The Handbook of Competency Mapping: Understanding, Designing and Implementing Competency Models in Organizations
Publication Year: 2016
This thoroughly revised third edition helps human resource managers and professionals understand, develop, manage and map competencies within their organizations. It presents the complete know-how of developing competency framework in detail. In this edition, several chapters have been expanded to provide a greater understanding of business strategies, environmental imperatives and the changing role of HR as a strategic partner. Developed over years of research and consultancy experience, three new chapters on ‘Competency-based Interviewing’, ‘Writing Competencies’ and ‘Competency Framework for Academic Institutions’ have been added.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction to Competency Mapping
- Chapter 2: Competency Models
- Chapter 3: Competency-based Applications
- Chapter 4: Issues Related to Developing Competency Models
- Chapter 5: Formation of a Competency Framework
- Chapter 6: Writing Competencies
- Chapter 7: Assessment Centres
- Chapter 8: Competency-based Interviewing
- Chapter 9: Resistance and Recommendations
- Chapter 10: Generic Competencies
- Chapter 11: Competency Model for HR
- Chapter 12: Generic Competency Model for Leadership Role in Any Organization
- Chapter 13: Leadership Competency Model for Automobile Industry
- Chapter 14: Competency Framework for Academic Institutions
- Chapter 15: Experiential Sharing
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Copyright © Seema Sanghi, 2016
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2004
This third edition published in 2016 by
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Name: Sanghi, Seema, - author.
Title: The handbook of competency mapping: understanding, designing and implementing competency models in organizations / Seema Sanghi.
Description: Third edition. | Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE,  | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016023243| ISBN 9789385985157 (pbk.: alk. paper) | ISBN 9789385985140 (epub) | ISBN 9789385985164 (ebook)
Subjects: LCSH: Core competencies. | Organizational effectiveness. | Strategic planning. | Management. | Employees—Training of.
Classification: LCC HD30.28 .S266 2016 | DDC 658.4/012—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016023243
ISBN: 978-93-859-8515-7 (PB)
The SAGE Team: Sachin Sharma, Sandhya Gola and Ritu Chopra
Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, typeset in Adobe Caslon Pro 11/13 pts by Zaza Eunice, Hosur, Tamil Nadu and printed at Saurabh Printers Pvt Ltd, Greater Noida.
To Pradeep, Prateek and Sakshi
List of Tables[Page ix]
- 1.1 Core Competencies versus Workplace Competencies 15
- 2.1 Competency Model for Sales Associates 28
- 2.2 The 45 Competencies 36
- 2.3 Performance Rating Scale 37
- 2.4 Importance Rating Scale 37
- 2.5 Average Rating and Ranking of Various Competencies 43
- 3.1 Durations of Competency-based HR Applications 50
- 3.2 How Competency-based HR Applications Focus Behaviour 51
- 3.3 HR Competence Audit 53
- 3.4 Competencies with Definitions and Ratings 57
- 3.5 Selection Interview Questions 58
- 3.6 360-degree Feedback Questionnaire 60
- 5.1 Sales Competencies Desired by Customers 118
- 5.2 Sources of Competency Information 124
- 7.1 Grid of Competency Dimensions by Exercises/Tools 168
- 7.2 A Grid for Ratings 187
- 8.1 Working with Others 199
- 8.2 Adaptability 200
- 8.3 Examples of Positive (Do's) and Negative Indicators (Don'ts) 202
- 10.1 Behavioural Ratings of Various Competencies: An Example 238 [Page x]
- 14.1 Academic Institution Competency Framework 280
- 15.1 Competency Model for Regional Manager 307
- 15.2 Competency Framework 320
List of Figures[Page xi]
- 1.1 The Interface between Competence and Competency 10
- 1.2 The Iceberg Model 12
- 1.3 Central and Surface Competencies 13
- 1.4 What Are Competencies? 14
- 1.5 Competency Management System 21
- 1.6 Input Process Output Model 22
- 1.7 Can Do/Will Do Evaluation Chart 23
- 2.1 Linking HR Processes to Organizational Strategy 27
- 2.2 Competency Pyramid Model 30
- 2.3 The Lancaster (Burgoyne) Model of Managerial Competencies 38
- 3.1 Competency-based HR Applications 52
- 5.1 Aims of BEI 107
- 5.2 Purpose of BEI 108
- 7.1 Competency Mapping Model 163 [Page xii]
List of Boxes[Page xiii]
