Teaching about Culture, Ethnicity, & Diversity: Exercises and Planned Activities


Edited by: Theodore M. Singelis

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  • Back Matter
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  • Dedication

    To my mother, who has always supported me in going my own way, even when it hurt.


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    Who Should Use This Book?

    This book is a resource for teachers. It contains 28 exercises and planned activities that can be used to teach about culture, ethnicity, and diversity. I use the term teacher broadly here. The exercises and activities (hereafter simply exercises) are appropriate for graduate, college, and even advanced high school students in a spectrum of classes such as cross-cultural psychology, intercultural communication, sociology, social work, anthropology, ethnic studies, women's studies, and education. However, the contents of this book may be profitably employed by those “teachers” who function outside the traditional classroom, but are no less concerned about issues involving culture, ethnicity, and diversity. Trainers involved in programs to prepare businesspeople for overseas assignments, supervisors who need to prepare health service providers to deal with varied client populations, and workshop leaders whose charge is to enhance productivity and understanding in the increasingly diverse workplace will all find the contents of this book applicable to their audiences.

    In addition to being a source of exercises, this book also provides summaries of a variety of research-based concepts that are key to understanding the influences that culture, ethnicity, and diversity have on human thinking, feeling, and behavior. Each chapter begins with a brief essay presenting the main concepts that are illustrated or emphasized in the exercise. The essays provide a solid, literature-based grounding for the exercises. These concept summaries will be useful for teachers either as a refresher or an introduction to the concepts. The concept summaries cite appropriate research literature, and a reference section that can be used by both teachers and students who wish to pursue their study of particular areas is provided. Some teachers may want to use this book as a student workbook, assigning the concept sections and then working through the exercises. Others may wish to tie the exercises to concepts covered in texts or lectures. In either case, the concept summaries provide an undeniable academic substance to the exercises. Therefore, teachers who wish to focus on content rather than personal growth will find these exercises of value, although many will find their students experience personal growth as well (see Monges, Chapter 1, for an exercise that will help to clarify the values of teaching a multicultural course).

    Why Use Exercises?

    Although many teachers may be leery of using exercises because they have a reputation for being “soft,” “touchy-feely,” or “time wasters,” there is, at least on my campus, an increasing emphasis on “student-centered learning,” which actively involves the student in the learning process. Active learning is a peda-gogically sound teaching method in any course. It can (a) increase student interest in the material, (b) make the material more meaningful, (c) allow students to refine and elaborate their understanding of the material, and (d) provide opportunities to relate the material to broader contextualized settings. Svinicki (1991) argues that, based on cognitive theory, each of these aspects of the learning process increases the actual learning that takes place.

    In courses that deal with culture, ethnicity, or diversity, exercises may be essential. Many students in these courses have had little contact with members of other cultures and therefore do not have an existing cognitive framework into which the relevant material can be placed (Brislin, 1997). In Chapter 2, Casmir provides further rationale for the use of experiential learning in regard to culture and intercultural interactions.

    Exercises, then, can provide the experientially based cognitive structure necessary to successfully integrate new material. As mentioned above, each of the exercises presented here has roots in the academic literature. Teachers can be very clear with themselves, and others (such as chairs and deans), what the pedagogical objectives of the exercise are. They may also assess, through testing and assignments, the learning outcomes of the exercises because the concepts are delineated at the outset. Although no experimental studies have assessed the efficacy of the exercises presented here, there is every reason to believe that they are as, or more, effective teaching tools than a conventional lecture alone.

    Structure and Content of the Book

    Although there is a wide variety of topics covered in the book, it is roughly divided into four parts. I will not detail each chapter here but rather provide an overview of each part with some selected examples. It should be noted that each chapter follows the same format. As mentioned above, at the beginning a concept or concepts are introduced and summarized in a brief essay. Next, the time and materials required are specified. Then, instructions for conducting the exercise are given and possible variations are delineated. Following these, suggestions for discussion are presented and a list of references and further reading is provided. Finally, where appropriate, material to be handed out to students is included at the end of the chapter. The similarity in structure and inclusion of materials is intended to make this book extremely easy to use. Still, each teacher will need to look over the contents of the chapters in deciding what may be appropriate for his or her class.

