Terrorism and Political Violence
Publication Year: 2015
This book introduces you to the key issues in contemporary studies on Terrorism. Its interdisciplinary approach provides a unique intellectual rigour which introduces readers to cutting-edge research. Bringing together chapters contributed by members of the Terrorism and Political Violence Association network, it offers an insight into a variety of traditional and critical perspectives. It also equips Undergraduate and Postgraduate students with the study skills needed to succeed in coursework and assignments, especially dissertation work. Drawing on the expertise of TAPVA members, this book: • Explores contemporary issues, such as drone warfare, state violence, children and political violence, cyber-terrorism and de-radicalisation. • Features case studies drawn from a range of international examples, lists of further reading, key concepts and questions for use in seminars and private study. • Provides ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- APPROACHING THE STUDY OF TERRORISM AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE
- Chapter 1: Locating Terrorism Studies
- Chapter 2: Terrorism and Ethics
- Chapter 3: A History of Terrorism: Ideology, Tactics and Organization
- Chapter 4: Cyberterrorism: What is it and What Threat Does it Pose?
- Chapter 1: A Critical Approach: Violence, ‘Victims’ and ‘Innocents’
- Chapter 2: A Critical View of Critical Terrorism Studies
- Chapter 3: The Global War on Terror and State Terrorism
- UNDERSTANDING TERRORISM
- Chapter 5: The Root Causes of Terrorism
- Chapter 6: Supporting Terrorism
- Chapter 7: Terrorism, Communication and the Media
- Chapter 4: IEDs, Martyrs, Civil Wars and Terrorists
- Chapter 5: Towards Global Jihadism
- Chapter 6: Living with Terror, Not Living in Terror: The Impact of Chronic Terrorism on Israeli Society
- HOW TERRORISM ENDS
- Chapter 8: How Terrorism Ends
- Chapter 9: Conflict Resolution and Terrorists as Spoilers
- Chapter 10: Individual Disengagement from Terrorist Groups
- Chapter 7: De-radicalization, Disengagement and the Attitudes–Behavior Debate
- Chapter 8: Drone Warfare
- Chapter 1: Study Skills for Dissertations, Essays and Exams
- Chapter 2: Conducting Field Research on Terrorism
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Editorial arrangement © Caroline Kennedy-Pipe, Gordon Clubb and Simon Mabon 2015
Chapter 1 © Simon Mabon 2015
Chapter 2 © Gilberto Algar-Faria 2015
Chapter 3 © Pola Zafra-Davis 2015
Chapter 4 © Lee Jarvis and Stuart Macdonald 2015
Chapter 5 © Nina Musgrave 2015
Chapter 6 © Nicole Ives-Allison 2015
Chapter 7 © Cristina Archetti 2015
Chapter 8 © Sarah Marsden 2015
Chapter 9 © Sophie A. Whiting 2015
Chapter 10 © Paul Gill, Noemie Bouhana and John Morrison 2015
Essay 1 © Marie Breen-Smyth and Samantha Cooke 2015
Essay 2 © James Lutz 2015
Essay 3 © Michael Stohl 2015
Essay 4 © Caroline Kennedy-Pipe 2015
Essay 5 © William Braniff and and Assaf Moghadam 2015
Essay 6 © Dov Waxman 2015
Essay 7 © Gordon Clubb 2015
Essay 8 © Michael Boyle 2015
Resource 1 © Terry Hathaway 2015
Resource 2 © Adam Dolnik 2015
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Notes on Editors and Contributors[Page vii]The Editors
Gordon Clubb is a lecturer in international security at the University of Leeds and is Director of the Terrorism and Political Violence Association. Recently, he has written on the disengagement and de-radicalization of Fatah and the Irish Republican Army.
Caroline Kennedy-Pipe is a professor of war studies at the University of Hull. She is the university lead on maritime and security issues. She has published extensively on these issues and has been quoted in The Guardian as being ‘one of the UK’s leading experts in war’.
Simon Mabon is a lecturer in international relations at the University of Lancaster. He is the author of Saudi Arabia and Iran: Soft Power Rivalry in the Middle East (I.B. Tauris, 2013), Hizballah: From Islamic Resistance to Government (Praeger, 2014, with Gordon Clubb and James Worrall) and British Foreign Policy (Routledge, 2015, with Mark Garnett). He is Director of the Richardson Institute and a research associate with the Foreign Policy Centre.The Contributors
Gilberto Algar-Faria is a politics PhD candidate within the School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies at the University of Bristol and a research associate at the Foreign Policy Centre.
Pola Zafra-Davis is an EH Carr and international postgraduate research scholar in conflict and security/international relations theory at Aberystwyth University. She holds a BA (Hons) in european social and political studies at University College London and an MSc in international relations (research) from the London School of Economics and Political Science.
