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Chapter 9: Force-Resistance
Energy, both kinetic and potential, is derived from solar radiation, gravity, and the Earth's geothermal energy, and is recycled partly through physical and biochemical processes and by human impact. This produces forces that determine the character of major categories of Earth surface processes. Statistical mechanics and gravity-driven fluid forces provide the basis for the analysis of many surface processes, with theoretical understanding assisted by the development of models and the availability of quantitative methods. Ideally mathematical statements would describe a model based on physical principles applicable to all surface processes. Hitherto a hierarchy of models has been employed, many involving force, resistance, stress and strain, progressing to the production of geomorphic transport laws, with models including hybrid indices such as factor of ...