Talking and Learning with Young Children


Michael Jones

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright


    For Andreas, Eva, Dani, Brendan, Savash, Ayaan, Jasmine,

    Jayden, Ibrahim and Layla. And for Rachel.

    About the Author

    Michael Jones has worked as a speech and language therapist, as a teacher in primary and special schools and as an advisory teacher for children with speech and language difficulties. He led the Every Child a Talker (ECaT) project in three areas of the UK. Michael currently provides training internationally and publishes widely on the subject of early language development.


    Many thanks to Mary Field, Kelly Yuen, Katja O’Neill, Judith Twani, Lisa Pepper, Sam Randall, Steve Grocott, Debbie Brace, Bhavna Acharya, Dee Gent, Sally Roberts, Lucy Jenkins, Trevor Stevens, Edmund Gentle, Maggie Harris, Catherine Croft, Kathy Brodie, Emma Huxter, Jay Begum and Mine Conkbayir.

    Thanks to Chapel Street Nursery School, Luton and The Rainbow Centre, RAF Marham for the cover photographs.

    Special thanks must go to Sue Thomas, Sadie Thornton and Tina Cook, who co-led the Every Child a Talker (ECaT) projects with me in Luton, Bedford Borough and Thurrock. Along with the many practitioners in the settings who were involved in these projects, they provided me with so many ideas, insights and inspiration. Jeni Riley gave me hours of her time, in person and via the phone and email, with inspirational discussion and support with this book. And to Amy Jarrold and George Knowles at Sage for expertly steering me through the whole process.

    And to Professor Hazel Dewart, sadly no longer with us, who showed me that the study of child development can be an intellectual activity, a deeply emotional experience and sometimes highly entertaining!

  • Glossary


    A typical way of pronouncing speech sounds in connected speech that is associated with a particular region or country or social class.


    The physical production of a speech sound.


    The relationship that the child has with her main caregivers. Attachments can be ‘secure’, where the child feels confident that an adult will care for her, or ‘insecure’, where the child has not been able to make a strong attachment.

    Attachment Theory

    The concept that infants need to develop a positive, loving relationship with their primary caregivers. This influences their future social and emotional development, including how to regulate their feelings.

    Auditory feedback

    The ability to hear oneself speaking. This can be restricted if a child has a hearing impairment, influencing the development of their speech.


    A perspective that is primarily concerned with behaviour that can be observed, rather than focusing on what might be occurring within the child, e.g. their thinking or what motivates them. Psychologists and other professionals who are influenced by behaviourism work with children with behaviour difficulties by promoting positive behaviour through reward and reducing negative behaviour by ignoring it.


    Being able to understand and use two languages. Children who are bilingual may be able to use one language more confidently than another, but this can change through life, depending on experience.


    The positive feelings that a primary caregiver has for a child. Bonding is closely linked to the infant’s ability to form an attachment with that caregiver.

    Child Directed Speech (CDS)

    A variation or register of talking that adults use with infants who have begun talking and older children with developing language.

    Cochlear implant

    An electronic advice that is surgically inserted into the inner ear of a person with profound hearing impairment. They provide hearing to people whose deafness is caused by damage to sensory hair cells in the cochleas. The cochlea is part of the inner ear, where sound vibrations are converted into electrical impulses that are then transmitted to the brain to be interpreted. More information about cochlear implants and hearing impairment can be found at: (accessed 7 September 2015)

    Cognitive development

    The development of thinking. Cognitive development is influenced by children’s innate abilities, experience and how adults and other children guide the child through play and talk.


    How we share meanings. Communication can be verbal, written or non-verbal, e.g. using signs or gestures.


    A way of sharing meanings, including thoughts and ideas, with other people. Conversation is a two-way process, with those involved listening and responding to each other and taking turns. Conversations can be verbal, or involving signs, e.g. among people with hearing impairment.

    Conversational flow

    How well participants in a conversation are able to understand each other and express ideas, e.g. through taking turns and encouraging each other to continue by saying: ‘I see/really? that’s interesting,’ etc.

