The Health Care Policy Process


Carol Barker

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: What are Health Policies and How are They Made?

    Part II: Studying Health Care Policies

    Part III: Analysing Health Care Policies

    Part IV: Key Issues in Health Policy

    Part V: Can the Study of Health Policy Improve the Process?

  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page


    To Shubi, Kiza and my mother

    List of Figures

    • Figure 2.1 Health expenditures as a percentage of GDP, 1990 11
    • Figure 3.1 A systems diagram of the policy-making process 24
    • Figure 3.2 Stages in the policy-making process 28
    • Figure 4.1 Classification of policy studies 36
    • Figure 12.1 Aid flows as a percentage of total health expenditure, 1990 142
    • Figure 13.1 Proportion of public to private expenditure on health care, selected regions and countries 152

    List of Boxes

    List of Tables

    • Table 6.1 Application of different approaches to finding out about policies 74
    • Table 9.1 Source of inequality 113
    • Table 12.1 Aid flows to selected countries as a percentage of total health expenditure 142


    I should like to thank the Nuffield Institute for Health at the University of Leeds for allowing study leave for the completion of this writing. Thanks also go to colleagues there for their support in covering for my leave, and for many fruitful discussions over the years. Particular thanks go to David Hunter and to Charles Collins for some useful exchanges. Colin Thunhurst read the whole book in draft, and made invaluable comments. Gill Walt of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine also read the whole draft, and led me to improve on it in a number of ways. Shubi Ishemo has provided me with many useful references and ideas, and great support. At early stages in this work, I shared formative discussions with Meredeth Turshen.

    Of course, many insights have been gained from the health care professionals from all over the world who frequent the courses at the Nuffield Institute, along with their colleagues who provide counterparts for work undertaken overseas. All these people have shown me not only what are the important issues facing health care today, but also what are the crucial aspects of the various debates. Thanks to Julie Cliff, a supportive ex-colleague who was kind enough to allow me to summarise material from her article for Box 12.1. Last, thanks to Shubi and Kiza, who provided domestic support beyond that which anyone should hope for, and kept me going.