    With the exception of Monges's chapter on teacher values, Part I contains exercises that require a period of time longer than a single class session. These exercises vary in their focus from ethnography (Kluver, Chapter 4) to time (Levine, Chapter 5). This section also contains an exercise (Seymour, Chapter 6) that focuses on disability and the perspective that comes from being in a wheelchair.

    Part II might be titled “Culture and Behavior.” The exercises here focus on the behavioral outcomes of cultural differences or cultural contacts. Chapter 9 (Singelis and Brislin) relates the individualism-collectivism dimension to the allocation of resources. In Chapter 11, Smith provides an excellent method for combining video presentation with a structure that ensures students will be attentive to the processes of acculturation. A key process in successful intercultural interactions, attribution, is the center of Chapter 12 (Shwayder and Bhawuk).

    Identity, stereotypes, and person perception are central to the exercises presented in Part III. Yamada (Chapter 17) provides an exercise, based on a measurement instrument, to aid students in assessing their own level of ethnic identification, and Yeh (Chapter 20) focuses on the development of identity. Both chapters will be especially useful in heterogeneous groups. Exercises on stereotypes (Goto and Abe-Kim, Chapter 18) and accuracy of person perception (Cissna, Chapter 21) are also included in this part.

    Part IV might be described as exercises that highlight the cultural construction of reality. Renfro and Hardwick (Chapter 24) use maps to demonstrate the influence of personal and cultural experience on our perception of the world. Likewise, Gourvès-Hayward (Chapter 25) uses color to show how culture and language intertwine to influence our perception. Religious beliefs (Brown and Fraser, Chapter 26) and emotions (Simmons, Chapter 28) are also central features of exercises in this part.

    Choosing Exercises

    In selecting exercises, one must be cognizant of several factors. Certainly time and content are important considerations. The concepts central to an exercise should also be important aspects of the course or training being done. An exercise that is not supported through reading and/or lecture may not be as effective as it could be. Perhaps more important than the exercise itself is the discussion that follows or accompanies it. If sufficient time to process and discuss an exercise is not used, its effectiveness may be diminished or lost entirely. Please do not rush through these exercises. They are rich in content and opportunity. Often the reactions and observations of the participants are better sources of insight and understanding than any lecture or text.

    Finally, use only those exercises with which you feel comfortable. Although none of the exercises presented here is especially evocative, any exercise may bring up varying levels of self-disclosure and emotion in both yourself and your students. Depending on your willingness to deal with emotions, your relationship with the students, and the students themselves, you may decide that a particular exercise is not appropriate. Nonetheless, I am confident that all teachers will find a number of useful and interesting exercises in the pages that follow.

    TedSingelisCalifornia State University, Chico
    Brislin, R. W. (1997). Introducing active exercises in the college classroom for intercultural and cross-cultural courses. In K.Cushner & R.Brislin (Eds.), Improving intercultural interactions: Modules for cross-cultural training programs (Vol. 2). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Svinicki, M. D. (1991). Practical implications of cognitive theories. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 45, 27–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tl.37219914506
  • About the Contributors

    Jennifer Abe-Kim is currently Assistant Professor of Psychology at Loyola Marymount University (LMU) in Los Angeles. She did her undergraduate work at Wheaton College in Illinois and her graduate work in clinical psychology at University of California, Los Angeles. She teaches classes in psychology and Asian Pacific American studies at LMU and is part of the research faculty for the National Research Center on Asian American Mental Health (UC Davis) and the Center for Managed Care of Psychiatric Disorders (UCLA/RAND). Her research interests include mental health service delivery to ethnic minorities in managed care contexts and the assessment and measurement of cultural variables for Asian Americans. She resides in Los Angeles with her husband and twin daughters.

    Jeffrey C. Ady received his Ph.D. in communication from the University of Kansas in 1992 with specializations in intercultural and organizational communication. He teaches and researches in the two areas. Specific interests are intercultural conflict management, cross-cultural negotiation, and sojourner adjustment. He has traveled extensively in Asia and has numerous professional interests in Japan.

