The Challenges of Educational Leadership: Values in a Globalized Age
Publication Year: 2004
This book will help educational leaders and aspiring educational leaders to examine their own values and practice.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: Setting the Context
- Chapter 3: The Global Challenge
- Chapter 4: The Impact of Commodification and Fragmentation
- Chapter 5: The Impact of Standardization and Control
Part 2: Examining the Impact
- Chapter 6: The Impact on Trust
- Chapter 7: The Impact on Truth and Meaning
- Chapter 8: The Impact on Identity
Part 3: Beginning a Response
Leading Teachers, Leading Schools[Page ii]
Series Editor: Alma Harris, Professor of Educational Leadership at the University of Warwick
This series of cutting-edge books on current issues in teaching and school improvement aims to deal with the practical realities of leading and improving schools and classrooms, but through the conceptual and theoretical lenses of teacher development, leadership practice and learning approaches. Each title therefore shows what its subject means for school and classroom improvement.
This series is for teachers, headteachers and all those involved in school and classroom improvement. It is also intended to support Professional Development Opportunities, NCSL courses and MEd/EdD work.
Democratic Leadership in Education
Peter Woods (2004)
Creating the Emotionally Intelligent School
Belinda M. Harris (2004)
The Challenges of Educational Leadership
Mike Bottery (2004)
Teacher Inquiry for School Improvement
Judy Durrant and Gary Holden (forthcoming in 2005)
Leadership for Mortals
Dean Fink (forthcoming in 2005)
© 2004 Mike Bottery
First published 2004
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Paul Chapman Publishing
A SAGE Publications Company
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B-42, Panchsheel Enclave
Post Box 4109
New Delhi 110 017
Library of Congress Control Number: available
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 1 4129 0080 8
ISBN 1 4129 0081 6 (pbk)
Typeset by TW Typesetting, Plymouth, Devon
Printed in Great Britain by Athenaeum Press Ltd, Gateshead
- Table 1.1 Eight Essential Educational Objectives and their dependency on one another. 8
- Table 6.1 What happens when governments don't trust professionals? 103
- Table 6.2 The possible trust relationships between different levels. 116
- Table 6.3 Re-establishing governmental-professional trust. 119
- Table 7.1 The Meeting of Minds? Four approaches to epistemology and their likely opinions of each other. 128
- Table 9.1 Possible Varieties of ‘Learning Communities’ 181
- Table 10.1 Changing views of Public sector educators. 190
- Table 10.2 Two different styles of audit. 193
I have been fortunate to have many friends and colleagues who have helped during the writing of this book. In particular, I would like to single out Chris Sink, Nigel Wright, Derek Webster, Julian Stern and Derek Colquhoun.
I would also like to thank Cambridge Journal of Education, Educational Management and Administration, School Leadership and Management, and the International Journal of Children's Spirituality, for permission to use materials previously published in those journals.
Finally, and as always, my love and thanks to Jill, Christopher and Sarah, for all their support, and for being who they are.
And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.
Matthew, verse 14.
Leadership is back in fashion. Across many western countries there has been a renewed emphasis upon improving leadership capacity and capability in the drive towards higher educational performance and standards. Governments around the world are involved in the business of educational reform and are placing a great deal of emphasis on improving the quality of leadership. Even though there are few certainties about the ability of educational policy to secure higher performance from the educational system, the arguments for investment in education, and particularly educational leadership, remain powerful and compelling.
While the education challenges are considerable and the route to reform is complex, the potential of leadership to influence pupil and school performance remains unequivocal. It has been consistently argued that the quality of headship matters in determining the motivation of teachers and the quality of teaching which takes place in the classroom (Hargreaves, 2003; Crowther, 2000; Day et al., 2000; Fullan, 2001). The importance of leadership in securing sustainable, school improvement has been demonstrated in both research and practice (Harris, 2002; Hopkins, 2001). Consequently, from a policy maker's perspective, school leaders are viewed as holding the key to resolving a number of the problems currently facing schools. This has led to a major investment in the preparation and development of school leaders across many countries and has proved a main impetus for the establishment of the 1National College for School Leadership in England.