  • References

    Abel-Smith, B. (1994) Introduction to Health: Policy, Planning and Financing. Harlow, Middlesex: Longman Group.
    Al-Swailem, A. (1991) ‘Should opinion polls be more widely used in developing countries?’, Health Policy and Planning, 6(2): 185–187.
    Alford, R.R. (1975) Health Care Politics, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
    Anionwu, E.N. (1989) ‘Running a sickle cell centre: community counselling’, Chapter 14 in E.N.Anionwu, Ethnic Factors in Health and Disease, London: Wright.
    Anionwu, E.N. (1993) ‘Genetics – A philosophy of perfection?’, Chapter 8 in A.Beattie, M.Gott, L.Jones and M.Siddell (eds), Health and Wellbeing: A Reader. Basingstoke and London: Macmillan Press/Open University.
    Annandale, E. (1989) ‘Proletarianisation or restratification of the medical profession? The case of obstetrics’, International Journal of Health Services, 19(4): 611–634.
    Anonymous (1992) Journal of the American Medical Association, 268(17): 2420–2425.
    Antonowsky, A. (1993) ‘The sense of coherence as a determinant of health’, pp. 202–211 in A.Beattie et al. (eds), Health and Wellbeing: A Reader. Basingstoke and London: Macmillan Press/Open University.
    Armstrong, D. (1993) ‘From clinical gaze to regime of total health’, in A.Beattie et al. (eds), Health and Wellbeing: A Reader. Basingstoke and London: Macmillan Press/Open University.
    Bachrach, P. and Baratz, M.S. (1970) Power and Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Balique, H., Lejean, Y. and Annaheim, I. (1993) ‘Mali's new private sector’, World Health 46th year, 6 (Nov.-Dec): 18–20.
    Barker, C. (1983) ‘The Mozambique pharmaceutical policy’, Lancet, 1 October: 780–782.
    Barker, C. (1995) ‘Research and the health service manager in the developing world’, Social Science and Medicine, 41(12): 1655–1665.
    Barker, C. and Green, A. (1996) ‘Opening the debate on DALYs’, Health Policy and Planning, 11(2).
    Barros, F.C., Vaughan, J.P. and Victora, C.G. (1986) ‘Why so many Caesarean sections? The need for a further policy change in Brazil’, Health Policy and Planning, 1(1): 19–29.
    Beattie, A., Jones, L. and Sidell, M. (1992) Debates and Decisions in Everyday Health: K258 Health and Wellbeing Workbook 2. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Bennell, P. (1982) ‘Professionalisation: The case of pharmacy in Ghana’, Social Science and Medicine, 16: 601–607.
    Bennett, S. (1992) ‘Promoting the private sector: A review of developing country trends’, Health Policy and Planning, 7(2): 97–110.
    Bennett, S., Dakpallah, G., Garner, P., Gilson, L., Nittarayamohong, S. and Zwi, A. (1994) ‘Carrot and stick: State mechanisms to influence private provider behaviour’, Health Policy and Planning, 9(1): 1–14.
    Bhattacharya, N., Chakraborty, P., Chattopadhyay, M. and Rudra, A. (1991) ‘How do the poor survive?’, Economic and Political Weekly, 16 February: 373–379.
    Bibeau, G. (1985) ‘From China to Africa: The same impossible synthesis between traditional and Western medicines’, Social Science and Medicine, 21(8): 937–943.
    BobadillaJ-L., Cowley, P., Musgrove, P. and Saxenian, H. (1994) ‘Design, content and financing of an essential national package of health services’, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 72(4): 653–662.
    Bollini, P. and Reich, M.R. (1994) ‘The Italian fight against world hunger. A critical analysis of Italian aid for development in the 1980s’, Social Science and Medicine, 39(5): 607–620.
    Boone, M.S. (1989) A utilisation study using network analysis: Maternal and infant health policy change in Washington DC, in van Willigen et al. (1989). pp. 89–122.
    Bossert, T. (1990) ‘Can they get along without us? Sustainability of donor-supported health projects in Central America and Africa’, Social Science and Medicine, 30(9): 1015–1023.
    Bottomore, T., Harris, L., Keirnan, V.G. and Miliband, R. (1983) A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Bridgmann, R.F. (1976) ‘Foreward’, in R.Kohn and K.L.White, Health Care, An International Study. London: Oxford University Press.
    Brinkerhof, D.W. and Ingle, M.D. (1989) ‘Integrating blueprint and process: A structured flexibility approach to development management’, Public Administration and Development, 9: 487–503.
    Bronfman, M. (1992) ‘Infant mortality and crisis in Mexico’, International Journal of Health Services, 22(1): 157–167.
    Brown, D. (1989) ‘Bureaucracy as an issue in Third World management: An African case study’, Public Administration and Development, 9: 369–380.