Lee Jarvis is a senior lecturer in international security at the University of East Anglia. Recent books include Times of Terror: Discourse, Temporality and the War on Terror (Palgrave, 2009), Terrorism: A Critical Introduction (Palgrave, 2011, with Richard Jackson, Jeroen Gunning and Marie Breen Smyth), Cyberterrorism: [Page viii]Understanding, Assessment and Response (Springer, 2014, with Stuart Macdonald and Tom Chen) and Counter-Radicalisation: Critical Perspectives (Routledge, 2015, with Christopher Baker-Beall and Charlotte Heath-Kelly).
Stuart Macdonald is an associate professor in law at Swansea University. He has written a number of articles on counterterrorism legislation and policy, which have been published in leading journals in the UK, USA and Australia, and is co-editor (with Lee Jarvis and Tom Chen) of Cyberterrorism: Understanding, Assessment and Response (Springer, 2014).
Marie Breen-Smyth is a professor of international politics at the University of Surrey. She has written and researched political violence, including its impact on civilian populations, and is one of the initiators of a critical approach to terrorism studies. Her interests in international intervention include processes of militarization and demilitarization, transnational justice, armed conflict and children.
Samantha Cooke is a PhD research candidate and teaching assistant in the School of Politics, University of Surrey. Her research currently focuses on women’s marital rights in the Middle East.
James Lutz is a professor of political science at Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne. He has published a number of books, articles, and chapters on various aspects of terrorism, often in collaboration with Brenda J Lutz.
Michael Stohl is a professor of communication and Director of the Orfalea Center for Global and International Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He is the author or co-author of more than a hundred scholarly journal articles and book chapters, and the author, editor or co-editor of 15 books which focus on political violence, terrorism and human rights.
Nina Musgrave is a PhD candidate in the Department of War Studies at King’s College, London. Her research focuses on Hamas and political violence in the Middle East.
Nicole Ives-Allison is a teaching fellow (temporary) with the Handa Centre for Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV) at the University of St Andrews. Her research interests include political violence in Northern Ireland, the social organisation of violent groups and the politics of American street-gang violence.
Cristina Archetti is an associate professor in politics and media at the University of Salford, UK. She is the author of Understanding Terrorism in the Age of Global Media: A Communication Approach (2012, Palgrave). Her research interests cover the intersection between security, politics and strategic communication. She serves on the editorial board of the journal Critical Studies on Terrorism and has been teaching the master’s-level course Terrorism and the Media since 2008.
William Braniff is the Executive Director of the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). He previously served as Director of Practitioner Education for West Point’s Combating Terrorism Center, in the [Page ix]nuclear counterterrorism field with the Department of Energy, and as an officer in the United States Army.
Assaf Moghadam is an associate professor and Director of the MA program in Government at the Lauder School of Government at the Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya (IDC). He is also Director for Academic Affairs at the International Institute for Counter-Terrorism at IDC, and a Fellow at the Combating Terrorism Center at West Point.
Dov Waxman is a professor of political science, international affairs and Israel studies at Northeastern University and Co-director of its Middle East Center. His research focuses on Israeli foreign and security policy and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. He is the author of The Pursuit of Peace and the Crisis of Israeli Identity: Defending/Defining the Nation (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006) and Israel’s Palestinians: The Conflict Within (Cambridge University Press, 2011, with Ilan Peleg).
Sarah Marsden is a lecturer at the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV). Her research interests revolve around conceptualizing and explaining the development, evolution and, in particular, the decline of terrorism and collective violence. Her work explores how political and cultural opportunity structures interact with the historical and organizational features of oppositional groups to produce particular outcomes.
Sophie A. Whiting is a lecturer in politics. Her research interests lie in the areas of Northern Irish politics, media discourse and conflict resolution, with particular focus on contemporary security and government responses to `spoiler’ violence during peace processes and the role of gender in post-conflict reconstruction. Most recently Sophie is author of `Spoiling the Peace? The threat of dissident republicans to peace in Northern Ireland’, to be published by Manchester University Press in early 2015.
Paul Gill is a lecturer in security and crime science at University College, London. His research examines terrorism: its causes, patterns and the actors that perpetrate terrorist attacks. His currently published research demonstrates the heterogeneous profiles of terrorists, their developmental pathways into terrorism, the behaviours that precede and underpin a terrorist attack, how terrorists fit into a wider structure and how particular group influences act to condition individuals to engage in violence.
Noemie Bouhana is a lecturer in security and crime science at the Jill Dando Institute, University College London. She is interested in the systemic and ecological processes involved in the emergence of radicalizing settings, and the role that these settings, in turn, play in individuals developing a terrorist propensity.
John Morrison is a senior lecturer in criminology and criminal justice at the University of East London. His research interests are Northern Irish terrorism, dissident Irish republican terrorism, political-organizational theories of terrorism, splits in terrorist organizations, the psychology of terrorism, international terrorism and counterterrorism strategies.