- 3.1 Interview Rating Form 59
- 3.2 Behaviour Examples 61
- 3.3 Competencies with a Range of Observable Behaviour on a 5-point Scale 62
- 3.4 Succession Planning Candidate Evaluation Form 65
- 3.5 Succession Planning 66
- 3.6 Format of Competency-based Applications 67
- 11.1 Competency Model for HR Head 241
- 11.2 Competency Model for HR Manager 246
- 11.3 Competency Model for HR Executive 250
- 13.1 Leadership Competency Model for Automobile Industry 273
- 15.1 Competency Model: HPCL 310
- 15.2 Competency Profile—HPCL 311
- 15.3 Individual Development Plan Form (A Sample) 312
- 15.4 Competency Model— GHCL 316[Page xiv]
Over the years, ‘competency mapping’ and ‘assessment centre’ have become necessities not only to the private and the public sectors but also to the government sector. Public services commissions of various countries are also taking initiative to bring in reforms through developing competency-based selection methodology. The author's insight into the subject has further deepened after her association with the United Nations Development Programme for Public Service Commission as an international consultant in developing competency framework and designing assessment centre methodology. In recent years, author's knowledge on the subject has further expanded through various consultancy assignments, as an advisor on competency mapping to a power sector organization, a key note speaker at the Institute of Banking, Saudi Arabia, offering certified courses to corporates and business schools, conducting programmes for assessors and a large number of training professionals and conducting workshops across various sectors. Today, the top management and bureaucrats are keen to develop a competency framework for their organizations, to build robust selection and other human resources (HR) systems. It has also been realized that borrowing the available models might be a good starting point but customization is necessary—sooner or later one's own model and internal team has to be developed.In This Edition
The content in the chapters Introduction to Competency Mapping (Chapter 1), Competency Models (Chapter 2), Competency-based Applications (Chapter 3), Issues Related to Developing Competency Models (Chapter 4) and Resistance and [Page xvi]Recommendations (Chapter 9) has been elaborated in this edition. Formation of a Competency Framework (Chapter 5) has been rewritten giving out a complete process of how to form a competency framework. This will be extremely useful for all professionals for learning the practical aspects of the formation of competency framework. The new chapter on Writing Competencies (Chapter 6) is about writing definition and behavioural indicators, the most challenging task of the formation of competency framework. Another new chapter is on Competency-based Interviewing (Chapter 8), which is one of the most important tools of assessment centre as well as the most desirable and coveted process of selection. This will be useful for all HR professionals not only in assessment centre but also for those who are on the interview panels for selection. Assessment Centres (Chapter 7) has been explained in further detail.
Chapter 10 in this book, Generic Competencies, has been revised extensively. It now comprises a list of generic competencies across all functional and behavioural competencies. It includes more than 275 competencies which will be extremely useful for all professionals. Chapters 11, 12 and 13 cover Competency Model for HR, Generic Competency Model for Leadership Role in Any Organization, which has been modified, and Leadership Competency Model for Automobile Industry, respectively. Chapter 14, which is new, comprises Competency Framework for Academic Institutions. This has a new model for all academic institutions which will be extremely handy for all universities, academic institutions and centres for higher learning. Chapter 15 presents Experiential Sharing, which covers live examples of Hindustan Sanitaryware & Industries Limited (HSIL), Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL), Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Limited (GHCL)and Engineers India Ltd (EIL), along with the respective models and individual reports of competency mapping and potential mapping. This will be very helpful for all readers in the corporate, academic and consultancy sectors.