    Brownlee, A. (1991) Promoting Health Systems Research as a Management Tool, Vol. 1. Health Systems Research Training Series. Geneva: Programme on Health Systems Research and Development of the World Health Organization; Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.
    Brownlee, A., Gonzales, L.D. and Pathmanathan, I. (1992) Strategies for Involving Universities and Research Institutes in Health Systems Research, Vol. 3, Health Systems Research Training Series. Geneva: Programme on Health Systems Research and Development of the World Health Organization; Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.
    Caldwell, J., Findlay, S., Caldwell, P., Santow, G., Cosford, W., Braid, J. and Broers-Freeman, D. (eds) (1990) ‘What we know about health transition: The cultural, social and behavioural determinants of health’, Health Transition, Series 2, Vols I and II. Canberra: Australian National University.
    Cameron-Blackie, G. (1993) Complementary Therapies in the NHS: National Association of Health Authorities and Trusts Research Paper No. 10. Birmingham: NAHAT.
    Chambers, R. (1986) ‘Rapid rural appraisal: Rationale and repertoire’, Public Administration and Development, 1(2): 95–106.
    ChecklandP. (1989) ‘Soft systems methodology’, pp. 71–100 in J.Rosenhead (ed.), Rational Analysis for a Problematic World. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
    Chelf, C.P. (1992) Controversial Issues in Social Welfare Policy: Government and the Pursuit of Happiness. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
    Chossudovsky, M. (1991) ‘Global poverty and New World economic order’, Economic and Political Weekly, 2 November: 2527–2537.
    Chossudovsky, M. (1995) ‘A truly global debt crisis’. Third World Resurgence, 59 (July): 27–39.
    Cliff, J. (1993) ‘Donor dependence or donor control? The case of Mozambique’, Community Development Journal, 28: 237–244.
    Collins, C. and Barker, C. (1995) ‘Health management and action research: Bringing them together for the district medical officer’Tropical Doctor, 25 (April): 75–79.
    Collins, C. and Barker, C. (forthcoming) ‘Management research and the role of the health services manager: Promoting action research’.
    Collins, CD. (1994) An Introduction to Management and Organisation in Developing Health Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Commander, S. and Killick, T. (1988) ‘Privatisation in developing countries: A survey of the issues’, in Cook and Kirkpatrick (1988).
    Commission on Health Research for Development (1990) Health Research Essential Link to Equity in Development. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Cook, P. and Kirkpatrick, C. (eds) (1988) Privatisation in Less Developed Countries. Brighton, Sussex: Wheatsheaf Books.
    Cornia, G.A. (1984a) ‘Social policy-making: Restructuring, targeting, efficiency’, pp. 165–182 in Jolly and Cornia (1984).
    Cornia, G.A. (1984b) ‘A survey of cross-sectional and time-series literature on factors affecting child welfare’, pp. 17–32, in Jolly and Cornia (1984).
    Cornia, G.A., Jolly, R. and Stewart, F. (1987) Adjustment with a Human Face. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Crenson, M.A. (1971) The Un-politics of Air Pollution: A Study of Non-decision Making in the Cities. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Cunningham, Sir C. (1963) ‘Policy and practice’, Public Administration, 41: 229–237.
    Davidoff, F., Case, K. and Fried, P.W. (1995) ‘Evidence-based medicine: Why all the fuss?’, Annals of Internal Medicine, 122(9): 727.
    De Waal, A. (1990) ‘A reassessment of entitlement theory in the light of the recent famines in Africa’, Development and Change, 21: 469–490.
    DeyI. (1990) ‘The failure of success and the success of failure: The Youth Polytechnic Programme in Kenya’, Public Administration and Development, 10: 179–198.
    DixonJ. and WelchH.G. (1991) ‘Priority setting: Lessons from Oregon’, Lancet, 337 (13 April): 891–894.
    Dore, E. (1992) ‘Debt and ecological disaster in Latin America’, Race and Class, 34(1): 75–87.
    Drake, H.M. (1989) ‘Using stakeholders in the research process: A case study in human services’, pp. 237–256 in van Willigen et al. (1989).
    Dwivedi, O.P. and Nef, J. (1982) ‘Crisis and continuities in development theory and administration: First and Third World perspectives’, Public Administration and Development, 2: 59–77.
    EastonD. (1972) ‘A systems analysis of political life’, in J.Beishon and G.Peters (eds) Systems Behaviour. London: Harper & Row/Open University Press.