Clearly, there is some basis for optimism. The research evidence shows that effective leaders exert a powerful influence on the effectiveness of the school and the achievement of students (Wallace, 2002; Waters et al., 2004). But there is also need for caution. Although the international research base on leadership is vast, the evidential base is very diverse and the nature of studies varies considerably. Yet, there are relatively few studies that have established any direct [Page x]causal links between leadership and improved student performance (Hallinger and Heck, 1996).
1The National College for School Leadership is located at Nottingham University.
This new series focuses predominantly upon the relationship between leadership and learning. It also provides new and alternative perspectives on leadership which offer a direct challenge to the current orthodoxies of school leadership that persist, prevail and still dominate contemporary thinking. This book by Mike Bottery really does trail blaze the message that there are different ways of conceptualizing what leadership is, and should be, within a global society. In an informed but incisive way this book begins to dissect and dismantle some of the prevailing views about leadership, arguing that educational leaders need to engage with the wider, global influences that affect schools and schooling. The ‘socio-cultural context’, says Bottery, needs to embrace far more than the school, the district or even the educational system.
This book considers the supra-educational pressures on schools and locates them at a global, cultural and national level. It critiques educational leadership arguing that it is simultaneously and paradoxically about control and fragmentation. The dualism of centre versus periphery is explored in some depth along with the important but often sidelined issues of trust, meaning and identity within the current educational context and climate. Bottery rightfully relocates these at the heart of educational change, development and reform. The book argues that the main challenge for educational leaders is to respond in a meaningful and authentic way to these issues and in so doing develop new meanings and understandings about their role. It also argues for an alternative model of educational leader who is not only an ethical dialectician who works from a value base with educational vision but who also has considerable political and pragmatic awareness. Such leaders have an internal moral compass which drives their relationships with others and ensures they rarely stray from an agenda focused on learners and learning.
As the first book in a new series, Mike Bottery has provided a rare balance of challenge, critique and pragmatism. It is unlikely that this book will be read and forgotten. In the contemporary climate of designer leadership, lowest common denominator competences and de-contextualized leadership approaches, Mike Bottery has reminded us of the global horizon and the professional, moral and ethical responsibilities of those who lead within our schools. For this alone, The Challenges of Educational Leadership: Values in A Globalized Age should be welcomed.
Alma Harris (Series Editor)
About the Author
Bibliography[Page 215]1996) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism.London: Verso.(1998) ‘Empowerment: the new Emperor's new clothes’, Harvard Business Review, May-June: 98–105.(2002) Education with Character.London: RoutledgeFalmer.(1997) ‘Education, skill formation and economic development: the Singaporean approach’, in A.H.Halsey, H.Lauder, P.Brown and A.S.Wells (eds), Education, Economy, Society.Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 207–18.and (1986) The Evolution of Cooperation.New York: Basic Books.(1999) ‘Global trends in educational reform and the struggle for the soul of the teacher’. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Sussex.(2001) ‘Performativities and fabrications in the education economy’, in D.Gleeson and C.Husbands, The Performing School.London: RoutledgeFalmer. pp. 210–26.(Banks, J. and Banks, C. (eds) (1996) Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives.New York, Chichester: Wiley.1996) Jihad V. McWorld.New York: Ballantine Books.