The Hidden Roots of Critical Psychology: Understanding the Impact of Locke, Shaftesbury and Reid

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Michael Billig

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    Dedication

    To Sheila

    Foreword

    This is a quite extraordinary and original book. Michael Billig has managed to seamlessly interweave the history of philosophy, history of psychology, critical psychology and a deep grasp of the social nature of language, and, moreover, has done so in very readable fashion. Ostensibly centred on the long-marginalized figure of Anthony Ashley Cooper, the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, John Locke's pupil and, later, philosophical opponent, what the book really does is revolutionize our understanding of modern critical psychology's roots and invent what is almost a new mode or genre of historically informed psychological writing (or perhaps that should be the other way round). Especially exciting is the freshness of viewpoint he brings to the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century material, the immersion in which he obviously relishes. To top it off, Billig periodically throws in challenging and humorous remarks and asides, making entirely novel connections and highlighting amusing ironies, as well as displaying a capacity for impressive historical detective work. Locke and Shaftesbury are soon jostling with Bakhtin, Thomas Reid, Ernst Cassirer, Kenneth Gergen, Wittgenstein, Diderot and others from widely scattered points of the intellectual compass. And yet, at heart, this remains a very astute and sometimes moving account of Shaftesbury's own brief career and a plea for acknowledging his enduring philosophical importance. But there's the rub, for to do so would, he shows, entail rethinking the nature of psychology itself. Billig is a creative thinker of the first order, and this work will become essential reading for critical psychologists, historians of psychology and philosophers. It ought to be essential for mainstream psychologists as well.

    GrahamRichards Formerly Professor, History of Psychology, Staffordshire University Director, British Psychological Society History of Psychology Centre, London
  • Chronological Table

    Ancient World
    469–399 bceLife of Socrates
    429–347Life of Plato
    341–271Life of Epicurus, founder of Epicurean school of philosophy
    55–135 ceApproximate dates of life of Epictetus, great stoic philosopher
    161Marcus Aurelius, stoic philosopher, becomes Emperor of Rome
    180Death of Marcus Aurelius
    Early Modern Period
    1588Birth of Thomas Hobbes
    1592Birth of Pierre Gassendi
    1632Birth of John Locke
    1642English Civil War begins
    1649Execution of Charles I; start of Commonwealth and rule of Cromwell
    1651Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan published
    1655Posthumous publication of Gassendi's Syntagma Philosophicum
    1660Collapse of Commonwealth and Charles II restored as king; foundation of Royal Society
    1666Locke meets Ashley Cooper, later first Earl of Shaftesbury
    1671Birth of third Earl of Shaftesbury
    1683Locke flees to Holland
    1687Publication of Newton's Principia
    1688Glorious Revolution: James II deposed
    1689Locke returns to England; William III and Mary II appointed joint monarchs
    1690Publication of Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Two Treatises of Government, and Letter Concerning Toleration
    1696Start of Locke's controversy with Stillingfleet, Bishop of Worcester
    1699Unofficial publication of Shaftesbury's An Inquiry Concerning Virtue
    1702Death of William III, accession of Queen Anne
    1704Death of John Locke
    1705Publication of Damaris Masham's Occasional Thoughts in Reference to a Virtuous or Christian Life
    1710Birth of Thomas Reid
    1711First edition of Shaftesbury's Characteristicks; Shaftesbury moves to Naples
    1713Death of Shaftesbury
    1717Publication of Claude Buffier's Traité des premières vérités
    1737Reid ordained minister at New Machar, Aberdeenshire
    1739–1740Hume's Treatise on Human Nature published
    1745Publication of Dennis Diderot's Principes de la philosophie morale, a loose translation of Shaftesbury's Inquiry
    1746Publication of Condillac's Essai sur l'origine des connaissances humaines
    1751Reid appointed at King's College Aberdeen
    1764Reid succeeds Adam Smith as Professor of Moral
    Philosophy at Glasgow University; publication of Reid's Inquiry into the Human Mind
    1780Anonymous English translation of Buffier's Traité, accusing Reid of plagiarism
    1785Publication of Reid's Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man
    1788Publication of Reid's Essays on the Active Powers of Man
    1789French Revolution
    1796Death of Thomas Reid
    Modern Period
    1889Birth of Ludwig Wittgenstein in Vienna
    1895Birth of Mikhail Bakhtin in Orel, Russia
    1903G.E. Moore publishes ‘Refutation of idealism’
    1911Wittgenstein comes to Cambridge
    1917Russian Revolution
    1924Stalin takes power in Soviet Union
    1929Bakhtin exiled to Kazakhstan for six years
    1932Original publication of Cassirer's Platonic Renaissance in England
    1933Nazis take power in Germany; Cassirer flees
    1940Bakhtin submits his dissertation on Rabelais, but it is not published until 1965
    1951Death of Wittgenstein
    1953First edition of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations
    1962Posthumous publication of J.L. Austin's Sense and Sensibilia, based on lectures delivered in 1947
    1975Death of Bakhtin; publication in Moscow of work which would be translated in English as The Dialogic Imagination

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