    Engelkes, E. (1990) ‘Process evaluation in a Colombian primary health care programme’, Health Policy and Planning, 5(4): 327–335.
    Feierman, S. (1984) ‘The social origins of health and healing in Africa’. Conference paper commissioned by the ACLS/SSRC Joint Committee on African Studies for presentation at the 27th annual meeting of the African Studies Association, 25–28 October, Los Angeles.
    Feierman, S. (1986) ‘Popular control over the institutions of health: A historical study’, Chapter 10 in Last and Chavunduka (1986).
    Feinstein, J.S. (1993) ‘The relationship between socioeconomic status and health: A review of the literature’, The Milbank Quarterly71(2): 279–322.
    Foltz, A-M. (1994) ‘Donor funding for health reform in Africa: Is non-project assistance the right prescription?’, Health Policy and Planning9(4): 371–384.
    Foster, G.M. (1987) ‘World Health Organization behavioural science research: Problems and prospects’, Social Science and Medicine, 24(9): 709–717.
    Foucault, M. (1986) ‘The subject and power: An afterword’, pp. 208–226 in H.L.Dreyfus and P.Rabinow (eds), Michel Fouault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Brighton: Harvester Press.
    Fowlie, M. and Berkeley, J. (1987) ‘Quality of life – a review of the literature’, Family Practice, 4(3): 226.
    FoxG.N. (1993) ‘Evidence-based medicine: A new paradigm for the patient’, Journal of the American Medical Association, 269 (10) 10 March: 1254.
    Frenk, J. (1994) ‘Dimensions of health system reform’, Health Policy, 27: 19–34.
    Frenk, J. and Gonzalez-Block, M.A. (1992) ‘Primary care and reform of health systems: A framework for the analysis of Latin American experiences’, Health Services Management Research, 5(1): 32–43.
    Friedson, E. (1986) ‘The medical profession in transition’, pp. 63–97 in L.Aiken and S.Mechanic (eds), Applications of Social Science to Clinical Medicine and Health Policy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Garner, P. (1995) ‘Is aid to developing countries hitting the spot?’, British Medical Journal, 311 (8 July): 72–73.
    Gertler, P. and van der Gaag, J. (1990) The Willingness to Pay for Medical Care: Evidence from Two Developing Countries. Baltimore, MD and London: Johns Hopkins University Press for the World Bank.
    Giffin, K. (1994) ‘Women's health and the privatisation of fertility control in Brazil’, Social Science and Medicine, 39(3): 355–360.
    Gordon, I., Lewis, J. and Young, K. (1993) ‘Perspectives on policy analysis’ pp. 5–9 in M.Hill (ed.), The Policy Process: A Reader. Hemel Hempstead, UK: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Gramsci, A. (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks [1929–35] ed. Q.Hoare and G.Nowell Smith. London: Lawrence & Wishart.
    Green, A. (1992) An Introduction to Health Planning in Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Green, A. and Barker, C. (1988) ‘Priority setting and economic appraisal: Whose priorities -the community or the economist?’, Social Science and Medicine, 26(9): 919–930.
    Green, R.H. (1991) ‘Politics, power and poverty: Health for all in 2000 in the third world?’, Sociol Science and Medicine, 32(7): 745–755.
    Grigg, D. (1991) ‘World agriculture: Productivity and sustainability’, Chapter 2 in P.Sarre (ed.), Environment, Population and Development. London: Hodder & Stoughton for the Open University.
    Ham, C. (1992) Health Policy in Britain,
    3rd edn
    . Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Ham, C. and Hill, M. (1984) The Policy Process in the Modern Capitalist State. Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books.
    HamC, HunterD.J. and RobinsonR. (1995) ‘Evidence based policymaking’, British Medical Journal, 14 January: 71–72.
    Hardiman, M. and Midgley, J. (1982) The Social Dimensions of Development: Social Policy and Planning in the Third World. Chichester and New York: John Wiley.
    Harrison, S. (1994) ‘Knowledge into practice: What's the problem?’, Journal of Management in Medicine, 8(2): 9–16.
    Hegedus, A. (1983) ‘Bureaucracy’, pp. 57–59 in Bottomore et al. (1983).
    Herbst, J. (1990) ‘The structural adjustment of politics in Africa’, World Development18: 949–958.
    Hill, M. (ed.) (1993) The Policy Process: A Reader. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Hogwood, B. and Gunn, L., (1984) Policy Analysis for the Real World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Homans, H. (1989) ‘Equity in health: Has Zimbabwe achieved its objectives?’, Unpublished conference paper.
