Teaching Science with Interactive Notebooks
Publication Year: 2010
Packed with student samples, this resource describes how to implement interactive notebooks in the inquiry-based science classroom, including execution, time management, and grading.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
To my entire family for their love and support during the long labor of writing this book.
Especially Darrell D. Miller, my first coach, my first teacher, my first friend, and always my Daddy.
And Sandra Teresa Miller, whose struggle through life taught me how to fight, never give up, and persevere.
Marissa, you are my inspiration!
Copyright © 2010 by Corwin
All rights reserved. When forms and sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities that have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Teaching science with interactive notebooks/Kellie Marcarelli.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-5403-7 (pbk.)
1. Science—Study and teaching. 2. School notebooks. I. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
10 11 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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Like many teachers, I was left on my own when I began teaching ninth-grade earth science in junior high school. In my excitement to do well, I looked for activities and strategies that would help my students learn science. My method of teaching science courses provided some fundamentals, and the textbook helped. But, student motivations and interest emerged as an issue when I had my own classroom. It would have been great to have suggestions that would help me improve. Well, now there is just such a resource.
Kellie Marcarelli's Teaching Science With Interactive Notebooks provides teacher-friendly, practical strategies that all science teachers can use. Kellie's writing conveys her enthusiasm for teaching her students science. Reading the book is like having a professional discussion with a colleague and having that individual describe practical strategies and methods.
The use of interactive note books in science classes is deceptively simple yet profoundly rich in the many ways it can enhance student learning. Let me give some examples. In this age of accountability, science teachers try to find ways to develop literacy skills such as writing—interactive notebooks in science will complement this. Teachers search for ways to incorporate learning outcomes related to scientific inquiry—interactive notebooks do this. Science teachers look for opportunities that will help students develop some of the skills needed in a 21st century workforce—and interactive notebooks do this.
I was impressed with something else Ms. Marcarelli did in her book. She cited research that supported many of her strategies and recommendations. She conveyed her odyssey of searching for new and better ways to help students learn only to find that researchers have confirmed her discoveries. Her discussions and explorations provide an excellent model for all science teachers.
The book is rich with examples and illustrations. All are well placed, appropriate, and elaborate the points being made in the text. I encourage you to slow down and look carefully at the examples. They are a wonderful complement to the text.
I cannot resist mentioning one other feature of this book. Kellie aligns her instruction and her use of notebooks with the BSCS 5E Instructional Model. Ms. Marcarelli walks the talk of implementing useful, research-based ways to integrate a variety of instructional strategies.
I am honored that Kellie Marcarelli asked me to write a brief foreword to her book. I found reviewing the book and preparing this foreword an insightful conversation with a colleague. Her enthusiasm for science and students, her understanding of teaching and learning, and her communication with teachers are all wonderful features of Teaching Science With Interactive Notebooks. You should read and use this book!
Executive Director (Emeritus) BSCS[Page x]
[Page xii]An interactive science notebook is a highly beneficial learning tool that develops students’ communication skills, cognitive organization skills, and sense of responsibility for their own learning. The idea behind interactive notebooks is to engage students in collaborative inquiry as a way of learning science content. Using the notebooks, students record their observations, ideas, and thinking, and they reflect on their learning in a variety of interactive ways. In addition, students can use the interactive notebooks to self-assess their work while gaining interdisciplinary skills and making connections across subject areas.
Students’ own feelings about the benefits of using their interactive notebooks are telling. Abdullah, an eighth grader, wrote, “For me, the notebook shows a progression over the year and organizes all my thoughts and data into one place. This way it is much easier to compare results and correct errors.” Nils, also an eighth grader, said, “My notebook allows me to show what I think. Being able to draw out and describe what I am thinking allows me to more vividly express my thoughts or opinions.”
Students enjoy the freedom to express ideas learned from the curriculum in a way that is unique and makes meaning for them. Teachers use interactive notebooks to better understand where a student is coming from, what he or she is thinking, and what drives that thinking.