    Conversational style

    A description of the way that adults involve children in conversation. Some styles can be more effective than others. For example, an adult who listens and allows the child time to express herself and then responds is described as having a ‘responsive conversational style’. An adult who dominates the conversation, e.g. by asking lots of ‘closed’ questions (for instance, ‘What’s that?’ ‘What shape is that?’ etc.) is using a ‘controlling conversational style’.

    Developmental delay

    Occurs when a child does not reach specific developmental milestones, such as walking or talking, within what is regarded as the normal age range. Delays can be caused by the environment, e.g. lack of experience or illness, or by factors within the child, such as Down syndrome.


    The distinct form of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. The dialect of a certain area may contain words and phrases that are only used in that region or city. Speakers of a local dialect often use a particular accent associated with the area. Examples are ‘Scouse’ from Liverpool and ‘Geordie’ from Newcastle.

    Genetically determined

    A skill that is decided from the moment of conception. The development of that skill will also be influenced by the environment.


    A system of rules that describes how words are combined in a language.

    Imperative pointing

    The type of pointing that young children use to show that they want something. This may be with an outstretched hand or finger (or by using eye pointing or body movements if the child has a physical or sensory disability).

    Infant Directed Speech (IDS)

    A register that adults use when talking and playing with babies, including highly exaggerated tones of voice; and a type of made-up vocabulary, including words like ‘diddums’, ‘boo’, ‘wasamatta?’ and ‘there, there’. IDS was originally known as ‘Motherese’.


    A behaviour or skill that exists and develops naturally, rather than something that is learned from experience.


    How we respond to each other while communicating. For example, an adult playing and talking with a baby might use turn taking, eye contact and smiling as part of the interaction.


    The method we use for communicating. Language can be spoken (verbal), written or using signs, e.g. British Sign Language. Any given language is made up of agreed rules that help the speakers understand each other.

    Language acquisition

    The idea that children create their own rules of grammar, using a vocabulary that they have learned. These skills are acquired naturally and the process is innate. These concepts are associated with linguist and philosopher Noam Chomsky.

    Language Acquisition Device (LAD)

    A theoretical concept created by Noam Chomsky to explain how a child acquires the rules of grammar.


    The process of growth that is determined by innate and genetically determined forces within the child. Maturation can be neurological, where the child’s nervous system automatically develops. Physical maturation takes place at the same time, which can include the growth of organs such as the larynx (voice box). The combination of these two types of maturation is crucial for the development of skills such as walking and the child’s control of speech sounds.


    Nerve cells that transmit information in chemical and electrical form around the body.

    Non-verbal communication

    Includes facial expression, tone of voice and gestures that help the listener understand the messages conveyed by a speaker.


    When a child tries to apply a regular rule of grammar to one that is irregular, e.g. by saying: ‘I goed to nursery’ for ‘I went.’


    The educational understanding and beliefs that a practitioner or group of practitioners have. Pedagogy influences how we teach children and how we communicate with them.


    How speech sounds are linked together to make words in a language. Children’s phonology develops in a systematic way as they mature.


    How we use language to convey meanings and to understand what other people mean. This can include an understanding of non-verbal communication such as facial expression.

    Primary intersubjectivity

    When infant and adult (often primary carer) focus on each other as part of early communication.


    The way that speech sounds are formed, or articulated, in an acceptable way, so that someone can be understood. Pronunciation of speech sounds varies depending on where people live, creating their accent.


    The type of playful verbal interaction that baby and adult have together that includes listening, turn-taking and responding. Proto-conversations are regarded as providing ‘practice’ for later conversations when children are able to use words.


    A variety or style of language used in a particular situation or with a particular person. Registers can be ‘informal’, e.g. when talking with children or friends, or ‘formal’, e.g. at a job interview or when talking with parents.


    The support that adults provide young children to progress in their learning. Scaffolding includes using language to help children develop skills and to help them express their thoughts and explore ideas.


