This innovative volume explores ways in which the idea of citizenship can be seen as a unifying concept in understanding contemporary social change and social problems. The book outlines traditional linkages between citizenship and public participation, national identity and social welfare, and shows the relevance of citizenship for a range of rising issues extending from global change through gender to the environment. The areas investigated include: the challenge of internationalization to the nation state and to national identities; the contested nature of citizenship in relation to poverty, work and welfare; the implications of gender inequality; and the potential for new conceptions of citizenship in response to cultur
Chapter 4: Four Conceptions of Citizenship
Four Conceptions of Citizenship
A citizen is both governor and governed. In a republic, the force of arms and all other powers of public authorities, such as political decision-making, government and the administration of justice, are exercised by citizens and their fellow-citizens. Even a political community formally headed by a monarch, as in the case of The Netherlands, where citizens nevertheless determine the course of events, is called a republic.
Although it is nowadays very common, a republic remains a particular and awe-inspiring phenomenon. Citizens within a republic perform functions that were traditionally attributed to others or to outsiders. Armed force and legislation inevitably play a crucial role in the founding of a political community, as well as in the accounts ...