I have been using interactive notebooks in my middle-school science classroom for more than 14 years. I originally developed the idea for using interactive notebooks after attending an Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) conference and have been modifying their use with my students ever since. I am passionate about the use of interactive notebooks because I have seen how they can be powerful tools to increase student learning. Using interactive notebooks has changed my practice, and I have become a strong advocate for their use.
In this book, I explain how interactive notebooks work in my classroom. My goal is to provide a guide for science educators who want to use interactive notebooks with their students in order to enhance the learning experience. I also hope to offer new strategies to teachers who have been using interactive notebooks and want to take their students’ notebooking to new levels.How this Book is Arranged
Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the use of interactive notebooks in the classroom. I explain how notebooks are used, discuss the benefits of using notebooks, and examine what research shows about using notebooks.
Chapter 2 looks at how the organization of notebooks promotes learning. Here, I unpack the unique features that make the use of interactive notebooks more effective than the use of conventional notebooks in the science classroom.
Chapter 3 offers guidance for promoting students’ buy in and ownership of their interactive notebooks.
Chapter 4 shows how interactive notebooks are used in the classroom for both teacher-guided work as well as student-generated work. This chapter includes a discussion of metacognitive thought processes and examples of student learning and understanding.
[Page xiii]Chapters 5 and 6 describe the nuts and bolts of implementing interactive notebooks in the classroom. These chapters provide in-depth guidance for execution, time management, and grading the notebooks.
Chapter 7 emphasizes the importance of writing in science, provides strategies for modeling writing, and includes student examples. This chapter also introduces protocols for engaging students in self-reflective writing and thesis papers to solidify, extend, and express their learning. Chapter 7 also explores strategies for assessing student work.
Chapter 8 explores strategies to encourage students to talk and discusses the importance of collaborating with peers in order to expand their knowledge of scientific concepts.
Chapter 9 concludes the book with a review of the benefits of interactive notebooks.Special Features
There are numerous examples of actual student work as well as checklists, timemanagement tips, and more. Reproducible pages are included in the Resources section at the end of this book.Who this Book is For
This book is designed as a tool for science educators who are interested in improving student content and process skills while promoting student engagement and understanding. Although I am a middle school teacher, other teachers have used this model successfully with elementary and high school students. Novice teachers have embraced these techniques and also experienced success. The book is designed as a working resource for teachers, just as interactive notebooks are a working resource for students. I encourage you to fill this book with your own ideas on sticky notes or in the margins, your reflections, highlighted key ideas, and taped-in student work samples.Next Steps
Throughout this book, I share my processes and offer tips about what worked for me. Of course, you should feel free to adapt these ideas to meet the needs of your own students and teaching situation. I encourage you to read and reflect upon the processes and ideas in this book and then just do it—get your interactive notebooks up and running. Although the process I describe begins with a new school year, you certainly don't need to wait for a new school year to start. Any new science unit provides the perfect opportunity to begin using interactive science notebooks and harnessing their power as a learning tool.[Page xiv]
The inspiration for this book came from amazing students and the discoveries they make each day in the classroom, along with the equally amazing teachers who get to be witness to these miracles when they happen in class. I am grateful for the students I have had the pleasure to teach throughout the years, especially those who attended Pershing and Challenger Middle Schools in San Diego Unified School District. Victoria and Howard Nguyen, Ana Segovia, Valeria Rosas, Tori Maches, and Sara Shah, your awesome notebooks are works of art, filled with deep thinking and profound connections. Thank you for sharing your work with anyone who reads this book. To the inspirational teachers that I have had the pleasure of working with, thank you for sharing your vision, experience, collaboration, and love for teaching.
To the mentors and advisors in my community, who have taught me so much about everything from leading to teaching, especially, Kim Bess, Don Whisman, Kathy DiRanna, Rodger Bybee, Joseph A. Taylor, Nancy Taylor, Janet Powell, Nancy Landes, Jim Short, Bob Hamm, Geoff Martin, Sarah Sullivan, Sheelagh Moran, Sam Wong, and Penney. Thank you for believing in me and providing an opportunity for me to continually grow.
For revising my work and helping me to think critically, I thank Susan Benson, Jeremiah Potter, Aaron Rubin, Rick Budzynski, Heather Nellis, Carleen Hemric, Felicia Ryder, Kerry Yates, Jean Ward, Frank Calantropio, and Anna Lubatti. You have all made a profound difference!