    Dharm P. S. Bhawuk is Assistant Professor of Management, College of Business Administration, University of Hawai'i at Manoa. He received his Ph.D. in organizational behavior and human resource management from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research interests include cross-cultural training, intercultural sensitivity, diversity in the workplace, individualism and collectivism, quality and culture, culture and cognition, and political behavior in the workplace. He has published several empirical papers in the International Journal of Intercultural Relations, International Journal of Psychology, Cross-Cultural Research, and Journal of Management He has also published a number of book chapters and is an editor of the book Asian Contributions to Cross-Cultural Psychology (Sage, 1996).

    Richard W. Brislin is Director of the Ph.D. program in international management and is Professor of Management and Industrial Relations at the College of Business Administration, University of Hawai'i. He directs a yearly program for university professors planning to introduce cross-cultural studies into their courses. He is the developer of materials used in cross-cultural training programs (e.g., Intercultural Interactions: A Practical Guide (2nd ed., 1996) and is author of a text in cross-cultural psychology [Understanding Culture's Influence on Behavior, 1993). He has coedited two volumes, for Sage, of modules for training and educational programs: Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs. One of his books, The Art of Getting Things Done: A Practical Guide to the Use of Power, was a Book-of-the-Month Club selection in 1992. He is frequently asked to give workshops for American and Asian managers working on international assignments, and the training materials he has prepared are widely used in various international organizations.

    William J. Brown (Ph.D., University of Southern California) is Dean of the College of Communication and the Arts at Regent University. He has worked in numerous international settings and lived in Hong Kong, the Pacific Islands, and Canada for over 12 years. His research interests include the international and intercultural dimensions of social influence and the use of entertainment-education media to promote prosocial values, beliefs, and behavior.

    Aaron Castelan Cargile (Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara) is Assistant Professor at California State University Long Beach, where he teaches courses in intercultural communication, advanced intercultural communication, and communication theory. He maintains a research interest in all forms of both intercultural and intergroup communication, and he is focused particularly on the role of accented speech in such interactions. His recent publications have appeared in Communication Yearbook 19 and Intercultural Communication Theory.

    Fred L. Casmir has taught for 41 years at Pepperdine University and was among the earliest pioneers in the field of intercultural and international communication in the United States. He has taught courses in intercultural and international communication, as well as a media worldwide course. He has developed both the intercultural studies minor and major, for which he serves as Coordinator, at Pepperdine University. He will be chairperson of Division V (Intercultural, International and Development Communication) of ICA beginning in 1997. He has lectured, consulted, and held various teaching positions on five continents, and he has had some of his work published on five continents. His main research and theory-building concerns center around communication-process-oriented third-culture building, communication-theory building, and the cultural impact of mass media. He recently edited Ethics in Intercultural and International Communication, to be published in 1997.

    Kenneth N. Cissna (Ph.D., University of Denver, 1975) is Professor of Communication at the University of South Florida. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in interpersonal communication, group communication, and dialogue. His recent research has focused on human dialogue, especially on the implications of the 1957 public conversation between philosopher Martin Buber and psychotherapist Carl Rogers. His articles have appeared in a variety of books and journals in communication and related fields; his books include The Reach of Dialogue (with Rob Anderson and Ron Arnett), Applied Communication in the 21st Century, and The Martin Buber-Carl Rogers Dialogue: A New Transcript With Commentary (with Rob Anderson).

    David R. Clemons earned his undergraduate degree in business administration from the University of Texas and worked for several years in banking and finance before making a career change. He has worked in the counseling arena in various capacities since 1989, when he began training as a chemical dependency counselor. He holds a master's degree in psychology with an emphasis in marriage and family therapy and is currently a doctoral student in counseling psychology at Our Lady of the Lake University in San Antonio, Texas. His current research interests include the application of postmodern theoretical ideas to psychotherapy, qualitative research methods, and the effectiveness of solution-focused therapy modalities.

