The Complete Guide to RTI: An Implementation Toolkit
Publication Year: 2012
Are you prepared for the RTI evolution?
This comprehensive toolkit will bring you up to speed on why RTI is one of the most important educational initiatives in recent history and sets the stage for its future role in teacher education and practice. The authors demonstrate innovative ways to use RTI to inform instruction and guide curriculum development in inclusive classroom settings. Your RTI implementation team will find strategies, techniques, and checklists for evaluating existing programs and implementing RTI effectively. The text's broad perspective includes:
A concise description of RTI's history and evolution; A leadership framework for school and district administrators; Applications in reading and literacy, mathematics, and behavior support; Guidelines for involving parents, students, and communities
In addition, chapters address progress monitoring, instructional support teams, and creating ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Purpose of the Book
- Design of the Book
- Chapter 1: Keynote: Reasons and Resources for Learning Response to Intervention
- Foundations of Response to Intervention
- Roots of RTI
- Review of RTI
- Chapter 2: Progressing with Progress Monitoring
- The Relationship between PM and RTI
- Tech Byte
- Chapter 3: The Instructional Support Team (IST): A Foundation of the RTI Process
- The Influence of Special Education Law
- The IST as a Vehicle for the Paradigm Shift Needed in RTI
- ISTs, RTI, and a New Paradigm of School Responsibility
- Tech Byte
- Chapter 4: Literacy Instruction: Tier 1
- Oral Language and the Brain
- Written Language and the Brain
- Reading Instruction: The Gap between Knowledge and Practice
- Reading as a Complex Skill
- Reading Instruction in an RTI Framework
- The Present and Future of RTI in Reading
- Tech Byte
- Chapter 5: Literacy Intervention: Tiers 2 and 3
- Literacy and Learning Disabilities
- Research Findings
- RTI in Literacy Instruction
- Literacy Instruction using the Three Tiers of RTI
- Literacy Instructional Tools for RTI
- Tech Byte
- Chapter 6: Mathematics Difficulty or Mathematics Disability? RTI and Mathematics
- Teaching Children Mathematics using RTI as a Framework
- Strategies to Teach Problem Solving in Tiers 1, 2, and 3
- Tech Byte
- Chapter 7: Response to Intervention and Positive Behavior Support
- The Relationship between PBS and RTI
- Applying PBS within an RTI Program
- From Building Blocks to Tiers
- The Future for Miguel and PBS
- Tech Byte
- Chapter 8: Emerging Agendas in Collaboration: Working with Families in the RTI Process
- The Teacher as Professional, the Parent as Consultant
- Resources for Parent–Professional Collaboration
- Tech Byte
- Chapter 9: Leadership: The Role of District and School Administrators in Implementing RTI
- The Growth of RTI in State Education Programs
- A Professional Partnership of Educational Leaders: Their Formal Roles
- Borrowing from Business to Implement an Initial RTI Program
- Tech Byte
- Chapter 10: Managing Time: RTI in the Middle and High School Master Schedule
- Setting the Stage for RTI at the Secondary Level
- Creating the Instructional Support Team at the Secondary Level
- RTI Strategies
- Tech Byte
Copyright © 2012 by Corwin
All rights reserved. When forms and sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities that have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
A catalog record of this book is available from the Library of Congress.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
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This book would not have been possible without the collective efforts of a battalion of individuals with a passion for improving educational opportunities for all children. Many individuals contributed to the knowledge base that is the foundation of the book. We are grateful to the New York State Higher Education Support Center for SystemsChange and Dr. Gerald Mager, Dr. Peter Kosik, Iris Maxon, and Steve Wirt, who developed and maintained a venue to keep us in the company of scholars and the resources to share expertise to improve teacher education and student outcomes.
For Chapter 2, many thanks to colleagues, past and present, who gave their time and expertise to develop the skills and techniques discussed, and to the S3TAIR Project staff and partners for sharing their experiences, which contributed to these best practices.
For Chapter 4, we honor the memory of Alice Koontz, fellow of the Orton-Gillingham Academy; she was a teacher, mentor, and friend.
For Chapter 5, we wish to acknowledge the editing assistance of Dr. Charlotte Rosenzweig.
For Chapter 8, we thank Joanne Cashman and Patrice Linehan of the IDEA Partnership for their mentoring and commitment to communities of practice and collaborative work. Dr. George Goldstein provided expertise and insights into the administrative aspects of parent involvement. Dick Maitland, of the Sesame Street Workshop, was a continual source of inspiration and technical expertise throughout this project. Misty Burch provided valuable research into the implementation aspects of the RTI process.
For Chapter 9, we acknowledge the contributions of Dr. Charlotte Rosenzweig and Dr. Karen Siris.