Most of the chapters are illustrated with figures and tables, along with examples, for a better understanding. The glossary of job task analysis will be helpful in job analysis, which is one of the most important tasks in developing competency models.[Page xvii]
This book has in-depth coverage on what is competency mapping and assessment centre. It presents the complete know-how of the developing competency framework in detail for all practitioners and professionals. It also has an extensive list of generic competencies; competency models for HR, leadership and academic institutions and experiences of some consultancy assignments. The uniqueness of this book lies in ‘complete what, why, how’ on the subject and extensive support models that have been developed over years of research, consultancy and training experience across private, public and government sectors in India, Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, UK and other European countries.[Page xviii]
Having worked on this book, I can say that no individual possesses all the competencies required to write a book on competencies. However, this work is an attempt to comprehensively address the issues in and around competency mapping. In the development of this text, direct and indirect contributions of several individuals stand out. The first two editions have been very well accepted; however, readers' quest for better aids and materials has been my driving force to work on this new edition.
I am grateful to my clients who have given me the opportunity for national and international consulting assignments, and readers and corporate managers who acknowledged the work at various platforms.
I owe special gratitude to my husband, Pradeep, and our children, Prateek and Sakshi, whose patience and support were instrumental in accomplishing this task.
Finally, I would like to acknowledge the efforts of the team at SAGE who were involved in publishing this book.[Page xx]
To receive with consent; to take without protest.
The state of being subject to judgement for an action or a result which a person has been given authority and responsibility to perform.
To exert one's power so as to bring about a result; to carry out a plan or purpose. See Execute, Implement and Perform.
To affix or attach; to find the sum of figures.
To direct the application, execution, use or general conduct of.
To take and apply or put into action.
To give recommendations. See Propose and Recommend. To offer an informed opinion based on specialized knowledge.
To confirm or ratify.
To arrange or form in a line.
To change or modify.
To study the factors of a situation or problem in order to determine the outcome or solution; to separate or distinguish the parts of a process or situation so as to discover their true relationships.
To foresee events, trends, consequences or problems in order to deal with them in advance.
To adjust or direct; to put in use.
To evaluate as to quality, status or effectiveness of.
To sanction officially; to accept as satisfactory; to ratify, thereby assuming responsibility for (used only in the situation where the individual has final authority).
To place in proper or desired order; to prepare for an event. See Prepare.
To find out or learn with certainty.
To collect or gather together in a predetermined order or pattern. See Collect, Compile and Co-ordinate.
To give specific duties to others to perform. See Delegate.
To lend aid or support in some undertaking or effort. (No authority over the activity is implied.)
To take upon oneself; to undertake; to take for granted.
To confirm; to make certain of. See Ensure.
To bind, fasten, tie or connect.
To be present for the purpose of listening or contributing.
To examine and review a situation, condition or practice, and conclude with a detailed report on the findings.
The power to influence or command thought, opinion or behaviour.
To empower; to permit; to establish by authority.
To arrange or prove so that the sum of one group equals the sum of another.
To group into a quantity for one operation.
To ascertain by mathematical processes; to reckon by exercise of practical judgement.
To strike or cross out.
To convey through the use of the hands.
To place or fix at or around the centre; to collect to a point.
To draw or exhibit in a graph.
To examine for a condition; to compare for verification. See Control, Examine, Inspect, Monitor and Verify.
To distribute in accordance with a plan. See Disseminate.
To separate into groups having systematic relations.
To get the agreement or disagreement of others.
To terminate or shutdown.
To transpose words or figures into symbols or characters. Also Encode.
To work or act jointly with others.
To bring together in a predetermined order.
To gather facts or data; to assemble; to accumulate. See Assemble and Compile.
To collect into a volume; to compose out of materials from other documents.
To make up, fashion or arrange.
To agree with a position, statement, act or opinion.
To lead, guide or command the efforts of others towards producing a chore or task or goal.
To combine separate items into a single whole.