    Thomas Connell is Vice President of INTERLINK Consulting Services, Inc., a firm providing cross-cultural communications, regional orientation, and terrorism awareness training to organizations with international interests. A regular speaker at numerous Department of Defense organizations and consultant to U.S. businesses, he holds a B.S. in journalism, an M.S. in international human resource management, and a Ph.D. in U.S./Latin American history. He directed the only cross-cultural communications course in DOD for nearly a decade. His book Kidnapped! The Internment and Abandonment of the Peruvian Japanese in the United States during WWII is expected to be released next year. He is Associate Professor of International Management Communications, International Organizational Behavior, and Latin American History at Troy State University and winner of several awards including the Silver Anvil Award, two-time winner of the Thomas Jefferson Award, and author/narrator of several award-winning radio/TV documentaries.

    Estelle Disch is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Massachusetts Boston (UMB) where she teaches courses related to cultural diversity, gender, and human services. She has consulted to faculty and staff at many colleges and universities about curricular transformation and inclusive pedagogy. As Coordinator for Diversity Awareness at the Center for the Improvement of Teaching at UMB, she has been very involved in faculty development related to working effectively with diverse students. She is a white Anglo-Saxon former Protestant on a lifelong quest to overcome the limitations of a privileged upbringing in a white suburb. She has recently edited Reconstructing Gender: A Multicultural Anthology (1997). Her current research focuses on survivors of sexual exploitation by professionals.

    Benson P. Fraser (Ph.D., University of Washington) is Associate Professor in the College of Communication and the Arts at Regent University. He has conducted extensive international research and is an adviser to international graduate students. His research interests include the influence of role models on culture and the impact of media across cultural boundaries.

    William K. Gabrenya, Jr. is a cross-cultural psychologist at the Florida Institute of Technology where he teaches courses in cultural and social psychology. He is currently editor of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology's Cross-Cultural Psychology Bulletin. His research focuses on culture and social interaction, values, social class, and sojourner adjustment, with an area interest in Chinese studies. He received his doctorate in social psychology at the Center for Research in Social Behavior of the University of Missouri-Columbia, was a postdoctoral research associate in the Behavioral Sciences Laboratory at Ohio State University, and has been a visiting professor at National Taiwan University. He lives a perfect, suburban American middle-class lifestyle with a wife, one boy, one girl, a dog, and a mortgage.

    Harry Gardiner is Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse where he teaches courses in child development, cross-cultural psychology, cross-cultural human development, and humor in education for teachers. His M.A. is from the University of Hawai'i and his Ph.D. from Manchester University in England. He taught in the graduate program at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok for 2 years. He has engaged in training, teaching, and research in Europe, Asia, and the United States. He was a charter member of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology and currently serves as Secretary/Treasurer of the Society for Cross-Cultural Research as well as a consulting editor for the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and assistant editor for Teaching for the Cross-Cultural Psychology Bulletin. He recently coauthored a book, Lives Across Cultures: Cross-Cultural Human Development, which will be published in 1998.

    Michele J. Gelfand is Assistant Professor of Industrial and Organizational Psychology at the University of Maryland at College Park. She received her Ph.D. in social/organizational psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1996. Her research focuses on incorporating dimensions of cultural variation into theories of negotiation, conflict, and organizational justice, and on the effects of diversity in work groups. Her recent publications have appeared in the Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, European Journal of Social Psychology, and International Journal of Psychology. She teaches courses in cross-cultural psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, and cognition in organizations.

    Sharon G. Goto received her Ph.D. in social/organizational psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She is Assistant Professor at Pomona College and is part of the research faculty for the National Research Center on Asian American Mental Health (UC Davis). Her research focuses on cultural diversity issues. Specifically, she is interested in cross-cultural interpersonal interactions both within and beyond the workplace, and strategies that foster success for ethnic minorities. Her research has concentrated largely on Asian American populations. She is currently working on a collaborative project that looks at Asian American perceptions of racism and their effects on subjective well-being. Another project focuses on mentoring Asian Americans. Her teaching interests largely parallel her research interests. She currently teaches an Asian American psychology course and a fieldwork course for Asian American psychology, and she is developing a course looking at the Asian American experience within organizations.