(2000) ‘High expectations and standards for all – no matter what’. Edited version of a speech delivered to the Smith Richardson Foundation in Washington <http://www.tes.co.uk>.(2002) ‘From good to great: large-scale reform in England’. Paper presented for the School Development Conference, Tartu University, Estonia.(2000) Social Capital.Oxford: Oxford University Press., and (1985) Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2003) ‘Can we live together? The ethics of leadership and the learning community’. A paper presented at the BELMAS annual conference, Milton Keynes, October.(1996) ‘From pilgrim to tourist – or a short history of identity’, in S.Hall and P.Du Gay (eds), Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage. pp. 18–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221907([Page 216]1999) ‘Metaphors of educational community: an analysis of the images that reflect and influence scholarship and practice’ Educational Administration Quarterly, 35 (1).(2001) ‘Living your own life in a runaway world: individualization, globalisation and politics’, in W.Hutton and A.Giddens (eds), On the Edge: Living with Global Capitalism.London: Vintage. pp. 164-74.(1995) Banal Nationalism.London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221648.(1995) ‘Breaking out from a masculinist politics of education’, in B.Limerick and B.Linguard (eds), Gender and Changing Educational Management.Hodder: Sydney.(1998) Preface to The Learning Age.London: DFEE.(1992) The Ethics of Educational Management.London: Cassell.(1998) Professionals and Policy.London: Cassell.(2000) Education, Policy, and Ethics.London: Continuum.(2000) Teachers and the State.London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203461372and (1968) ‘The economics of the coming spaceship earth’, in M.Allenby (ed.) (1989) Thinking Green: An Anthology of Essential Ecological Writing.London: Barrie and Jenkins. pp. 133–8.(1997) ‘“Accounting logic” and controlling professionals’, in J.Broadbent, M.Dietrich and J.Roberts (eds), The End of the Professions?London: Routledge. pp. 34–50.and (2001) Capitalism and Social Progress.Basingstoke: Palgrave. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780333985380and (2002) ‘The development of school leadership preparation programmes in England and the USA: a comparative analysis’, Educational Management and Administration, 29 (2): 229–45.(1996) Catholic Schools and the Common Good.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press., and (2002) Trust in Schools.New York: Russell Sage Foundation.and (1992) Charisma and Leadership in Organisations.London: Sage.(1978) Leadership.New York: Harper and Row.(2002) ‘A preparation for school leadership: international perspectives’, Educational Management and Administration, 30 (4): 417–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X020304004and (1982) ‘Romanticism and the consumer ethic: intimations of a Weber-style thesis’, Sociological Analysis, 44 (4): 279–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3711611(2000) ‘Citizenship and nationhood: the constructions of British and American children’, in M.Leicester, C.Modgil and F.Modgil (eds), Education, Culture and Values Vol. VI: Politics, Education and Citizenship.London: Falmer.and (1995) Work, Self and Society.London: Routledge.(2001) ‘“New Age” religion and identity at work’, in M.Dent and S.Whitehead (eds), Managing Professional Identities.London: Routledge. pp. 201–15.(1998) End of Millennium.Oxford: Basil Blackwell.([Page 217]2001) ‘Information technology and global capitalism’, in W.Hutton and A.Giddens (eds), On the Edge: Living with Global Capitalism.London: Vintage. pp. 52–74.(1909) Orthodoxy.London: John Lane Company.(2003) World on Fire.London: William Heinemann.(Clarke, J., Gewirtz, S. and McLaughlin, E. (eds) (2000) New Managerialism, New Welfare?.London: Sage.2000) Faded Mosaic.Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.(1990) ‘Market closure and the conflict theory of the professions’, in M.Burrage and R.Torstendahl (eds), Professions in Theory and History.London: Sage. pp. 24–43.(2002) What is Education for! Democratic Citizenship – Concepts and Practice. <http://www.coe.int/T/e/Cultural-Co-operation/Education/E.D.C/What>.(1921) ‘What I learned about business from Ford’, System Vol. 40.(2000) ‘Leadership for successful school revitalisation: Lessons from recent Australian research’. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA., , and (1988) ‘Trust as a Commodity’, in D.Gambetta (ed.), Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations.Oxford: Basil Blackwell. pp. 49–73.(1999) The Sovereign Individual.New York: Touchstone.and (2000) Leading Schools in Times of Change.Buckingham: Open University Press., , , and (1996) Learning: The Treasure Within.UNESCO.(2001) Schools Achieving Success.London: DES.(2003) Final Report of the External Evaluation of England's National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies.Nottingham: DfES.(1998) Education for Citizenship and the Teaching of Democracy in Schools (The Crick Report). London: Falmer.(1999) National College for School Leadership: A Prospectus.London: DfEE.(1993) Post-Capitalist Society.New York: HarperCollins.(1999) Age Power.New York: Tarcher Putnam.(2001) ‘Characteristics of performative cultures’ in D.Gleeson and C.HusbandsThe Performing School.London: RoutledgeFalmer. pp. 192–209.(1999) The Age of Insecurity.London: Verso.and (1993) The Spirit of Community.London: Fontana.(1997) The New Golden Rule.London: Profile Books.(1995) ‘Getting real about leadership’, Education Week 16 April.(1996) The Human Side of School Change.San Francisco: Jossey Bass.(2000) ‘Inequality and the global economy’, in W.Hutton and A.Giddens (eds) On the Edge: Living with Global Capitalism.London: Vintage. pp. 93–111.and ([Page 218]2001) ‘Questioning the concept of the learning organisation’, in C.Paechter, M.Preedy, D.Scott and J.Soler (eds), Knowledge, Power and Learning.Milton Keynes: Open University Press. pp. 73–83.(2000) ‘“Modernising managerialism” in education’, in J.Clarke, S.Gewirtz, and E.McLaughlin (eds.), New Managerialism: New Welfare?London: Sage. pp. 202–21.(2001) ‘Learning organisation or learning community? A critique of Senge’, Reason in Practice1 (2); 17–29.(2003) ‘Working the soul: the earnest betrayal of high performance schooling’. A paper given at the ESRC seminar series, University of Sussex, October 2003.(2000) ‘Commodifying the emotionally intelligent’, in S.Fineman (ed.) Emotion in Organisations ((2nd edn). London: Sage. pp. 101–14.2001) ‘The two solitudes: policy makers and policy implementers’, in M.Fielding (ed.) Taking Education Really Seriously: Four Years Hard Labour.London: RoutledgeFalmer.(1998) Consuming People: From Political Economy to Theaters of Consumption.London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203449813and (1972) Language and Nationalism.Rowley, MA: Newbury House.(2000) ‘School effectiveness and education indicators’, in D.Reynolds and C.Teddle (eds), International Handbook of School Effectiveness.London: Falmer.(2002) One Market Under God.London: Vintage.(1972) Pedagogy of the Oppressed.Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1962) Capitalism and Freedom.Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1942) The Fear of Freedom.London: RKP(1996) Trust: the Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity.London: Penguin.(1999) The Great Disruption.London: Profile Books.(1992) The New Meaning of Educational Change.London: Cassell.(1997) What's Worth Fighting for in the Principalship? ((2nd edn). New York: Teacher's College Press.2001) Leadingin a Culture of Change.San Francisco: Jossey Bass/Wiley.(2003) The Moral Imperative of School Leadership.Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(1988) ‘Can we trust Trust?’, in GambettaD. (ed.), Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations.Oxford: Basil Blackwell. pp. 213–19.(1990) The Consequences of Modernity.Stanford: Stanford University Press.(2000) ‘Public Services and the Consumer: Empowerment or Control?Social Policy and Administration vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 333–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9515.00194, and (1999) ‘From struggling to juggling: towards a redefinition of the field of educational leadership and management’, Educational Management and Administration, 27 (3): 253–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X990273003([Page 219]2000) ‘The performing school and the modernization of teachers’, in D.Gleeson and C.Husbands, The Performing School.London: RoutledgeFalmer. pp. 139–58.and (2003) ‘Principled principals? Values-driven leadership: evidence from ten case studies of “outstanding” school leadership’, Educational Management and Administration, 31 (2): 127–38., , , and (1994) ‘Education is a public good: on the need to resist the domination of economic science’, in D.Bridges and T.McClaughlin (eds), Education and the Marketplace.London: Falmer. pp. 126–38.