Finally, for their continued support throughout this grueling process, Ralph, Marissa, Nana, Erica, John, Dolly, Dad, Anna, Alex, D., Jamie, Lisa, Ricky, Rachael, Lauren, Randy, Ree, Don, Sonia, Frank, Kendall, Ken, Joan, Melisa, Don B., Kiera, Lee, Lisa, Angelina, Dylan, Maureen, Kay, Lina, Joey, Michelle, Joanne, Joseph, Sebastion, Nicole Buchanan, Lance Justice, Kim Luttgen, Tammy Moriarty, Rick Barr, Dan Grendziak, Terry Allinger, Daniel Cook, Princess Rostrata, Gerald Gapusan, Andrea Pfaff, Kathleen Blair, Scott Hillier, Jim Rohr, John Yochelson, Jack Annala, Kathy Jones, Michael Harris, Jackie Gallaway, Jennifer Weibert, Panera Bread Company—for allowing me sit in their restaurant and write for hours—and Linda Lotze (who didn't tattle on me when I ditched school to finish this book).
Special thanks to San Diego Unified School District; San Diego County Office of Education; K–12 Alliance; WestEd; the authors of Interactions in Physical Science, especially Sharon Bendall and Fred Goldberg; AVID, and BSCS (Biological Sciences and Curriculum Study). Thanks to Jean Ward for editing my manuscript and helping me get a contract with Corwin. Thank you, Corwin, for all your support throughout the process, especially Cathy Hernandez, managing editor.
[Page xvi]Disclaimer: My brain has gone to mush, and I would like to apologize in advance for not mentioning any person I am forgetting to mention. Whoever you are, you were fabulous, and I will probably remember you after the acknowledgments have long been sent to the editor.Publisher's Acknowledgments
Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following individuals:
Michael Baker, Eighth-Grade Science Teacher
Memorial Middle School
John Burns, Middle School Science Teacher
Visiting Lecturer, Department of Education
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Cindy Corlett, Eighth-Grade Science Teacher
Cimarron Middle School
Steve DeAngelis, Middle School Science Teacher
Marancook Community School
Hubert Dyasi, Professor Emeritus, Science Education
City College of New York
Susan Harmon, Technology/FACS Science Teacher
Neodesha Junior/Senior High School
Jane Hunn, Middle School Science Teacher
Tippecanoe Valley Middle School
Sally Koczan, Science Teacher
Meramec Elementary School
Deb Las, Middle School Science Teacher
John Adams Middle School
Susan Leeds, Teacher/Science Curriculum Leader
Howard Middle School
Winter Park, FL
Maria Mesires, Seventh-Grade Science Teacher
Case Middle School
Jeanine Nakakura, Gifted and Talented Resource Teacher
Judith Onslow, Middle School Science Teacher
Girdwood Elementary/Junior High School
Charre Todd, Middle School Science Teacher
Norman Junior High School
About the Author
Resource A: Reproducibles[Page 153][Page 154]Interactive Notebook RubricReproducible 1Aha Connections Visual Outline[Page 155]Reproducible 2[Page 156]Words of Wisdom about the Aha Connections Visual Outline
Scientists gather evidence from many sources, including investigations, research, experts, visuals, and other resources. This evidence often supports and or refutes other lines of evidence. The goal of this approach to immersion and interactive notebooks is to allow students to gather information from many sources in order to critically answer scientific problems.Trigger
A trigger is a spark of interest that leads students to their question or big problem. In order to allow students an opportunity to find this spark, students need to be given time to do observations. (Visual observations, asking questions, reading, watching educational videos, interviewing scientists, etc.) This provides an opportunity for buy in for all students.Big Problem
Students think about their readings, visual observations, and so on, and start forming questions. These questions are summarized into one big problem or question that students can now investigate.Lines of Evidence
Students can gather evidence from many sources. The rectangular boxes list these sources of evidence. Often, students of science get their evidence primarily from lab experiments; however, there are other sources that can be used to support or refute evidence found during experimentation. Lines of evidence include but are not limited to investigations, research, consulting experts, visuals, simulations, and other resources.Compilation of Evidence
Students gather all lines of evidence and find connections or conflicts among pieces of information. As students are compiling this information, they may find that there are holes in their evidence and they need to do more research.The Aha Thesis
The students take all of the evidence that they have collected and compile it into a formal writing piece. The end result should be a multiparagraph essay with an introductory paragraph, body paragraphs that summarize each line of evidence, and a closing paragraph. Students can use the lines of evidence as stems for writing their big idea thesis.