[Page x]Michael Boyle is an associate professor of political science at La Salle University in Philadelphia. His most recent book is Violence after War: Explaining Instability in Post-Conflict States (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014).
Terry Hathaway completed his PhD on corporate power and US oil dependence in September 2013 at the University of Leeds and has since held temporary posts at the Universities of Leeds, Salford and, currently, Sheffield.
Adam Dolnik is PhD and professor of terrorism studies at the University of Wollongong in Australia, and a former professor of counterterrorism at the George C. Marshall Center for European Security Studies in Germany. In the past, Dolnik has also served as Chief Trainer at the International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research (ICPVTR) in Singapore, and as a researcher at the Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism Research Project at the Monterey Institute of International Studies in California and at the United Nations Terrorism Prevention Branch in Vienna. Dolnik has delivered lectures and training courses on terrorism and hostage negotiation for various governmental and nongovernmental organizations and agencies in over 50 countries, and regularly conducts field research in challenging environments (i.e. North Caucasus, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uganda, Sudan, Southern Philippines, DRC, Colombia, etc.) Dolnik’s books include Understanding Terrorist Innovation: Technologies, Tactics, and Global Trends (Routledge, 2007) Negotiating Hostage Crises with the New Terrorists (Praeger Security International, 2007), Terrorism Field Research: A Guide (Routledge, 2013), Negotiating the Siege of Lal Masjid (Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2015), as well as over 50 reports and articles on terrorism related issues. He is also a trained hostage negotiator with practical experience in overseas kidnap management.
At the Horizon Scanning 21st Century Insecurities conference in London, 2013, I spoke of the need to broaden our approach to terrorism and look at it in a wider context. For example, the micro-level focus on individuals in order to explain radicalization has deflected attention from factors on the meso-level such as the role of radicalized constituencies and, on the macro-level, the role of government. If a reporter described a tennis match only in terms of what happens on one side of the court we would rightfully be dissatisfied. Yet that has too often been the situation when it comes to the study of terrorism: one side is covered and not the other, nor the interaction between terrorists and state actors. In my keynote address I also pleaded for the firmer incorporation of terrorism studies into the study of armed conflicts as well as social-movement studies because terrorism thrives on conflict and is often the work of fringe groups of larger social movements. I also emphasized that terrorism is not the same as political violence but a sub-category of the latter and in some contexts the peacetime equivalent of war crimes.
Looking at the contents of this volume, I am pleased to see that the authors of Terrorism and Political Violence have taken up some of these suggestions and put terrorism in a broader context. There has been some criticism about the quality of terrorism studies but, having surveyed the literature for three decades, I have seen considerable improvements in the years since 9/11. Yet more needs to be done: cooperation between different academic disciplines needs to be improved, and collaboration with the intelligence community needs to be sought, since working with open-source data is often not enough and fieldwork is sometimes too dangerous.
As academic research progresses in various directions, it is of great importance that students of terrorism and political violence become aware of emerging issues and debates. University students – whether they are studying on an undergraduate or postgraduate course – will appreciate that this book seeks to involve them in the conceptual and methodological challenges with which researchers are confronted. The chapter authors critically but constructively analyse key issues, as well as governmental efforts to combat terrorism. By building on the strengths of the UK’s network of terrorism researchers – one of ten national networks under the flag of the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI) – Terrorism and Political Violence provides the reader with a solid basis for both coursework and research.
During the course of the 18 months that it has taken to write this book we have interacted with a large number of people operating in and around the study of terrorism and political violence. A great deal of this took place at the Terrorism and Political Violence Association’s Horizon Scanning 21st Century Insecurities conference in London in the summer of 2013. The conference was attended by numerous individuals from different professions and backgrounds, all with a shared interest in gaining a better understanding of terrorism and political violence in the twenty-first century. The insights gained from the conference were invaluable when compiling this volume. The conference stressed the need to put terrorism and political violence within a broader context and to draw upon expertise from a wide range of subjects. We have also drawn contributions from the UK, the US, Germany and Israel. This interaction of backgrounds and nationalities provides the reader with the depth of analysis necessary to understand contemporary terrorism and political violence. It is stronger for being able to do so.
This book would not have been possible without the hard work of a great many people. Collectively, we would like to thank three groups of people. Firstly, and most importantly, we wish to thank all of the authors for contributing to the volume. We thank you for your work, your patience and your understanding as we negotiated the tricky terrain of editing. Secondly, we would like to thank our team of researchers in TAPVA, who have been an invaluable source of help, energy and enthusiasm. Our thanks go to Bansri Buddhdev, Ruth Anne Coxon, Hannah Croft, Beth Gooding, Stuart Halliwell, Adam Leake, Hannah Martin, Jonathan Martin, Rebecca Shapiro, Alice Shipsey and Irina Sukhoparova. Lastly, we would like to thank our publishers, SAGE, in particular Natalie Aguilera and James Piper, for their support and encouragement throughout the process.