    Alison Gourvès-Hayward was born in the south west of England and was educated at University College, London and the University of Leicester. She taught French in England before moving to France, where she is currently Head of the English Department at the Ecole Superieure des Telecommunications de Bretagne. She is particularly interested in the communicative approach to language teaching and has recently taken an active part in a European project on learning to learn, producing materials for both French and Portuguese teaching. Her work with Francophone Africans lead to an interest in semantics and culturally biased perceptual and sociolinguistic differences. She is at present involved in a pilot course organized between parallel classes in French and American universities. This course aims to provide students with the conceptual framework necessary to analyze cultural differences and similarities and is facilitated by electronic mail, WWW, and teleconferencing. She is married with one son, aged 11.

    Susan Wiley Hardwick is Professor of Geography at Southwest Texas State University and has also served as co-coordinator of the university's Literacy and Learning Program. Her teaching and research specializations focus on geographic education, cognition and spatial learning, immigrant settlement and survival in western North America, and the regional geography of the Russian Federation. She is author of nine books and numerous articles including, most recently, Geography for Educators: Standards, Themes, and Concepts (1996), Valley for Dreams: Life and Landscape in the Sacramento Valley (1996), and Russian Refuge (1993). Her forthcoming book Russia: A Regional Geography of Change and Endurance will be published in late fall 1997. Two years ago, she was selected out of more than 21,000 faculty for the California State University Statewide Outstanding Professor Award.

    J. Coleman Heckman has an interest in psychology that began during high school with the simple act of listening and giving advice to friends and family. He then decided to pursue an undergraduate degree in psychology at Boston University, and after completing his degree he realized how interested he was in working specifically with children and adolescents. He then obtained a master's degree in school psychology at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas, where he was well trained in assessment and educational psychology. However, his underlying interest in the area of counseling and the therapeutic process led him to seek more training, and he is currently continuing his education as he enters his third year in the Psy.D. program at Our Lady of the Lake University, in counseling psychology.

    Karen M. Holcombe is a graduate student at the University of Maryland at College Park, where she is pursuing a Ph.D. in industrial/organizational psychology. Her primary research interest lies in the area of cross-cultural psychology; other research interests include leadership and service quality.

    James E. Jacob (Ph.D.) is Dean of the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences, and Professor of Political Science, at California State University, Chico. He received his A.B. from the University of California at Berkeley, and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Cornell University. He lived in France for 3 years, and his teaching fields include nationalism, international relations, the causes of war, European politics, and Soviet and post-Soviet foreign policy. His research interests include ethnic conflict, cross-cultural communication, and terrorism. He is coeditor with the late William R. Beer of Language and National Unity and author of The Hills of Conflict: Basque Nationalism in France.

    Min-Sun Kim (Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1992) is Associate Professor in the Department of Speech at the University of Hawai'i at Ma-noa. Her research interests focus on the role of cognition in conversational styles of different cultural and gender orientations. She has applied the models she has developed to understand communication differences in the areas of requesting, re-requesting, and conflict styles. Her publications have appeared in a variety of journals including Human Communication Research, Communication Monographs, International and Intercultural Communication Annual, Communication Research, Communication Quarterly, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Howard Journal of Communication, and Research on Language and Social Interaction, among others. She is currently investigating cross-cultural conflict styles involving Korea, Japan, Hawaii, and the mainland. Her most recent research, concerning self-construals and re-requesting styles, will be published in Communication Monographs (1997).

    Randy Kluver (Ph.D., University of Southern California, 1993) is Associate Professor of Speech and Rhetoric and Director of the interdisciplinary Asian Studies program at Oklahoma City University. His research and teaching concentrates on the cultural dimensions of political communication. He previously taught at Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People's Republic of China. He is author of Legitimating the Chinese Economic Reforms: A Rhetoric of Myth and Orthodoxy (1996).

    Suzette Lamb (LPC, M.S.) grew up in a military family, traveling all over the United States and abroad. This exposure to multiple cultures and personalities spurred her interest in people and the ways they act and interact. She received her undergraduate degree from Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas, while working with at-risk youths in a local YMCA and a tutor in a group home for boys. After graduation, she worked for the local community mental health center as a case manager for children and adolescents and their families. She then began the master's program at Our Lady of the Lake University, in counseling psychology with a specialization in marriage and family therapy and began to work for a nonprofit mental health facility where she continues to provide therapy for youths and their families. She is currently in her third year of the Psy.D. program at Our Lady of the Lake University in counseling psychology.