Reproducible 3[Page 157]Why We Keep Interactive Notebooks in Science
To keep an interactive notebook you will need:
- An 8 ½″ × 11″ spiral notebook with at least 70 pages (college ruled is preferred, and without perforated pages is best)
- Colored pencils, crayons, and highlighters
- A small pair of scissors
- A pen and pencil with an eraser
You will be using your interactive notebook in class every day to help you learn new science concepts and to help you make connections to those concepts. Your interactive notebook will also help you organize your thoughts in a fun and creative way.
Reproducible 4[Page 158]Interactive Notebook Thinking ProcessesReproducible 5[Page 159]Constructing the Aha Connections PagesReproducible 6[Page 160]How to Write an Aha Connections ThesisWhat is an Aha Connections Thesis?
It is a thesis paper, generated by you, that addresses the Big Aha or big problem of the unit, using evidence gathered along the way.
- Let's get started by gathering what you need.
- Go back to the aha connections pages in your interactive notebook.
- Look for the key ideas or concepts you identified from the unit.
- Which lines of evidence best support these key ideas?
- You are now going to use these lines of evidence in your thesis to support your key points.
- Now, begin by writing your introductory paragraph.
- Introductory paragraph:
- State the purpose of the unit and the key ideas and concepts learned. (Hint: That's what you just identified in the four bullets above.)
- Introductory paragraph:
- Now you are ready to write the body of your thesis.
- Body paragraphs of the thesis (usually three to five paragraphs):
- In each of the following paragraphs, give details on one of the key ideas chosen from above.
- Use your lines of evidence from your aha connections pages to support your thinking.
- (Hint: There is no need to reinvent the wheel; use your own words from the aha connections pages in your interactive notebook.)
- Body paragraphs of the thesis (usually three to five paragraphs):
- You are almost there—time to wrap it up.
- Final paragraph—conclusion:
- Restate your purpose from the thesis statement.
- Give your thesis the “Hollywood” wrap up.
- Leave a final impression on the reader.
- Final paragraph—conclusion:
Reproducible 7[Page 161]How to Write a Self-Reflection
You will be expected to write a reflective essay at the end of each unit that shows your in-depth understanding about the work you are doing. Be honest and open in sharing your thoughts and opinions.
Step 1: Count the number of the assignments we have completed for this unit, and record it at the top of your reflection.
Step 2: Choose four pages from this unit that best supported the Big Aha in your unit thesis, two from the left side and two from the right side, and list them on your reflection below the assignment count.
Step 3: You will now be writing three paragraphs.
- Paragraph 1: Write specific reasons for why you chose the four assignments that you listed.
- Paragraph 2: Explain why these pages best support your unit thesis. Give specific examples.
- Paragraph 3: What do these assignments reflect about your skills as a student? For example, you may write that they show that I am organized, I am good at analyzing, I was very thorough, creative, my information was very accurate, I made connections from one assignment to another, and so on. Make sure that you cite specific examples from the pages you listed.
Step 4: This will be Paragraph 4. In this paragraph, you will rate your own notebook. Use the rubric to rate your work as a 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, or 5. How do you think your notebook measures up and why? Use specifics from the rubric, and relate it directly to the pages you listed. (Use examples.)
Step 5: This will be Paragraph 5, the last paragraph of your reflection. Hurray! Answer the following questions:
- What information did you learn that was new to you? Give specific examples.
- How did your notebook help you in this unit? Again, be specific.
- How could you improve your notebook? Please explain.
Please type your final draft, and tape it as a flip page in your interactive notebook as specified by your teacher.