    Patterns of repeated behaviour which can often be noticed in young children’s play, including throwing, spinning and wrapping up objects.

    Secondary intersubjectivity

    When a baby and adult focus on an object together and share an interest in this object.


    The meaning of the words that we use, including single words and phrases, sentences and stories. Semantics includes what we understand of what is being said to us, and how we are able to say what we mean.


    Words and phrases that are used very informally, and may have been invented to show that the speaker comes from, or wants to be part of, a particular group. For example, someone who wants to be a surfer might use ‘Surfer Slang’, saying ‘That’s totally awesome, dude!’ to mean, ‘That was rather good, my friend.’


    Individual sounds that are used to make up words in a language. This is also referred to as ‘pronunciation’ or ‘articulation’.

    Speech and language delay

    Where children’s understanding, speech sounds, phonological development and expressive language are developing in a similar way to children of a younger chronological age.

    Theory of Mind

    The realisation that someone else can have thoughts and ideas. Some children with autism are thought not to have this understanding.

    Verbal communication

    Using talk to communicate with other people.

    Verbal comprehension

    Our understanding of what is said to us. In normally developing language, children’s verbal comprehension will be greater than their ability to express themselves.

    Verbal expression (expressive language)

    How we express ourselves through talk, using speech, vocabulary and phrases that create sentences that we use to convey meaning.


    Individual words, including nouns, adjectives and verbs, which we use to label objects and ideas and their properties.

    Vocal cords

    Two mucous membranes stretched horizontally across the larynx (voice box). When they are fully open and at rest, air passes over them without creating sound. When they are almost closed, air passing through them from the lungs causes them to vibrate, creating sound.


    Sounds made from the vibration of the vocal cords: e.g. [g] and [d] are created by air passing over the vocal cords, making them vibrate; while [k] and [t] are made without the vocal cords vibrating.

    Zone of Proximal Development

    A concept introduced by Lev Vygotsky that describes the difference between what a child can learn on their own, and how they might get to the next step in their learning with help from a supportive adult or older child.