    Honadle, G.H. and Rosengard, J.K. (1983) ‘Putting ‘projectised’ development in perspective’, Public Administration and Development, 3: 299–305.
    Hudson, B. (1993) ‘Michael Lipsky and street level bureaucracy: A neglected perspective’, pp. 386–398 in Hill (1993).
    Hunter, D.J. (1993) ‘Restructuring health care systems: A paradigm shift in policy and management’, Inaugural lecture, Leeds, Nuffield Institute for Health.
    Hunter, D.J. (1994) ‘Towards an understanding of the British NHS changes’, The Health Exchange, June-July: 11–12.
    Huntington, D. and Schuler, S.R. (1993) ‘The simulated client method: Evaluating client-provider interactions in family planning clinics’, Studies in Family Planning, 24(3) May-June: 187–193.
    Jamison, D.T., Mosley, W.H., Measham, A.R. and Bobadilla, J.L. (1993) Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. New York?Oxford University Press.
    Jeffery, R. (1977) ‘Allopathic medicine in India: A case of deprofessionalisation?’, Social Science and Medicine, 11: 561–573.
    Jeffery, R. (1982) ‘Policies towards indigenous healers in independent India’, Social Science and Medicine, 16: 1835–1841.
    Johnson, T.A. (1973) Imperialism and the Professions: Notes on the Development of Professional Occupations in British Colonies and the New States, Sociol. Rev. Monograph, 20.
    Jones, H. (1990) Social Welfare in Third World Development. Basingstoke: Macmillan Education.
    Justice, J. (1987) ‘The bureaucratic context of international health: A social scientist's view’, Social Science and Medicine, 25(12): 1301–1306.
    Khan, M.E. and Manderson, L. (1992) ‘Focus groups in tropical diseases research’, Health Policy and Planning, 7(1): 56–66.
    Kitzinger, J. (1994) ‘The methodology of focus groups: The importance of interaction between research participants’, Sociology of Health and Illness, 16(1): 103–121.
    Knorr, K.D. (1977) ‘Policy-makers' use of social science knowledge: Symbolic or instrumental?’, pp. 165–182 in Weiss (1977).
    Korten, D. (1980) ‘Community organisation and rural development: A learning process approach’, Public Administration Review, Sept./Oct.: 480–511.
    Kronenfeld, J.J. (1993) Controversial Issues in Health Care Policy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
    Last, M. (1986) ‘The professionalisation of African medicine: Ambiguities and definitions’, Introduction, in Last and Chavunduka (1986).
    Last, M. and Chavunduka, G.L. (eds) (1986) The Professionalisation of African Medicine. Manchester: Manchester University Press and the International African Institute.
    Le Gales, C. and Moatti, J-P. (1990) ‘Searching for consensus through multicriteria decision analysis’, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 6: 430–449.
    Le Grand, J. (1982) The Strategy of Equality: Redistribution and the Social Services. London: Allen and Unwin.
    Leblebici, H. (1985) ‘Transactions and organisational forms: A re-analysis’, Organisational Studies, 6(2): 97–115.
    Linstone, H.A. and Turoff, M. (eds) (1975) The Delphi Method: Techniques and Applications. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Lukes, S. (1974) Power: A Radical View. London: Macmillan.
    MacPherson, S. (1982) Social Policy in the Third World. Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books.
    MacPherson, S. and Midgely, J. (1987) Comparative Social Policy and the Third World. Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books.
    McGlynn, E.A., Kosecoff, J. and Brook, R.H. (1990) ‘Format and conduct of consensus development conferences’, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 6: 450–469.
    McGreevey, W.P. (1988) ‘The high costs of medical care in Brazil’, Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organisation, 22(2): 145–168.
    McKeown, T. (1976) The Modem Rise of Population. London: Arnold.
    McKeown, T. and Brown, R.G. (1955) ‘Medical evidence related to English population changes in the eighteenth century’, Population Studies, 9: 119–141.
    McKeown, T. and Record, R.G. (1962) ‘Reasons for the decline of mortality in England and Wales during the nineteenth century’, Population Studies, 16: 94–122.
    McKeown, T., Record, R.G. and Turner, R.G. (1975) ‘An interpretation of the decline of mortality in England and Wales during the twentieth century’, Population Studies, 29: 391–422.
    McKinley, J. and Stoeckle, J. (1988) ‘Corporatisation and the social transformation of doctoring’, International Journal of Health Services, 18(2): 191–205.