Reproducible 8[Page 162]Table of Contents for Your Interactive NotebookReproducible 9
Resource B: Crosscurricular Connections[Page 163]
When students are able to make crosscurricular connections and applications of knowledge and skills, powerful learning can result. I have seen many examples in which students were able to carry over skills that we were practicing in science to other classes. Many of the strategies used in notebooks—questioning, summarizing, analyzing, visualizing, pair discussions, evaluating, connecting, interpreting, sharing, and so on—apply to all disciplines and are used to greater and lesser degrees by all teachers. These strategies stand out in the notebooks because they are present on every page every day. Students benefit when we help them become aware that these strategies crossover and realize that they can, for example, apply the same criteria to summary writing in English that they use in science.
In the case of one student, Andy Risser, his math teacher, Mr. Budzynski, and his science teacher, Ms. Marcos, thought that if the graphing strategies that were introduced in science were reinforced in his math class, Andy might have a greater understanding for the concepts that Mr. Budzynski was trying to get his students to grasp. They chose one student because tracking multiple students can become overwhelming, and they felt that the strategies they wanted to focus on would benefit all students in math, even though they were only going to monitor one student. The teacher team chose graphing because the student work that they expected to generate would easily provide evidence of whether the student understood or made the crossover from one content area to another.
In science, the students were taught some basic graphing criteria. The teacher modeled the x and y-axis and pointed out that the IV (independent variable) always goes on the x-axis, and that the DV (dependent variable) always goes on the y-axis. The class discussed what IV and DV are, or how one might identify which should be which in a given experiment. With encouragement from the teacher, the students came up with some prompts to help them identify the IV and DV: “I control …, I change …” for the IV, and “I have no control, it is what it is” for the DV. They practiced how to set up data tables and deciding which type of graph to use when—which is harder than most people think and requires explicit instruction for students to learn. The main focus of instruction and criteria for success in the science class became the graph title, labels, and summary, which was called the “This Graph Shows …” All of this was very similar to what they were already doing in math class. The main difference was the vocabulary and the “This Graph Shows …” After their instruction, both teachers felt that the students could follow the basic format but that they had difficulty explaining what the graph represented. The other problem was that the students thought that in science, we do it this way; and in math, we [Page 164]do it that way. A graph is a graph, it doesn't matter what class you are in, but the students repeatedly left the summary and title off in math and just rewrote the title as a summary in science. For example, one student group wrote, “This graph shows that the length of the string on a pendulum makes a difference when it swings back and forth 10 times.” A summary that would show more analysis of what was observed would sound something like, “This graph shows that the longer the string, the more time it took for the pendulum to swing back and forth 10 times. I know this because in the graph, the line keeps increasing as the length of the string increases,” which, in fact, is what the same group wrote three days later, after rewriting their “This Graph Shows …” summary.
Both teachers reinforced this emphasis on analysis in the summary during the month of November. At the end of January, two months later, the math teacher assigned the graphing task in Figure B.1.Figure B.1 Notice how the task is very basic; there is no mention of titles, IV, DV, labeling, or “This Graph Shows …” The students were given a set of numbers and asked to find the best-fit line.
An amazing thing happened! From these instructions came Andy's graph, seen in Figure B.2.[Page 165]Figure B.2 Notice how Andy labeled his x and y-axes, used the proper format for his title, “How does the IV affect the DV,” and more important, automatically included his “This Graph shows …” summary without the prompt. Not only is it there, it is also beautiful! He explains what you see and uses specific examples to show why you see that. This improvement is boldfaced, black and white, right in front of us.
This graph shows that the longer the whale measures, the more it weighs. For example, at 40 it weighs 25 long tons, but at 55 feet it weighs 51 long tons. Another example is at 42 feet it weighs 29 long tons but at 45 feet it weighs 34 long tons.
These graphing strategies were reinforced by the teachers in the two classes, and it can be argued that it was the teachers that caused the change. However, I believe it was the interactive notebooks that made the ultimate difference because it was the notebook work that kept the reinforcement fresh in the minds of the students throughout the two months that elapsed in between. Remember, the teachers only focused on graphing crossover in November. After November, there was no mention of the crossover strategies in the math class. However, in science, six separate tasks generated graphs. Students were required to comply with the graphing criteria on all assignments, which they did. Two months later in math class, there was no mention of such criteria. Andy automatically made the connection and crossed over, taking skills from science into math.