    Apicella, F., Chericoni, N., Ostanzo, V., Baldini, S., Billeci, L., Cohen, D. and Muratori, F. (2013) ‘Reciprocity in interaction: A window on the first year of life in autism’, Autism Research and Treatment, available at: (accessed 25 May 2015)
    Attwood, T. (2008) The Complete Guide to Asperger’s Syndrome. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Baker, C. (2007) A Parents’ and Teachers’ Guide to Bilingualism,
    edn. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    Baldwin, D.A. (1995) ‘Understanding the link between joint attention and language’, in C. Moore and P.J. Dunham (eds), Joint Attention: Its Origins and Role in Development. Hove: Psychology Press, pp. 13158.
    Baron-Cohen, S. (1989) ‘Perceptual role-taking and proto-declarative pointing in autism’, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7: 11327.
    Baron-Cohen, S. (1995) Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Baron-Cohen, S., Allen, J. and Gillberg, C. (1992) ‘Can autism be detected at 18 months? The needle, the haystack and the CHAT’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 161: 83943.
    Barry, A.K. (2008) Linguistic Perspectives on Language and Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    BBC Radio 4 (2013) ‘From Donald Winnicott to the Naughty Step’, Archive on 4, 4 May, available at: (accessed 25 May 2015)
    Beebe, B., Knoblauch, S., Rustin, J. and Sorter, D. (2003) ‘A comparison of Meltzoff, Trevarthen and Stern’, Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 13 (6): 80936.
    Berko Gleason, J. and Weintraub, S. (1976) ‘The acquisition of routines in child language’, Language in Society, 5: 12936.
    Bernstein, B. (1973) Class, Codes and Control, Vol. 1. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Bishop, D.V.M. (2000) ‘What’s so special about Asperger Syndrome? The need for fuller exploration of the borderlands of autism’, in A. Klin, F. Volkmar and S. Sparrow (eds), Asperger Syndrome. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 25477.
    Bishop, D.V.M. and Norbury, C.F. (2002) ‘Exploring the borderlands of autistic disorder and specific language impairment: A study using standardised diagnostic instruments’, Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 43 (7): 91729.
    Blank Grief, E. and Berko Gleason, J. (1980) ‘Hi, thanks and goodbye: More routine information’, Language in Society, 9: 15966.
    Bloom, P. (2000) How Children Learn the Meanings of Words. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Bloom, P. (2004) ‘Myths of word learning’, in D.G. Hall and S.R. Waxman (eds), Weaving a Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 20524.
    Bowlby, J. (1953) Childcare and the Growth of Love. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Boyce, S. (2012) Identifying Non-Verbal Communication Difficulties: A Life-Changing Approach. Milton Keynes: Speechmark Publishing.
    Brazelton, T.B. and Nugent, K.J. (1995) Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale,
    edn. London: MacKeith Press.
    Brodie, K. (2014) Sustained Shared Thinking in the Early Years. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Brown, R. (1973) A First Language: The Early Stages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Bruner, J.S. (1975) ‘The ontogenesis of speech acts’, Journal of Child Language, 2: 119.
    Bruner, J.S. (1983) Child’s Talk: Learning to Use Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Burningham, J. (2001) Mr Gumpy’s Outing. London: Red Fox.
    Camaioni, L., Perucchini, P., Bellagamba, F. and Colonnesi, C. (2004) ‘The role of declarative pointing in developing a theory of mind’, Infancy, 5 (3): 291308.
    Chomsky, N. (1965) Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Chomsky, N. (1975) Reflections on Language. London: Temple Smith.
    Chomsky, N. (1980) Rules and Representations. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Clarke, J. (2007) Sustained Shared Thinking. London: Featherstone Education.
    Clements, C. and Chawarska, K. (2010) ‘Beyond pointing: Development of the ‘sharing’ gesture in children with autism spectrum disorder’, Yale Review of Undergraduate Research in Psychology,: 46–63; available at: (accessed 25 May 2015)
    Community Playthings (2013) A Good Place to Be Two. Robertsbridge: Community Playthings.
    Conkbayir, M. and Pascal, C. (2014) Early Childhood Theories and Contemporary Issues: An Introduction. London: Bloomsbury.
    Coupe-O’Kane, J. and Goldbart, J. (1998) Communication Before Speech: Development and Assessment. London: David Fulton Publishers.
    Cowley, J. (1998) Mrs Wishy-Washy. Chicago: Wright Group/Mcgraw-Hill.
    Croft, C.E. (2009) ‘How can a reflective model of support, enhance relationships between babies, young children and practitioners?’, MA dissertation, London Metropolitan University.
