Visualizing the land surface explains and explores the composition of the land surface and outlines how it has been studied. Dynamics of the land surface considers the dynamics affecting the earth’s land surface including its influences, processes and the changes that have occurred. Environments of the land surface looks to understand the land surface in major world regions highlighting differences between the areas. Management of the land surface is an examination of the current and future prospects of the management of the earth’s land surface.

Polar Regions: Arctic, Antarctic and High Latitudes

Polar regions: Arctic, antarctic and high latitudes

The polar regions are usually delimited by the Arctic Circle (66°33'North) in the northern hemisphere and the Antarctic Circle (66°33'South) in the southern hemisphere. They include the Arctic, which can be delimited as the region north of 60°N or north of the timberline, and the Antarctic, usually defined as south of 60°S. The two differ in that the Arctic is a frozen ocean surrounded by land, whereas the Antarctic is a frozen continent surrounded by ocean. In addition to being known as the frigid zones these zones are unified by ice and snow, and are integral parts of the cryosphere, the sphere characterized by the presence of ice, snow and permafrost. The ...

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