Four months later, in May, two students who were struggling with making meaning in math produced the graphs in Figure B.3.[Page 166][Page 167]Figure B.3 The students who created this graph and the one on the next page were able to apply the graphing strategies that they learned in science to their math assignment four months later. They did not lose the new knowledge that they had gained; in fact, the explanation of the graph that is represented in the “This Graph Shows …” summary is even better than ever. The students show an understanding of the data, and they are able to articulate what they know. The teachers were able to obtain sustainability when it comes to graphing skills.
[Page 168]There is a significant difference between the graphs that students generated in October and the graphs that they completed in May. One striking and wonderful result is that when students were asked to generate a graph in math, they incorporated the strategies that they learned in science and used them in a math assignment. The overall graphing skills improved in both classes as well. Each time students were asked to create a graph, they had previous graphs in their notebook to which they could refer. They also had their criteria, which were written in their notebook, to use each time they made a graph. Again, if it weren't together in one place for the student, the connection, the consistency, and the reinforcement of the important habit of referring back to previous learning to build new learning would have been lost. I believe that the notebook is essential for students to make strong connections from one concept to another and for helping students to both consciously and unconsciously crossover the ideas that they learn in one class to another class.
References and Further Reading[Page 169]2006). Seamless assessment in science: A guide for elementary and middle school teachers. Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association Press., & (2002, Summer). Helping English learners increase achievement through inquiry-based science instruction. Bilingual Research Journal, 26 (2), 213–239., , & (American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy. New York: Oxford University Press.1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80 (2), 139–148., & (2002). Learning science and the science of learning: Science educator's essay collection. Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2505/9780873552080(2007). Teaching secondary school science: Strategies for developing scientific literacy (, , & (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.2003). Science notebooks. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann., & (2005). How students learn science in the classroom. Washington, DC: National Academy Press., & (2005, December). Five good reasons to use science notebooks. Science & Children, 43 (3), 28–32., & (1994). Reading and writing to learn science: Achieving scientific literacy. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31 (9), 1057–1073. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660310915, & (2008). Highlights from TIMSS 2007: Mathematics and science achievement of U.S. fourth-and eighth-grade students in an international context. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education., , , , , & (2003). Science notebooks: Tools for increasing achievement across the curriculum. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED482720). Retrieved January 10, 2010, from http://www.ericdigests.org/2004-4/notebooks.htm., & (2010). Formative assessment: Making it happen in the classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2008). Using science notebooks in elementary classrooms. Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association Press.(1987). How writing shapes thinking: A study of teaching and learning. (NCTE Research Report No. 22). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English., & (2001, June). Improving student achievement with interactive notebooks. Arlington, VA: Arlington County Public Schools.(2003, April). A theoretical framework for the development of second hand investigation texts. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Conference, Chicago., & ([Page 170]2001). Classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development., , & (2008). Deliberative discourse idealized and realized: Accountable talk in the classroom and in civic life. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 27 (4), 283–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11217-007-9071-1, , & (National Research Council. (1996). National science education standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.National Research Council. (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.National Research Council. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards: A guide for teaching and learning. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.National Research Council. (2001). Classroom assessment and the national science education standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.National Research Council. (2005). How students learn science in the classroom. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.2000). The effect of talk and writing on learning science: An exploratory study. Science Education, 84 (5), 566–593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-237X%28200009%2984:5%3C566::AID-SCE2%3E3.0.CO;2-U, & (2002). Science workshop: Reading, writing, and thinking like a scientist (, , , , & (2nd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.1989). Teaching thinking: Issues and approaches. Pacific Grove, CA: Midwest., & (2006, December 10). How to bring our schools out of the 20th century. TIME Magazine.(1998). Inquiry, modeling, and metacognition: Making science accessible to all students. Cognition and Instruction, 16 (1), 42–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s1532690xci1601_2, & (1998). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development., & (2003, January). Science interactive notebooks in the classroom. Science Scope, 26 (4), 44–47.(