To set in order mentally; to arrange.
To seek advice of others; to confer.
To exert power over in order to guide or restrain; to measure, interpret and evaluate for conformance with plans or expected results.
To work jointly with others. See Collaborate.
To bring into common action or condition so as to harmonize by regulating, changing, adjusting or combining. See Assemble.
To transfer or reproduce information.
To rectify; to make right.
To establish a mutual or reciprocal relationship; to put in relation to each other.
To add across, horizontally.
To line out, strike out.
To eliminate by lining out.
To affix or note a date by stamping.
To choose from among alternatives or possibilities so as to end debate or uncertainty.
To entrust to the care or management of another; to authorize or empower another to act in one's place. See Assign, Authorize and Represent.
Assigning to a subordinate the responsibility and commensurate authority to accomplish an objective or specific result.
To erase; to remove.
To conceive and plan in the mind for a specific use; to create, fashion, execute or construct according to a plan. See Develop, Devise, Formulate and Plan.
To make a decision; to bring about; to cause; to decide and set limits to, thereby fixing definitely and unalterably. To find out something not before known as a result of an intent to find definite and precise truth.
To conceive and create; to make active, available or usable; to set forth or make clear, evident or apparent.
The result of developing.
To come up with something new, especially by combining known ideas or principles. See Design, Develop, Formulate and Plan.
To lead, guide or command the efforts of others towards producing a chosen result. See Conduct, Manage and Supervise.
Guidance or supervision of others.
To take apart.
To find out something not known before as a result of chance, exploration or investigation. See Ascertain and Determine.
To exchange views for the purpose of convincing or reaching a conclusion.
To take apart.
To spread information or ideas. See Circulate, Distribute, Issue and Release.
To divide or separate into classes; to pass around; to allot; to deliver to named places or persons. See Circulate, Disseminate, Issue and Release.
To separate into classes or parts, subject to mathematical division.
To compose or write papers and documents in preliminary or final form, often for the approval or clearance of others.
To revise and prepare for publication.
To express approval of; to countersign.
To make safe or certain. See Assure.
To set up or bring into existence on a firm basis.
To ascertain or determine the value of.
To investigate; to scrutinize; to subject to inquiry by inspection or test.
To put into effect; to follow through to the end.
To employ actively, as in authority or influence.
To accelerate the movement or progress of, to remove obstacles.
To make easy or less difficult.
To supply material to a machine.
To lay away papers, etc., arranged in some methodical manner.
To enter information on a form.
To locate by search.
To mark distinctively.
To check the progress of; to see if results are satisfactory.
To develop or devise a plan, policy or procedure and, to put it into a systemized statement.
To give or supply. See Provide.
Conducting or directing along a course of action.
To put into effect; to execute.
To instruct; to communicate knowledge.
To originate; to introduce for the first time.
To put or thrust in.
To examine carefully for suitability or conformance with standards. See Check, Control, Examine, Monitor and Verify.
To impart knowledge to; to give information or direction to; to show how to do.
To furnish with directions; to inform. Specific—Precise and detailed directions that closely limit what can be done or how it can be done. General—Directions that are merely outlined, hence do not closely limit what can be done or how it can be done.
Exhaustive or concentrated.
To explain or clarify; to translate; to elucidate.
To question in order to obtain facts or opinions.
A list of items; stock in hand.
To study closely and methodically.
To distribute formally.
To set or note down in detail; to set by particulars.
To cover the inside surface of; to draw lines on.
To search for and find; to position.
To keep up to date or current; to keep at a given level or in working condition.
To control and direct; to guide; to command the efforts of others towards producing a chosen result. See Supervise.
To find the quality or amount of; to ascertain dimension, count, intensity, etc.
To unite or blend into one group or mass.
To observe or check periodically for a specific purpose.
To perform the operation of multiplication.
To exchange views and proposals with an eye to reaching agreement by sifting possibilities, proposals, and pros and cons.