    Crystal, D. (1989) Listen to Your Child. London: Penguin.
    Cummins, J. (2000) Language, Power and Pedagogy: Bilingual Children in the Crossfire. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    Cummings, M.E. and Kouros, C.D. (2009) Maternal Depression and its Relation to Children’s Development and Adjustment. Montreal: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development.
    Dawson, G., Toth, K., Abbott, R., Osterling, J., Munson, J., Ester, A. and Liaw, J. (2004) ‘Early social attention impairments in autism: Social orienting, joint attention, and attention to distress’, Developmental Psychology, 40: 27183.
    Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) (2008a) The Bercow Report: A Review of Services for Children and Young People (0–19) with Speech, Language and Communication Needs. Nottingham: DCSF Publications, available at: (accessed 25 May 2015)
    DCSF (2008b) Every Child a Talker: Guidance for Early Language Lead Practitioners (First Instalment). Nottingham: DCSF Publications, available at: (accessed 25 May 2015)
    DCSF (2009a) Every Child a Talker: Guidance for Early Language Lead Practitioners (Second Instalment). Nottingham: DCSF Publications, available at: (accessed 25 May 2015)
    DCSF (2009b) Learning, Playing and Interacting: Good Practice in the Early Years Foundation Stage. Nottingham: DCSF Publications, available at: (accessed 25 May 2015)
    DCSF (2010) Every Child a Talker: Guidance for Consultants and Early Language Lead Practitioners (Third Instalment). Nottingham: DCSF Publications, available at: (accessed 25 May 2015)
    Dewart, H. and Summers, S. (1989) Pragmatics Profile of Early Communication Skills. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
    Dewart, H. and Summers, S. (1995) The Pragmatics Profile of Everyday Communication Skills. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
    DFE (2012) Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage: Setting the Standards for Learning, Development and Care for Children From Birth to Five. London: Department for Education, available at (last accessed 25 May 2015)
    Emde, R. and Easterbrooks, A. (1985) ‘Assessing emotional availability in early development’, in W. Frankenburg, R. Emde and J. Sullivan (eds), Early Identification of Children at Risk: An International Perspective. New York and London: Plenum Press, pp. 79101.
    Featherstone, S. (2011) Setting the Scene: Creating Successful Environments for Babies and Young Children. London: Featherstone Education.
    Fletcher, P. (1985) A Child’s Learning of English. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Gerhardt, S. (2015) Why Love Matters: How Affection Shapes a Baby’s Brain,
    edn. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Goldschmied, E. and Jackson, S. (1994) People under Three: Young Children in Day Care,
    edn. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Haggan, M. (2002) ‘Self-reports and self-delusion regarding the use of motherese: Implications from Kuwaiti adults’, Language Sciences, 24 (1): 1728.
    Halliday, M.A.K. (1975) Learning How to Mean. London: Edward Arnold.
    Harris, M., Jones, D., Brookes, S. and Grant, J. (1986) ‘Relations between the non-verbal context of maternal speech and rate of language development’, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 4: 2618.
    Hart, B. and Risley, T.R. (1995) Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
    Heath, S.B. (1983) Ways with Words: Language, Life and Work in Communities and Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hindley, J. and Benedict, W. (1996) The Big Red Bus. London: Walker Books.
    I CAN (2006) The Cost to the Nation of Children’s Poor Communication. I CAN Talk Series, Issue No. 2. London: I CAN, available at: (accessed 25 May 2015)
    Johnson, M. and Jones, M. (2012) Supporting Quiet Children. Cambridge: Lawrence Educational.
    Jones, M. (1988) ‘Lack of verbal stimulation in infancy: Possible effects on language development’. MSc thesis, City University London.
    Jones, M. (2010) ‘Sign posting’, Nursery World, 29 July.
    Jones, M. (2011) ‘Come on in!’, Nursery World, 24 March.
    Jones, M. (2012a) ‘Baby room excellence’, Early Years Educator, 13 (10), February.
    Jones, M. (2012b) ‘Successful additions’, Early Years Educator, 13 (11), March.
    Jones, M. (2012c) ‘Keep on talking!’, Nursery World, 6–19 March.
    Jones, M. (2013) ‘Effective talk with babies’, Early Years Educator, 15 (5), September.
    Jones, M. (2014) ‘The power of pointing’, Early Years Educator, 15 (11), March.
    Jones, M. and Belsten, M. (2011) Let’s Get Talking! Cambridge: Lawrence Educational.