(1998) False Dawn.London: Granta.(1997) Education, Globalization and the Nation State.London: Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230371132(1977) Servant Leadership.New York: Paulist Press.(2001) ‘Trust, control and post-bureaucracy’, Organization Studies22 (2): 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0170840601222003and (2000) The Arts of Leadership.Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2003a) The New Work of Educational Leaders.London: Paul Chapman Publishing.(2003b) ‘Leadership: who needs it?’, School Leadership and Management, 23 (3): 267–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1363243032000112784(2001) Leaders and Leadership in Education.London: Paul Chapman.(1996) ‘Reassessing the principal's role in school effectiveness: a critical review of empirical research 1980–1995’, Educational Administration Quarterly, 32 (1): 5–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013161X96032001002and (1989) The Age of Unreason.London: Business Books.(1994) The Empty Raincoat.London: Hutchinson.(1997) The Hungry Spirit.London: Hutchinson.(1994) Changing Teachers, Changing Times.London: Cassell.(2003) Teaching in the Knowledge Society.Milton Keynes: Open University Press.(2002) School Improvement. What's in it for Schools?London: Falmer Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203471968(2003) ‘Teacher leadership as distributed leadership: heresy, fantasy or possibility’, School Leadership and Management, 23 (3): 313–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1363243032000112801(2003) Building Leadership Capacity for School/Improvement.Maidenhead: Open University Press.and (1944) The Road to Serfdom.London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1990) Citizenship.London: Longman.(1989) ‘The decline of the nation state, in S.Hall and M.Jacques (eds) New Times.London: Lawrence and Wishart.(1980) Promoting Moral Growth.New York: Longman., and (2001) The Silent Takeover.London: William Heinemann.(1959) The Motivation to Work.New York: Wiley., and ([Page 220]1990) Nations and Nationalism Since 1780.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2003) Culture's Consequences ((2nd edn). New York: Corwin Press.1996) ‘New modes of control in the public service’, Public Administration, 74 (Spring): 9–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9299.1996.tb00855.x(2000) Postethnic America.New York: Basic Books.(1995) ‘The new public management in the 1980s: variations on a theme’, Accounting, Organisations and Society, 20 (2/3): 93–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0361-3682%2893%29E0001-W(1994) School Improvement in an Era of Change.London: Cassell., and (2001) School Improvement for Real.London: Falmer Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203165799(1998) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order.London: Touchstone.(2001) ‘Anthony Giddens and Will Hutton in conversation’, in W.Hutton and A.Giddens (ed.), On the Edge.London: Vintage. pp. 1–52.(1972) Victims of Groupthink.Boston: Houghton and Mifflin.(2001) ‘Aspects of the “audit society”’, in M.Dent and S.Whitehead (eds), Managing Professional Identities.London: Routledge. pp. 38–60.(1998) Testing Teachers: The Effect of School Inspections on Primary Teachers.London: Falmer Press.and (1996) ‘Trust and technology’, in R.Kramer and T.Tyler (eds), Trust in Organisation.London: Sage. pp. 39–50.(1981) The Philosophy of Moral Development.San Francisco: Harper and Row.(1996) When Corporations Rule the World.London: Earthscan.(Kramer, R. and Tyler, T. (eds) (1996) Trust in Organisation.London: Sage. pp. 39–50.1996) ‘Downshifters: workers are scaling back’, Personnel Journal, 75 (3): 62–76.(1995) The Revolt of the Elites.New York: W.W. Norton.(1998) ‘Models of effective schools: limits and capabilities’ in R.Slee, G.Weiner and S.Tomlinson (eds), School Effectiveness for Whom?London: Falmer. pp. 51–69., and (1998) ‘Who will own the knowledge economy?’, Political Quarterly, 375–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-923X.00173(2002) Open World: The Truth About Globalization.London: Abacus.