    McPake, B. and Banda, E.E.N. (1994) ‘Contracting out of health services in developing countries’, Health Policy and Planning, 9(1): 25–30.
    McPake, B., Hanson, K. and Mills, A. (1993) ‘Community financing of health care in Africa: An evaluation of the Bamako Initiative’, Social Science and Medicine, 36(11): 1383–1395.
    Marsh, C. (1982) The Survey Method. London: Allen and Unwin.
    Mata, L.J. (1978) The Children of Santa Maria Cauqué: A Prospective Field Study of Health and Growth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Maynard-Tucker, G. (1994) ‘Indigenous perceptions and quality of care of family planning services in Haiti’, Health Policy and Planning, 9(3): 306–317.
    MichaudC. and MurrayC.J.L. (1994) ‘External assistance to the health sector in developing countries: A detailed analysis, 1972–90’, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 72(4): 639–651.
    Miliband, R. (1983) entry on ‘State’, pp. 464–468, in Bottomore et al. (1983).
    Mooney, G.H. (1983) ‘Equity in health care: Confronting the confusion’, Effective Health Care, 1(4): 179–184.
    Moore, M. (1990) ‘The rational choice paradigm and the allocation of agricultural development resources’, Development and Change, 21: 225–246.
    Mosley, W.H. (1985) ‘Will primary health care reduce infant and child mortality?’, Chapter 5 in J.Vallin and A.D.Lopez (eds), Health Policy, Social Policy and Mortality Prospects. Liege: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population: proceedings of a seminar in Paris, 1983, Paris: Ordina Editions.
    Murray, C.J.L. (1987) ‘A critical review of international mortality data’, Social Science and Medicine, 25(7): 773–781.
    Murray, C.J.L. and Chen, L.C. (1993) ‘In search of a contemporary theory for understanding mortality change’, Social Science and Medicine, 36 (2): 142–155.
    MurrayC.J.L., Kreuser, J. and Whang, W. (1994) ‘Cost-effectiveness analysis and policy choices: Investing in health systems’. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 72(4): 663–674.
    Nabudere, D.W. (1995) ‘The impact of globalisation on Africa’, Development and Cooperation, 4 (July-Aug.): 4–5.
    Okuonzi, S.A. and Macrae, J. (1995) ‘Whose policy is it anyway? International and national influences on health policy development in Uganda’, Health Policy and Planning, 10(2): 122–132.
    Oranga, H.M. and Nordberg, E. (1993) ‘The Delphi panel method for generating health information’, Health Policy and Planning, 8(4): 405–412.
    Packard, R. and Epstein, P. (1991) ‘Epidemiologists, social scientists, and the structure of medical research on AIDS in Africa’, Social Science and Medicine, 33(7): 771–794.
    Packard, R.M., Wisner, B. and Bossert, T. (1989) ‘Introduction’, Social Science and Medicine, 28(5): 405–414.
    Pathmanathan, I. (1992) Managing Health Systems Research, Vol. 4, Health Systems Research Training Series. Geneva: Programme on Health Systems Research and Development of the World Health Organization; Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.
    Pathmanathan, I. and Nik-Safiah, N.I (1991) Training of Trainers for Health Systems Research, Vol. 5, Health Systems Research Training Series. Geneva: Programme on Health Systems Research and Development of the World Health Organization; Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.
    Patton, M.Q. (1990) Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods, (
    2nd edn
    ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
    ‘Peer review of the joint project on health systems research for Southern African countries, June 1993’ (1994) Health Systems Research Newsletter, February: 6–8.
    Pereira, J. (1990) ‘The economics of inequality in health: A bibiography’, Social Science and Medicine, 31(3): 413–420.
    Petras, J. (1989) ‘Class politics, state power and legitimacy’, Economic and Political Weekly, 26 August: 1955–1958.
    Preston, S.H. (1975) ‘The changing relation between mortality and level of economic development’, Population Studies, 29: 231–248.
    Preston, S.H. and Haines, M.R. (1991) ‘Response to comments on Fatal Years’, Health Transition Review, 1(2): 240–244.
    Ratcliffe, J.W. and Gonzalez-del-Valle, A. (1988) ‘Rigor in health-related research: Toward an expanded conceptualisation’, International Journal of Health Services, 18(3): 361–392.
    Rice, T.H. and Labelle, R.J. (1989) ‘Do physicians induce demand for medical services?’, Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 14(3): 587–600.
