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A cutting edge title from two world renowned academics

Forcings
Forcings

Forces external to systems that result in system responses are known as forcing functions or drivers. These are responsible for environmental change that can occur over a range of timescales. Relief sets available energy and tectonic mobility can alter systems whilst exogenetic processes are in operation. Surface forces can be natural or human-induced and can cause change directly or indirectly. Whereas a direct forcing function or driver unequivocally influences systemprocesses, an indirect driver will operate more diffusely by altering one or more direct drivers.

From a geomorphological perspective, dated environmental drivers and changes include: tectonic activity; glacierisation, periglacial and other morphoclimatic systems beyond glacial limits; vegetation changes; eustatic sea level changes; and isostatic crustal adjustments. Characteristically these exhibit lagged relationships with landform responses, and ...

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