(1999) Changing Leadership for Changing Times.Buckingham: Open University Press., and (2001) Reforming Education.London: RoutledgeFalmer.(1996) ‘Developing and maintaining trust in work relationships’, in R.Kramer and T.Tyler (eds), Trust in Organisations.London: Sage. pp. 114–40.and (1959) ‘The science of muddling through’, Public Adminstration Review, 19: 78–88.([Page 221]2003) Leading Learning.Maidenhead: Open University Press., , and (1980) Street-level Bureaucrats.New York: Russell Sage Foundation.(2003) ‘Trust and improvement in schools’. Paper presented at BELMAS annual conference, Milton Keynes, October.(1988) ‘Familiarity, confidence, trust: problems and alternatives’, in D.Gambetta (ed.), Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations.Oxford: Basil Blackwell. pp. 94–109.(1999) TurboCapitalism.London: Orion(1950) Conditions of Freedom.London: Faber.(1997) ‘Professionalism and politics’, in J.Broadbent, M.Dietrich and J.Roberts (eds), The End of the Professions?London: Routledge. pp. 140–147.(1950) Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1997) The Global Trap: Globalisation and the Assault on Prosperity and Democracy.London: Pluto Press.and (1954) Motivation and Personality.New York: HarperCollins.(2001) ‘A discourse of the learning society and the loss of childhood’, Journal of Philosophy of Education, 35: 1–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9752.00206(1998) The Sociology of Nationalism.London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203428856(1998) Management and Morality.London: Sage.(2002) In Schools We Trust.Boston: Beacon Press.(1952) ‘Bureaucratic structure and personality’, in R.Merton, A.Gray, B.Hockey and H.Selvin (eds), Reader in Bureaucracy.Glencoe: The Free Press. pp. 361–72.(1996) ‘Swift trust and temporary groups’, in R.Kramer and T.Tyler (eds), Trust in Organisations.London: Sage. pp. 166–96., and (1996) The Witch Doctors.London: Heinemann.and (1997) ‘Leading Professionals’ in J.Broadbent, M.Dietrich and J.Roberts (eds), The End of the Professions?London: Routledge. pp. 50–69.and (2001) ‘Trusting the professional’, in M.Dent and S.Whitehead (eds), Managing Professional Identities.London: Routledge. pp. 19–37.(2002) ‘The developing role of the headteacher in English schools: management, leadership and pragmatism’, Educational Management and Administration, 30 (2) 175–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02611X02030002508, and (2001) Professionalism and Trust – The Future of Teachers and Teaching. A speech given to the Social Market Foundation. London: DES.(1992) Total Quality Management and the School.Milton Keynes: Open University Press.and (1988) Megatrends 2000.London: Sidgwick and Jackson.and ([Page 222]2001) Think Tank Report to Governing Council.Nottingham: NCSL.(2001a) Leadership Development Framework.Nottingham: NCSL.(2003) Annual Review of Research 2002–3.Nottingham: NCSL.(Neef, D. (ed.) (1998) The Knowledge Economy.Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.2003) Leadership: Theory and Practice.London: Sage.(2002) The Paradox of American Power.Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1995) The End of the Nation State.New York: Free Press.(1992) Reinventing Government.New York: Plume.and (1981) Teachers, Professionalism and Class.London: Falmer.and (1999) State Strategies in the Global Political Economy.London: Pinter., and (2001) ‘The romance of lonely dissent’, in M.Dent and S.Whitehead (eds), Managing Professional Identities.London: Routledge. pp. 138–56.(1999) ‘Constructing national identity in a changing world: perspectives in Japanese education’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 20 (4): 6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425699995209(1982) In Search of Excellence.London: Harper and Row.and (2000) Gray Dawn.New York: Three Rivers Press.(1932) The Moral Judgement of the Child.London: RKP(2001) What Pupils say: Changing Policy and Practice in Primary Education.London: Continuum.and (1993) Managerialism and the Public Services ((2nd edn). Oxford: Basil Blockwell.1982) The Logic of Scientific Discovery.London: Hutchinson.