Irregular or infrequent situations that arise relating to business or official duties. Characteristic of higher-level jobs.
To observe, notice, heed.
To give notice to; to inform.
A desired result. See Goal.
To perceive, notice, watch.
To gain possession of; to acquire.
To enter upon; to spread out; to make accessible.
To conduct or perform activity.
Individuals working together in related ways within a specific structure towards a common end.
To arrange in interdependent parts; to systemize.
To produce as new; to invent.
To make a summary of the significant features of a subject.
To take part in.
To carry out; to accomplish; to execute.
To locate an employee in a job.
To devise or project a method or course of action.
A definite course or method of action selected from among alternatives and in light of given conditions, to guide and determine present and future decisions.
A document which describes the purpose, scope, duties, responsibilities, authorities and working relationships associated with a position or entity to be occupied and performed by one person.
A document which describes the physical characteristics, knowledge, skill, experience and educational requirements of a person who would be ideally suited to perform a specific job.
To announce by public, written notice; to transfer or carry information from one record to another.
To work repeatedly to gain skill.
To make ready for a special purpose.
A governing law of conduct; a fundamental belief serving as a responsible guide to action; a basis for policy.
A particular way of accomplishing something or of acting; a series of steps followed in a regular, definite order; a standardized practice.
To begin or carry out.
To subject to some special treatment; to handle in accordance with prescribed procedures.
A series of planned steps towards an objective.
To act so as to increase sales or patronage; to advance someone to a higher level or job.
To offer for consideration or adoption; to declare an intention.
To supply for use; to make available; to furnish.
To buy or procure.
Something set up as an objective or end to be attained; a reason.
To appraise or assess; to give one's opinion of the rank or quality of.
To take something that is offered or sent.
To advise or counsel a course of action or to suggest for adoption a course of action.
To restore; to construct again.
To register; to make a record of.
To direct attention to.
To enter in a record or list.
To authorize the publication of, dissemination of.
To transmit or send money as payment.
To furnish, contribute.
To supply or furnish organized information.
To act for or in place of; to serve as a counterpart of; to substitute in some capacity for.
To ask for something.
To demand as necessary or essential.
A document making a request.
Inquiry into a specific subject from several sources.
The quality or state of being accountable for.
Having caused; accountable for.
To examine usually with intent to approve or dissent; to analyse results in order to give an opinion.
To change in order to make new, to correct, to improve or bring up to date.
To prearrange the sending of an item to the location to which it is to be sent.
Regular procedure, or normal course of business or official duties.
To examine point by point; to scrutinize.
To plan a timetable; to set specific times for.
To examine so as to separate into two or more groups or classes, usually rejecting one or more.
To look over and through for the purpose of finding something.
To get possession of; to obtain; to make safe.
Chosen from a number of others of a similar kind.
To set apart from others for special use; to keep apart.
To hold an office; to act in a capacity; to discharge a duty or function.
To authorize by affixing one's signature.
To put in a definite place or rank according to kind, class, etc.
To pile up.
[Page 332]Standard of Performance
A statement of the conditions that will exist when a job is acceptably done. Whenever possible the elements of the statement include specific reference to quantity, quality, cost and time.
To excite, rouse or spur on.
To consider attentively; to ponder or fix the mind closely upon a subject.
To present information for another's judgement or decision.
An interim total.
To deduct one number from another.
To give only the main points.
To oversee a work group, leading, guiding or commanding its efforts to produce a chosen result.
To provide service, assistance or supplies to another person or department.
To ascertain facts regarding conditions or the condition of a situation usually in connection with the gathering of information.
To form into a table by listing; to make a listing.
To record the transfer of an application or document; to copy as a drawing.
To increase skill or knowledge by capable instruction.
To make a typed copy from shorthand notes or dictated record; to write a copy of.
To transfer; to change the usual place or order.
To emphasize or identify by drawing a line under the characters or subject.
To prove to be true or accurate; to confirm or substantiate; to test or check the accuracy of.
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