    Lawrence, V. and Stevenson, C. (2011a) The Northamptonshire Baby Room Project: Facilitators’ Manual. Northampton: Northamptonshire County Council.
    Lawrence, V. and Stevenson, C. (2011b) The Northamptonshire Baby Room Project – Parents’ Course: Facilitators’ Manual. Northampton: Northamptonshire County Council.
    Lieven, E.V.M. (1984) ‘Interactional style and children’s language learning’, Topics in Language Disorders, 4: 1523.
    Lindon, J. (2012) What Does it Mean to Be Two? London: Practical Pre-School Books.
    Locke, J.L. (1989) ‘Babbling and early speech: Continuity and individual differences’, First Language, 9 (6): 191205.
    Louis, S., Beswick, C., Magraw, L., Hayes, L. and Featherstone, S. (2008) Again! Again! Understanding Schemas in Young Children. London: A & C Black Publishers.
    Loveland, K. and Landry, S. (1986) ‘Joint attention in autism and developmental language delay’, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16: 33549.
    McDonald, L. and Pien, D. (1982) ‘Mother conversational behaviour as a function of interactional intent’, Journal of Child Language, 8: 33758.
    Melhuish, E. (2010) ‘Why children, parents and home learning are important’, in K. Sylva, E. Melhuish, P. Sammons, I. Siraj-Blatchford and B. Taggart (eds), Early Childhood Matters: Evidence from the Effective Pre-School and Primary Education Project. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 4469.
    Meltzoff, A.N. (1999) ‘Origins of theory of mind, cognition and communication’, Journal of Communication Disorders, 32: 25169.
    Meltzoff, A.N. and Gopnik, A. (1993) ‘The role of understanding persons and developing theory of mind’, in S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tagler-Flusberg (eds), Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives from Autism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.335366.
    Nicolls, E. (2004) ‘The contribution of the shared reading of expository books to the development of language and literacy’. DPhil dissertation, University of Oxford.
    Nutbrown, C. (2011) Threads of Thinking,
    edn. London: Sage.
    O’Sullivan, J. (2009) Leadership Skills in the Early Years: Making a Difference. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.
    Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) (2013) Getting it Right First Time: Achieving and Maintaining High-Quality Early Years Provision, Ofsted Report No. 130117, July. London: Ofsted, available at: (accessed 25 May 2015)
    Oller, D.K. and Eilers, R.E. (1988) ‘The role of audition in infant babbling’, Child Development, 59: 44149.
    Peer, L. (2005) Glue Ear. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Pine, J. (1994) ‘The language of primary caregivers’, in C. Gallaway and B. Richards (eds), Input and Interaction in Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1537.
    Riley, J. (2007) ‘The child, the context and early childhood education’, in J. Riley (ed.), Learning in the Early Years 3–7,
    edn. London: Sage, pp. 128.
    Riley, J. and Reedy, D. (2007) ‘Communication, language and literacy: Learning through speaking and listening, reading and writing’, in J. Riley (ed.), Learning in the Early Years 3–7,
    edn. London: Sage, pp. 65100.
    Robin, T. (2000) ‘La Rose de Jaipur’, from Ciel de Cuivre. Naïve Records.
    Robinshaw, H.M. (1996) ‘Acquisition of speech, pre- and post-cochlear implantation: Longitudinal studies of a congenitally deaf infant’, International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 31 (2): 12139.
    Robinson, M. (2003) ‘Role of staff’. Interview on Education Scotland Early Years website, available at: (accessed 7 August 2015)
    Saxton, M. (2010) Child Language Acquisition and Development. London: Sage.
    Sénéchal, M. and LeFevre, J. (2002) ‘Parental involvement in the development of children’s reading skill: A five-year longitudinal study’, Child Development, 73 (2): 44560.
    Sénéchal, M., LeFevre, J., Thomas, E.M. and Daley, K.E. (1998) ‘Differential effects of home literacy experiences on the development of oral and written language’, Reading Research Quarterly, 33: 96116.
    Siraj-Blatchford, I. (2010) ‘A focus on pedagogy: Case studies of effective practice’, in K. Sylva, E. Melhuish, P. Sammons, I. Siraj-Blatchford and B. Taggart (eds), Early Childhood Matters: Evidence from the Effective Pre-School and Primary Education Project. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 823.
    Siraj-Blatchford, I., Sylva, K., Muttock, S., Gilden, R. and Bell, D. (2002) Researching Effective Pedagogy in the Early Years, Department for Education and Skills (DfES) Research Report No. 356. London: DfES, available at: (last accessed 25 May 2015)