    Rifkin, S.B., Muller, F. and Bichmann, W. (1988) ‘Primary health care: On measuring participation’, Social Science and Medicine, 26(9): 931–940.
    Rondinelli, D. A. (1983) ‘Projects as instruments of development administration: A qualified defence and suggestions for improvement’, Public Administration and Development, 3: 307–327.
    Rondinelli, D. A. (1993) Development Projects as Policy Experiments: An Adaptive Approach to Development Administration. London and New York: Routledge.
    Rosenhead, J. (1989) Rational Analysis for a Problematic World. Chichester: Wiley.
    Rostow, W.W. (1963) The Economics of Take-off into Sustained Growth. London: Macmillan.
    Royal College of Physicians of London (1989) Prenatal Diagnosis and Genetic Screening: Community and Service Implications. London: Royal College of Physicians of London.
    Rylko-Bauer, B., van Willigen, J. and McElroy, A. (1989) ‘Strategies for increasing the use of anthropological research in the policy process: A cross-disciplinary analysis’ pp. 1–26 in van Willigen et al. (1989).
    Sahlins, M. (1974) Stone Age Economics. London: Tavistock Publications.
    Schrettenbrunner, A. and Harpham, T. (1993) ‘A different approach to evaluating PHC projects in developing countries: How acceptable is it to aid agencies?’, Health Policy and Planning, 8(2): 128–135.
    Scrimshaw, S. and Hurtado, E. (1987) Rapid Assessment Procedures for Nutrition and Primary Health Care: Anthropological Approaches to Improving Program Effectiveness (RAP). Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications.
    Seers, D. (1979) ‘The meaning of development, with a postscript’, pp. 9–30 in D.Lehmann (ed.), Development Theory: Four Critical Studies. Bournemouth: Cass.
    Segall, M. (1983) ‘Planning and politics of resource allocation for primary health care: Promotion of meaningful national policy’, Social Science and Medicine, 17(24): 1947–60.
    Sen, A. (1981) Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Shivji, I.G. (1978) Class Struggles in Tanzania. London: Heinemann.
    Staniland, M. (1985) What is Political Economy? A Study of Social Theory and Underdevelopment. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
    Stevenson, A.C. and Davison, B.C.C. (1976) Genetic Counselling. London: Heinemann.
    Stock, R. (1986) ‘“Disease and development” or the “the underdevelopment of health”: A critical review of geographical perspectives on African health problems’, Social Science and Medicine, 23(7): 689–700.
    Stock, R. (1988) ‘Environmental sanitation in Nigeria’, Review of African Political Economy, 42: 19–31.
    Stockmann, R. (1993) ‘The long term impact of development aid’, Development and Cooperation, 5: 21–2.
    Streeten, P. (1977) ‘The distinctive features of a basic needs approach to development’, International Development Review, 19: 2–12.
    Szreter, S. (1988) ‘The importance of social intervention in Britain's mortality decline c. 1850–1914: A re-interpretation of the role of public health’, Social History of Medicine1(1): 1–37.
    Thunhurst, C. (1985) ‘ The analysis of small area statistics and planning for health’, The Statistician, 34: 96–106.
    Thunhurst, C. (1992) ‘Operational research: A role in strengthening community participation?’, Journal of Management in Medicine, 6(4): 56–71.
    Tollman, S., Schopper, D. and Torres, A. (1990) ‘Health maintenance organisations in developing countries: What can we expect?’, Health Policy and Planning, 5(2): 149–160.
    Townsend, P. (1979) Poverty in the United Kingdom. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Townsend, P., DavidsonN. and WhiteheadM. (1988) Inequalities in Health (The Black Report). Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Trostle, J. (1992) ‘Research capacity building in international health: Definitions, evaluation and strategies for success’, Social Science and Medicine, 35(11): 1321–1324.
    Tullock, G. (1993) ‘The economic theory of bureaucracy’, pp. 110–120 in Hill (1993).
    Turshen, M. (1984) The Political Ecology of Disease in Tanzania. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Turshen, M. (1989) The Politics of Public Health. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Ugalde, A. (1979) ‘The role of the medical profession in public health policy making: The case of Columbia’, Social Science and Medicine, 13c: 109–119.
    Ugalde, A. (1980) ‘Physician's control of the health sector: Professional values and economic interests. Findings from the Honduran health system’, Social Science and Medicine, 14A: 435–444.