(1994) The Audit Explosion.London: Demos.(1997) The Audit Society: Rituals of Verification.Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2000) Bowling Alone.New York: Simon Schuster.(1999) Citizenship.London: DfEE.(Ransom, S. (ed) (1998) Inside the Learning Society.London: Cassell.1991) The Work of Nations.New York: Vintage.(1993) ‘Conversations with a condottiere of administrative value’, Journal of Educational Administration and Foundations, 8 (1).(2000) The Age of Access.London: Penguin.(1993) The McDonaldization of Society.London: Sage.(2004) The Globalization of Nothing.Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press.(1989) Contingency, Irony, Solidarity.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511804397(1992) The Overworked American.New York: Basic Books.([Page 223]1942) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. London: Allen and Unwin.(1997) Modern Philosophy.London: Arrow.(1990) The Fifth Discipline.London: Century Business.(1998) The Corrosion of Character.New York: W.W. Norton & Co.(1994) ‘Organizations or communities? Changing the metaphor changes the theory, Educational Administration Quarterly, 30: 214–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013161X94030002007(1996) Leadership for the Schoolhouse.San Francisco: Jossey Bass.(2001) Leadership: What's in it for Schools?London: RoutlegeFalmer.(1996) ‘The road to Hell: the dynamics of distrust in an era of quality’, in R.Kramer and T.T'yler (eds), Trust in Organisations.London: Sage. pp. 196–216.and (Smart, B. (ed) (1999) Resisting MacDonaldisation.London: Sage.2000) ‘Investigating school leadership practice: a distributed perspective’, Educational Researcher, 30 (3): 23–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X030003023, and (1998) Intellectual Capital.London: Nicholas Brealey.(1999) ‘Can schools be communities’ the tension between shared values and inclusion’, Education Administrator, 35 (1).(2000) ‘Community, coherence and inclusiveness’ A paper given at the 5th Annual Values and Educational Leadership Conference, 28–30 September, Barbados.(1997) Education in Singapore.Singapore: Prentice Hall., and (1957) Community and Society.East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.(2000) ‘Careers under stress: teacher adaptations at a time of intensive reform’, Journal of Educational Change, 1: 253–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010010710255and (1986) Racism, Education and the State.London: Croom Helm. p. 12.and (1943) Elements of Administration.London: Pitman.(2002) The Moral Foundations of Trust.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2002) ‘Modelling distributed leadership and management effectiveness: primary school senior management teams in England and Wales, School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 13 (2): 163–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/sesi.188.8.131.5233(1948) From Max Weber.London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(2002) Personal correspondence.(1996) Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality.London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203421680(2001) ‘Unrecognised exodus, unaccepted accountability: the looming shortage of principals and vice principals in Ontario public school boards’, Queens University School of Policy Studies, Working paper no. 24.([Page 224]1998) One Nation After All. New York: Viking Press. p. 54.(2003) ‘Democratic leadership: drawing distinctions with distributed leadership’, in International Journal of Leadership in Education (in press).(2001) ‘Leadership, “bastard leadership” and managerialism: confronting two paradoxes in the Blair education project’, Educational Management and Administration, 29 (3): 275–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X010293003(1998) ‘Markets and the knowledge economy: is anything broken? Can government fix it?’, Journal of Knowledge Management, 2(1): 32–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000004606(1999) ‘An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories’, Leadership Quarterly, 10 (2): 285-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843%2899%2900013-2(1988) In the Age of the Smart Machine.New York: McGraw Hill.(2003) The Support Economy. London: Allen Lane.and (