We heartily thank all of our contributors—Harold J. Dean, Arlene B. Crandall, Erin E. Ax, Lynn Burke, Sarah McPherson, C. Faith Kappenberg, Helene Fallon, Patricia Ann Marcellino, and Lydia Begley for sharing their expertise. We are thankful to all of our past teachers and professors, who assisted us to develop the understandings and habits of mind that resulted [Page ix]in this book, and we offer our regards to Jessica Allan, senior acquisitions editor, Amy Schroller, production editor, and Cate Huisman, copy editor, all at Corwin, who supported us during its completion.
This book would not have been possible without the generous support of President Guiliano and the New York Institute of Technology, which provided a sabbatical that gave Dolores Burton the time to pursue the scholarly core of this book.
Finally, words cannot express the thanks we owe to our spouses, Bernard Burton and Faith Kappenberg, for their patience, encouragement, and assistance throughout this extended labor of love.Publisher's Acknowledgments
Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:
Math & Science Coach
Erin E. Barton
University of Colorado Denver
Sue A. DeLay
Oak Creek-Franklin School District
Oak Creek, WI
Esther M. Eacho
Lisa Graham, NBCT
Program Specialist, Curriculum & Staff Development
Vallejo City Unified School District, Special Education
Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, CA
Lori L. Grossman
A. L. Hough-Everage
Associate Professor of Education
Brandman University, Chapman University System
Kindergarten Teacher (SPED/Social Skills Blended Kindergarten)
Sara Lynne Murrell
Teacher, 5th Grade
Bethel Elementary School
Simpsonville, SC[Page x]
Sandcreek Middle School
Instructional Support Teacher
Ross Elementary School
Dr. Rose Cherie Reissman
Licensed Literacy and ELL Educator, Literacy/ELL Consultant
Chief Academic Officer, Mind Lab
New York, NY
Victor Simon III
John C. Dore Elementary School
Michelle (Drechsler) Strom
Teacher, Language Arts
Carson Middle School
Colorado Springs, CO
Deborah D. Therriault
Special Education Teacher
Clarkston Community Schools, Clarkston High School
Karen L. Tichy
Associate Superintendent for Instruction and Special Education
Archdiocese of St. Louis, Catholic Education Office
St. Louis, MO
Assistant Professor of Educational Psychology
Coastal Carolina University
Director of Academics, Accountability, and Principal Support
Maya Angelou Public Charter Schools and SeeForever Foundation
About the Authors
About the Contributors[Page xiii]
Erin E. Ax, PhD, is a nationally certified school psychologist. Erin obtained her doctorate in school psychology from the University of South Florida, where she collaborated with Reading First schools, the Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR), and community partners in a problem-solving/outcomes-driven approach to service delivery. She has consulted with schools across the country on implementing an RTI model focused on both academic and behavior support. Dr. Ax has served on the adjunct faculty in the master's of education degree programs at Hunter College and Pace University and in the doctoral program in school psychology at City University of New York.
Lydia Begley, EdD, is associate superintendent for educational services of the Board of Cooperative Educational Services, an organization that serves the 56 school districts of Nassau County, Long Island. She has been a public school teacher, a school administrator in public schools, a district superintendent, and an adjunct professor in an educational administration program working with graduate students who are preparing for careers as future administrators. Dr. Begley has presented at local, state, and national conferences on leadership, women in the superintendency, and instructional issues regarding integrated skills and curriculum mapping. Both a practitioner and researcher, her scholarly and research interests include gender issues and women in the superintendency.
Lynn Burke, MS, an educational consultant, works to improve instructional results for learners of written alphabetic languages. Her primary focus is helping teachers to integrate “the missing piece” (i.e., explicit, sequential, cumulative, phonetically based multisensory reading/writing/spelling instruction) into existing language arts curricula. Ms. Burke is currently serving as president of the International Dyslexia Association—Long Island Branch, and is a board member of the Learning Disabilities Association—Long Island Branch.
Arlene B. Crandall, MA, has worked in education for over 30 years as a teacher, school psychologist, special education administrator, and staff [Page xiv]developer for the New York State Education Department. She is one of the authors of the 2009 New York State training resource for the Committee on Special Education/Committee on Preschool Special Education. Ms. Crandall has served as the president of the New York Association of School Psychologists (NYASP) as well as delegate and regional director for the National Association of School Psychologists. She is currently the president of ABCD Consulting, Inc., a company that provides professional development for school districts, and an adjunct instructor in the department of school counseling at New York Institute of Technology.
Harold J. Dean, EdD, is an administrator with the Eastern Suffolk Board of Cooperative Educational Services. A lifelong Long Island resident, he has taught special education in inclusive, self-contained, resource-room, and consultative settings. He has presented locally and nationally on topics including best practices in special education, student intervention, and instructional strategies.
