Ideal as a supplementary text for a variety of courses and as a guide for in-service teachers and for professional development settings, Teaching English Language Learners: 43 Strategies for Successful K–8 Classrooms provides teachers of all content areas with a broad, practical approach to teaching English language learners in the regular classroom setting.

Summarizing Text: The GIST
Summarizing text: The gist

Strategy 34 presents two ways to support the development of text summarization skills for ELLs: the Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text (GIST) (Cunningham, 1982) and a variation of the GIST (Muth & Alvermann, 1999). GIST strategies are appropriate for ELLs with proficiency levels from Developing to Bridging, providing that the text is comprehensible. GIST strategies are most appropriate for ELLs in Grade 4 and above.

Theory and/or Research Underlying the Strategy

Research suggests that one strategy used by effective readers to monitor their understanding is pausing periodically in their reading to summarize what they have read (Cunningham, 1982; Harvey & Goudvis, 2000; Wormeli, 2005). The evidence seems clear that teaching readers strategies such as summarization is likely to improve ...

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