    Robert V. Levine is Professor of Psychology at California State University, Fresno, where he teaches courses in social psychology. His research has focused on cross-cultural differences in the psychology of time and the psychology of helping behavior. He is author of the book A Geography of Time.

    Denise Lucero-Miller is Staff Psychologist and Practicum Coordinator for Texas Woman's University Counseling Center in Denton, Texas. She also previously served as the Counseling Center's Cultural Diversity Liaison to the university community. She received her Ph.D. in counseling psychology (1995) and her M.Ed, in community counseling (1991) from the University of Oklahoma. Her predoctoral internship was completed at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center in San Antonio, Texas. Her clinical and teaching interests include women's issues, multicultural counseling, and therapist training and supervision.

    Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges earned her doctorate in African American Studies at Temple University and has a master's in social work and a B.A. cum laude in education. She is author of KUSH: The Jewel of Nubia: Reconnecting the Root System of African Civilization (in press). She has also written an article, “Reflections of the Role of Female Deities and Queens in Ancient Kemet” in the Journal of Black Studies and a chapter “I've Got a Right to the Tree of Life” in the book edited by Charles Jones, The Panthers Revisited (in press). She is Assistant Professor of Sociology/Social Work, with major responsibility to African American Studies, at California State University, Chico. In November, she will be traveling to Norway to train social workers at Bodo College in methods of infusing multiculturalism into theory and practice.

    Mehroo Northover was born in India in a minority community, which has maintained a strong sense of ethnicity over 1,500 years. Her early education was in India in an English-language school and university. As a result of a bicultural, bilingual background, she has developed an academic interest in issues of migration, ethnicity, and bilingualism, which have been the focus of her teaching. She has lived in several countries including the multicultural city state of Singapore for some years. As a result, she became interested in the successful policies adopted by the government in creating a supranational identity for its citizens. She has been a lecturer in linguistics and communication and has teaching and research interests in ethnic identity and bilingualism, second-language learning, and intercultural communication.

    Pamela M. Norwood is Assistant Professor in the College of Education at the University of Houston. She teaches a course in curricular and instructional studies, as well as bilingual education. Her research interests include teacher education issues in the education of culturally diverse youths and minority at-risk female adolescents. She has conducted numerous inservice presentations for teachers serving multicultural populations.

    Elizabeth Renfro has taught in the English, Honors, and Multicultural & Gender Studies Departments at California State University, Chico, for 22 years. She has also coordinated the university's Writing Across the Disciplines/Literacy & Learning Program since its inception in 1985, and she has recently developed a peer mentoring program in women's studies. Professional work includes over a hundred workshops, papers, and articles on teaching and learning; numerous articles and papers on literature, feminist criticism, and women's studies; and three books: Basic Writing: Process and Product (1985), The Shasta Indians of California (1990), and Finding Voice, Sending Voice: Reading Diverse Voices in Lit-erature (in press).

    Deborah Carr Saldana is presently Assistant Professor in the Department of Urban Education at the University of Houston-Downtown. Her research interests include exemplary middle school practice and issues related to multicultural education. Presently, she is involved in several projects focusing on the improvement of teaching and learning in urban, multicultural classrooms.

    Ruth Seymour is Lecturer on the journalism faculty at Wayne State University, and former Director of the Journalism Institute for Minorities. She teaches core newswriting courses as well as intercultural communication. Her research interests are in the possibilities of intercultural communication via mass media, and in the representation of social difference, especially culture and race, in those media. She has an M.A. in mass communication and anthropology from Wayne State University and a B.A. from Michigan State University. She reported lifestyle, police, general assignment, and religion for the Detroit Free Press (1980–1987) and also wrote for the Detroit News (1978–1980). Among her journalism awards is a national Gold Medallion Mass Media Award “for outstanding contributions to better human relations and the cause of brotherhood” from the National Conference of Christians and Jews (1985).

