Visualizing the land surface explains and explores the composition of the land surface and outlines how it has been studied. Dynamics of the land surface considers the dynamics affecting the earth’s land surface including its influences, processes and the changes that have occurred. Environments of the land surface looks to understand the land surface in major world regions highlighting differences between the areas. Management of the land surface is an examination of the current and future prospects of the management of the earth’s land surface.

Humid and Seasonally Humid Tropics

Humid and seasonally humid tropics

The tropical zone, between the Tropic of Cancer (23.3°N) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23.3°S), covering about a third of the Earth's land surface, is often thought of as dense, humid forest frequently incorrectly termed jungle, but can actually be divided into three major zones on the basis of climate: wet zones, the humid tropics, often characterized as hot wetlands (Douglas, 2005) usually nearer the equator and having rainfall in the range of 2000 to 13,000 mm.yr−1, which include montane, superwet and wet climates; the monsoon zone, located mainly around the Indian Ocean, of two seasons with pronounced differences in rainfall; the wet-dry zone, the seasonal tropics often referred to as ‘savanna’, where annual rainfall totals ...

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