    Unger, J-P. and Killingsworth, J.R. (1986) ‘Selective primary health care: A critical review of methods and results’, Social Science and Medicine, 22(10): 1001–1013.
    United Nations (1990) World Economic Survey 1990. New York: United Nations.
    Van Dijk, J.A.G.M. (1990) ‘Delphi questionnaires versus individual and group interviews. A comparison case’, Technology Forecasting and Social Change, 37: 293–304.
    Van Norren, B., Boerma, J.T. and Sempebwa, E.K.N. (1989) ‘Simplifying the evaluation of primary health care programmes’, Social Science and Medicine, 28: 1091–1097.
    Varkevisser, C.M., Pathmanathan, I. and Brownlee, A. (1991) Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects, Vol. 2, Health Systems Research Training Series. Geneva: Programme on Health Systems Research and Development of the World Health Organization; Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.
    Waddington, C. and Newell, K. (1987) ‘Different therefore equal: Towards equity in the health services in Fiji’, Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 1(3): 24–31.
    Waller, P. (1994) ‘Aid and conditionality’, Development and Cooperation, 1: 4–5.
    Wallis, M. (1989) Bureaucracy: Its Role in Third World Development. London: Macmillan.
    Walsh, J.A. and Warren, K.S. (1979) ‘Selective primary health care: An interim strategy for disease control in developing countries’, New England Journal of Medicine, 301(1B): 967–994.
    Walt, G. (1993) ‘WHO under stress: Implications for health policy’, Health Policy, 24: 125–144.
    Walt, G. (1994) Health Policy: An Introduction to Process and Power. London: Zed Books.
    Walt, G. and Gilson, L. (1994) ‘Reforming the health sector in developing countries: The central role of policy analysis’, Health Policy and Planning, 9(4): 353–370.
    Weber, M. (1947) The Theory of Social and Economic Organisation, ed. and trans. T.Parsons. New York: The Free Press.
    Weber, M. (1993) ‘Rational-legal authority and bureaucracy’, in Hill (1993).
    Weiss, C.H. (1977) ‘Introduction’, pp. 1–22 in C.H.Weiss (ed.), Using Social Research in Public Policy Making. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Werner, D. (1995) ‘Turning health into an investment: Assaults on third world health care’, Economic and Political Weekly, 21 January: 147–151.
    White, J. (1992) ‘Towards sustainability in health care’, Action for Health, 17 (Spring): 4–5.
    Wise, P.H. and Pursley, D.M. (1992) ‘Infant mortality as a social mirror’, New England Journal of Medicine, 326(23): 1558–1559.
    Woelk, G.B. (1994) ‘Primary health care in Zimbabwe: Can it survive? An exploration of the political and historical developments affecting the implementation of PHC’, Social Science and Medicine, 39(8): 1027–1035.
    Woolf, S.H. (1992) ‘Practice guidelines, a new reality in medicine. II. Methods of developing guidelines’, Archives of Internal Medicine, 152(5): 946–952.
    World Bank (1981) Accelerated Development in Sub-Saharan Africa (The Berg Report). Washington, DC: World Bank.
    World Bank (1984) World Development Report 1984. New York: Oxford University Press for the World Bank.
    World Bank (1990) World Development Report 1990: Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press for the World Bank.
    World Bank (1993) Investing in Health: World Development Report 1993. New York: Oxford University Press.
    World Health Organization (1978) Director-General of the World Health Organization and the Executive Director of the United Nations Children's Fund, Primary Health Care, a joint report. International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR, 6–12 Sept. Geneva: WHO.
    World Health Organization (1981) Global Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000, Health for All Series, No. 3. Geneva: WHO.
    World Health Organization Commission on Health and the Environment (1992) ‘Health and the environment: A global challenge’, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 70(4): 409–413.
    Wortman, P.M., Vinokur, A. and Sechrest, L. (1986) ‘Do consensus conferences work? A process evaluation of the NIH consensus development program’, Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law, 13: 469–498.
    Zalot, G.N. and Lussing, F.J. (1983) ‘A process for establishing health care priorities’, Health Management Forum, 3 (Winter): 31–44.
    Zola, I.K. (1972) ‘Medicine as an institution of social control’, Sociological Review, 20(4): 487–504.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website