    Skinner, B.F. (1957) Verbal Behaviour. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Slonims, V., Cox, A. and McConachie, H. (2006) ‘Analysis of mother–infant interaction in infants with Down syndrome and typically developing infants’, American Journal on Mental Retardation, 111 (4): 27389.
    Snow, C. (1977) ‘Mothers’ speech research: From input to interaction’, in C. Snow and C. Ferguson (eds), Talking to Children: Language Input and Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 3150.
    Snow, C.E. (1991) ‘The theoretical basis for relationships between language and literacy in development’, Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 6 (1): 510.
    Soderstrom, M. (2007) ‘Beyond babytalk: Re-evaluating the nature and content of speech input to preverbal infants’, Developmental Review, 27 (4): 50132.
    Stadlen, N. (2004) What Mothers Do: Especially When it Looks Like Nothing. London: Piatkus Books.
    Stern, D.N. (1985) The Interpersonal World of the Infant: A View from Psychoanalysis and Developmental Psychology. New York: Basic Books.
    Stern, D.N. (1998) The Motherhood Constellation. London: Karnac Books.
    Stewart, N. (2011) How Children Learn: The Characteristics of Effective Early Learning. London: British Association for Early Childhood Education.
    Stilwell Peccei, J. (2006) Child Language: A Resource Book for Students. London: Routledge.
    Sylva, K., Melhuish, E.C., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Taggart, B. (2004) The Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE) Project: Final Report. London: Department for Education and Skills (DfES)/Institute of Education, University of London, available at: (last accessed 25 May 2015)
    Sylva, K., Melhuish, E.C., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Taggart, B. (2010) Early Childhood Matters: Evidence from the Effective Pre-School and Primary Education Project. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Tizard, B. and Hughes, M. (2002) Young Children Learning,
    edn. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Trevarthen, C. (1977) ‘Descriptive analyses of infant communicative behaviour’, in H.R. Schaffer (ed.), Studies in Mother–Infant Interaction. London: Academic Press.
    Trevarthen, C. (1979) ‘Communication and cooperation in early infancy: A description of primary intersubjectivity’, in M. Bullowa (ed.), Before Speech: The Beginnings of Interpersonal Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 32147.
    Trevarthen, C. and Daniel, S. (2005) ‘Disorganized rhythm and synchrony: Early signs of autism and Rett syndrome’, Brain and Development, 27 (Suppl. 1): S25S34.
    Trevarthen, C. and Hubley P. (1978) ‘Secondary intersubjectivity: Confidence, confiding and acts of meaning in the first year’, in A. Locke (ed.), Action, Gesture and Symbol: The Emergence of Language. London: Academic Press, pp. 183229.
    Trevarthen, C., Barr, I., Dunlop, A.-W., Gjersoe, N., Marwick, H. and Stephen, C. (2003) Supporting a Young Child’s Needs for Care and Affection, Shared Meaning and a Place: A Review of Childcare and the Development of Children Aged 0–3. Research Evidence, and Implications for Out-of-Home Provision. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, available at: (accessed 25 May 2015)
    Tronick, E., Als, H. and Adamson, L. (1979) ‘Structure of early face-to-face communicative interactions’, in M. Bullowa (ed), Before Speech: The Beginning of Interpersonal Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 34972.
    Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
    Warren, S.F., Gilkerson, S., Richards, J.A., Oller, D.K., Xu, D., Umit,Y. and Gray, S. (2010) ‘What automated vocal analysis reveals about the vocal production and language learning environment of young children with autism’, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 40: 55569.
    Wells, G. (1987) The Meaning Makers: Learning to Talk and Talking to Learn. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    Wells, G. (2009) The Meaning Makers: Learning to Talk and Talking to Learn,
    edn. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    Wells, G. and Gutfreund, M. (1987) ‘The conversational requirements for language learning’, in W. Yule and M. Rutter (eds), Language Development and Disorders. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 90102.
    White, J. (2014) Playing and Learning Outdoors,
    edn. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Wood, D. (1998) How Children Think and Learn. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
    Wood, H.A. and Wood, D.J. (1984) ‘An experimental evaluation of the effects of five styles of teacher conversation on the language of hearing-impaired children’, Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 25 (1): 4562.
    Yule, G. (2014) The Study of Language,
    edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website