Helene Fallon, MEd, has a background in social work and education with extensive training in advocacy for children and young adults with disabilities. She is the parent of two children with special needs. Working nationally as a professional development specialist, she conducts trainings on many topics, always focusing on collaboration and effective communication in education.
C. Faith Kappenberg, PhD, LCSW, has been a clinical social worker in the fields of autism, child development, special education, psychotherapy, and social work education for over 30 years. She has served on the faculties of Molloy College and Adelphi University teaching practicum supervision, organizational behavior, human development, and psychopathology. Dr. Kappenberg is a founder and clinical director of Westbrook Preparatory School, the first residential therapeutic school in New York serving high functioning adolescents on the autism spectrum.
Patricia Ann Marcellino, EdD, is an associate professor in the Educational Leadership and Technology Program at the Ruth S. Ammon School of Education at Adelphi University. She has cross-disciplinary expertise in the fields of both business and education; she possesses an MBA in management and an MA in education. Dr. Marcellino has experience in both fields as an administrator, instructor, and consultant. Her research agenda includes the development of teams, groups, and partnerships in the areas of distributed leadership, team learning, and professional relationship building. She is the author of numerous papers and presentations on these topics.[Page xv]
Sarah McPherson, EdD, holds a master's in reading and doctorate in special education from Johns Hopkins University. She is chair of the Department of Instructional Technology and Educational Leadership at New York Institute of Technology and current president of the International Society for Technology in Education Special Interest Group for Teacher Education. She is also on the board of directors for the New York Society for Computers and Technology in Education and the Long Island Council of Exceptional Children, and she serves on the Long Island Task Force on Quality Inclusive Schooling. She has written articles and book chapters and has presented at numerous national and international conferences on instructional technology for K–12 inclusive education, universal design for learning, RTI, virtual online education, web 2.0 tools for globalization, and e-portfolios.
This book is lovingly dedicated to Richie and Matt, who have been my inspiration and my joy.
… and to Geoff, Eric, and Kirsten, my dreams for the future.
Epilogue: Why Implement RTI?[Page 196]and
RTI is based on a very simple premise: All children can learn. The goal of RTI is to improve instruction and educational outcomes for all students. Its foundation is three fold: providing high-quality instruction to students, using reliable and valid data to make decisions, and preventing rather than fixing student failure. Attendees at the National Summit on Learning Disabilities, a learning disabilities summit conference convened by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) in August 2001 (Bradley, Danielson, & Hallahan, 2002) endorsed RTI as “the most promising method of alternative identification” and stated that RTI promotes the implementation of effective practices in schools.
Data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) have shown that large percentages of students in the United States are not proficient in reading or mathematics. For example, only 31% of fourth-grade students and 29% of eighth-grade students in the United States were classified as proficient or better on the NAEP reading assessment in 2007. Reid Lyon, Jack Fletcher, and their colleagues (2001) suggested that through early identification and intervention for reading difficulties, the number of children in special education can be reduced by 70%.
Every child who can benefit from special education should, after careful diagnosis and proper assessment, be given the support necessary for him or her to succeed. However, this must be done in a thoughtful way, as only 57% of the students placed in special education graduate from high school, and often they are labeled and segregated from other students, and few ever return to general education (Hosp & Madyun, 2007).
An additional concern is that children from minority groups are over-represented in special education (Stuebing, et al., 2002). Black-White achievement gaps in Grade 4 mathematics existed in 2007 in the 46 states for which results were available, and gaps in Grade 4 reading existed in [Page 197]2007 in the 44 states for which results were available. As educators we have the responsibility to provide educational opportunities to all students regardless of race, gender, or socioeconomic status so they may reach their potential.
The focus of RTI is on improved student outcomes for all students through the provision of high-quality science- or research-based instruction and interventions that are matched to student academic or behavioral needs. Through a multitiered framework, the RTI process enables districts to provide early support and assistance to students who are struggling to attain or maintain grade-level performance. No longer do teachers, parents, and students have to wait for students to fail before interventions can begin. According to the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE), RTI “is a practice of providing high quality instruction and interventions matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals and applying child response data to important educational decisions” (NASDSE, 2006, p. 3).
This book was written to help educators and parents to develop a background in multiple aspects of RTI, from its structure to the content of individual interventions. It was designed with case studies to demonstrate how theory is turned into practice, and it includes resources for continued study on best practices in instruction, assessment, and all components of RTI. It was written in the hope that with informed parents and educators, all students will have the opportunity to reach their potential and succeed in our ever changing global interconnected world. Our children deserve no less.
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