    Poonam Sharma completed her doctoral degree in counseling psychology at the University of Texas at Austin in 1994. She completed a pre-doctoral internship and postdoctoral fellowship in clinical psychology at the U.T. Health Science Center in San Antonio, where she is currently employed. She is Assistant Professor in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and Staff Psychologist for the Reeves Rehabilitation Center. Her primary research interest is in the area of diversity issues and mental health, with a special focus on the Asian population. She is currently involved in teaching rehabilitation medicine residents about psychological issues in medical rehabilitation, as well as statistics and research methodology.

    Jo Anne Shwayder received her B.A. in Pyschology/Anthropology from Pitzer College and her M.Ed, in Educational Psychology from the University of Hawai'i. She conducted research and taught English in Nepal, Indonesia, Hawai'i, and Southern California. She is currently a Ph.D student at UCLA in the Psychological Studies in Education department at UCLA.

    Carolyn H. Simmons is Professor at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington with teaching interests in cross-cultural and social psychology and lifespan development. Her doctorate in social psychology was earned at the University of Kentucky. She has also held faculty appointments at Howard University and the University of Colorado at Denver. Current research interests include helping behavior, cross-cultural dimensions of cooperation and competition, and cultural differences in response to natural disasters.

    Theodore M. Singelis received his B.A. in psychology from Yale University. After living in Korea and Japan for 5 years, he was awarded an East-West Center grant to study at the University of Hawai'i where he earned an M.A. in speech and a Ph.D. in psychology (1995). At the East-West Center, he presented original materials at workshops in developing training and course materials for cross-cultural psychology and intercultural communication. Although this is his first book, over the past 3 years he has published more than 15 journal articles and book chapters. He is a consulting editor for the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Treasurer of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology. Currently, he is Assistant Professor in the Psychology Department at California State University, Chico, where he teaches cross-cultural psychology, research methods, and psychology of prejudice. His research interests include cultural conceptions of self, intercultural communication, and emotion.

    Kyle D. Smith received his Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Washington in 1987 and has taught in Turkey and Micronesia as well as the mainland United States. Currently, as Associate Professor of Pyschology at the University of Guam, he teaches courses in cross-cultural and social psychology with students from Guam, the Philippines, Micronesia, the Pacific Rim, and the United States. His research addresses emotion and moral concepts (including the ideal person, evil, and human rights) cross-culturally.

    Sunwolf (J.D., University of Denver College of Law; M.A., University of California, Santa Barbara), a former trial attorney, is a college teacher, trial consultant, and professional storyteller who also serves on the faculties of the National Criminal Defense College, the Institute for Criminal Defense Advocacy, and the National College of Advocacy for the Association of Trial Lawyers of America. She teaches small group, interpersonal, and intercultural communication as well as storytelling, and she lectures on negotiation and contract law in France for the Paris Bar Association. Her research interests include social influence, group decision making, jury deliberations, and the persuasive effects of telling tales. She collects multicultural folktales, ghostlore, world folktales of justice, and wisdom stories.

    Ann-Marie Yamada is pursing a Ph.D. in clinical psychology with a dual special emphasis in cross-cultural/intercultural mental health and clinical health psychology at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. She is an East-West Center Degree Fellow with the Program on Education and Training and has been involved with the coordination of numerous workshops and seminars focused on intercultural topics. As a member of a military family, her intercultural experiences began at an early age through involvement with members of the international military community. Her current research projects center on ethnocultural identity and include study of the multiple dimensions that contribute to one's cultural identities and exploration of cultural identification in multi-heritage and multicultural persons. She enjoys teaching cross-cultural psychology as an instructor at the University of Hawai'i.

    Christine Jean Yeh received her Ph.D. in counseling psychology from Stanford University. She completed her clinical training at Counseling and Psychological Services at the University of California at Berkeley. Presently, she is Assistant Professor of Education and Psychology in the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her research interests include cross-cultural conceptualizations of self and morality as well as Asian American ethnic identity, counseling, and mental health use. Her teaching interests are in the areas of multicultural counseling, guidance counseling for school-age children and youth, and culture and self. At the time her chapter was written, she was a postdoctoral scholar at the Stanford Center on Adolescence at Stanford University.

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