edited several collections of papers and original contributions, notably A Handbook of Cultural Economics (2003). Her most recent publication (2006) is, ‘Copyright and artists: a view from cultural economics’ Journal of Economic Surveys, 20, 4; 567–585. Ruth Towse was joint editor of the Journal of Cultural Economics from 1993 to 2002, and is president of the Association for Cultural Economics International (2006–8). She was president of the Society for Economic Research in Copyright Issues from 2004–6, and is one of The Netherlands'; national representatives on the COST A20 programme. She has consulted for Arts Council of England, Welsh Arts Council, Industry Canada, World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) and Spanish Authors' Society.

    Richard van der Wurff is senior researcher at The Amsterdam School of Communications Research. His research interests include the relationship between media competition and performance, and the impact of the Internet on publishing. He teaches on media economics, strategic management of media organisations and Internet regulation. He has published in the Journal of Media Economics, the European Journal of Communication, the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media and New Media & Society. He has edited a book on media and open societies (Het Spinhuis, 2000, with Jan van Cuilenburg), and Print and Online Newspapers in Europe (Het Spinhuis, 2005, with Edmund Lauf). He coordinated the newspaper working group of COST A20, and is a member of the International Advisory Board of New Media & Society.

    Roger Wallis is professor of multimedia at the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden. As a composer, he is also an elected board member of the Swedish Music Copyright Society, and an executive chairman of the Swedish Society of Popular Music Composers. He is a member of the Programme Committee of the annual eChallenges conference (EU supported) and the Advisory Board to the Swedish Ministry of Enterprise on matters of IT strategy and policy. Dr. Wallis holds an MA from Cambridge in Natural Sciences and Industrial Management and a PhD from Gothenburg University on the changing structure of the international music industry. He is the author of numerous books, chapters and articles on the media industry and the digital environment, and recently concluded an EU-funded study of policy implications of the music industry's response to digital technology ( His research interests include the IPR/copyright regime, creativity, trust, integrity and responsibility in the Internet world, e-commerce and new partnerships and consumer acceptance of new media delivery technologies.


    In 2000, 50 academics, all with sufficient expertise to have been nominated by their European government agencies, gathered in a small, stuffy room in Brussels to be initiated to the ins and outs of the European Science Foundation's Committee on Science and Technology (COST) procedures and, specifically, to formally start the COST A20 Project, the ‘Impact of the Internet on the Mass Media’. For many of us, this did not seem a propitious beginning, but to the surprise of many, it developed into a most fruitful co-operative venture. Through it, a group of people from different countries were able to meet and, perhaps of equal importance, people from different disciplines met regularly to exchange intellectual viewpoints on what was clearly a very difficult topic to analyse. Every time we met over a five-year period, things ‘on the ground’ had changed and had to be interpreted. It has been a unique experience and challenge for all concerned.

    From the outset, it had been planned by Professor Colin Sparks, the moving force behind this initiative, that there would be three Working Groups: (1) newspapers and print media, (2) television and film and (3) music and radio. This last group began to find itself mainly discussing questions on changing technologies for music distribution and the associated business models alongside the regulatory regime, particularly copyright law, and realised that these were issues that affected all media in some degree or the other and, moreover, could be expected to impact on all media eventually as the Internet developed and spread. Hence, the Cross Media Group was formed, and the authors of this book took part in its activities. We have met in various locations in Europe over the period of the COST A20 Action and got to know and value each others’ ideas and insights. What we all agreed on is that there is no one way to study the impact of the Internet on the mass media, and that whatever we produce will, in one sense, not be contemporaneous by the time it is published. Nevertheless, we also concluded that we did have a lot to say about how independent academic observers approach the question and try to cut through the hype that has surrounded this subject to find long-term trends. This book is the outcome of these deliberations. It has been written by many of the people involved in the Cross Media Group, who have co-operated magnificently with the editors to ensure its successful production. We felt (and still feel) that our research can be put to the service of teaching students and informing policy-makers everywhere. Accordingly, we hope this book will be read in the spirit in which it is intended – as a statement of our interpretation of the results of our researches as they stand at the present time.

    We would like to acknowledge our great debt to Colin Sparks, chairman of the COST A20 Action, who lead the whole project through good times and bad, and also to the officials responsible for the project at the European Science Foundation for financing our meetings.

    Finally, wewould like to thank everyone who has contributed to this book – directly and indirectly – for their ideas, hard work and support. Some firm friendships as well as academic connections have been formed through its conception and realisation.

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