This book of structured activities for use in teaching about culture, ethnicity and diversity comprises easy-to-use classroom and training exercises that are both engaging to participants and effective as learning tools. The contributors offer tools to those teachers and trainers who strive to increase understanding of and communication between ethnic and racial groups. The book is arranged so that users may easily draw upon the activities to involve students and bring abstract concepts into the realm of the students' own experiences.
Chapter 28: Are Emotional Expressions Universal or Culture Specific?
Are Emotional Expressions Universal or Culture Specific?
Whether emotional expressions can be easily recognized across cultures has been debated by researchers for several decades. Ekman (1992, 1993, 1994) is credited with the most extensive investigation of human emotions and their concomitant facial muscular actions and changes in autonomic nervous system activity. Since the mid-1960s, Ekman and his colleagues have amassed considerable evidence supporting the position that there is a physiological link between the experience and the expression of basic emotions, with the result that the expression of these emotions is universally recognized.
Ekman and Friesen (1975) collected data from several different cultures; their results demonstrated high agreement across cultural groups in labeling the emotions represented in facial expressions. Based ...