Successful Administration of Senior Housing: Working with Elderly Residents


Nancy W. Sheehan

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    To my children, Kate, Liz, and Sarah, whose love makes our house a home


    View Copyright Page


    Considering that at least 2.5 million Americans live in housing explicitly planned for and occupied by people over age 60 or so, it is astonishing that this century of population aging has had to wait 92 years for the appearance of Dr. Sheehan's book. A less hyperbolic statement would date the high perceived salience of housing for older people from about 1959, but the years since that time have seen extraordinary concern for many facets of planned housing. National, state, and local levels, the governmental, nonprofit, and for-profit sectors, policy specialists, planners, designers, and researchers are some of the interest groups that have given major attention to this form of service for the elderly population. Service planners and deliverers have also recognized housing as an essential component of the total community service system.

    For some reason, however, housing as real estate (number of units), housing as a physical entity (designing for human needs), housing as a haven (physical security), and other images have dominated our concerns. Relatively absent has been the concept of housing as “care management,” a term used by James Sykes and elaborated as the overriding topic of Dr. Sheehan's book. Although many of us who have been active in supporting the growth of quality housing programs have bemoaned the neglect of housing administration as a developing profession, few attempts to fill the gap have appeared. One must, of course, acknowledge some concrete efforts that have been made to upgrade the quality of housing management through training programs. The American Association of Homes for the Aged has led the way for many years in providing seminars, instructional material, and certification guidelines for nonprofit management. The Real Estate Institute has shown some similar interest, and the National Center for Housing Management has valiantly attempted to provide training for people already engaged in management, but less rich in the care aspects of management.

    The absence of a source such as the present book may well have been a major factor in limiting the development of care management to a level equal to that of fiscal and administrative management. Very literally this is the first book ever written that attempts to apply the large body of knowledge in gerontology to the task of person-oriented housing administration. Compare this lack to the long list of books on housing policy and housing planning or design that has appeared over the past few decades. One of the problems is the contrast between the glitter of the physical housing and the intangibility of management. Few housing administrators have become heroes. It seems very likely, however, that Dr. Sheehan's book will have a hand in creating some such heroes.

    The reader will find the book informed by the last word in gerontological theory and research, integrated so successfully that one is aware primarily of the good sense displayed in the discussion of each of her topics. A real strength is her willingness to acknowledge the complexity of the issues she discusses. No person will experience a sense of unreality as he or she compares real management issues with the thoughtful suggestions advanced here. Effective administrative skills will become enhanced through the feelings of confidence engendered by Dr. Sheehan's acknowledgment of common problems and by the concrete suggestions offered for handling them.

    In particular, there are many areas in which positive control may be exercised by the administrator. Decisions regarding occupancy, orienting new tenants, monitoring the match between tenant need and what the housing can provide, fostering positive social attitudes and behaviors, enriching on-site housing programs, adapting the physical environment to individual needs, and relating the housing context to the external community of neighbors, family, and formal services are only a few of the topics discussed. Despite the clear suggestions made for applying knowledge to such problems, the overall philosophy of respect for tenant autonomy comes through at every step. The housing manager is ideally an effective partner of the tenant, not the expert who always knows best.

    Although many of these topics have been discussed in scattered literature, one section of her book provides material that is brand new and timely. As an expert in mental health and developmental disability, Dr. Sheehan has something new to say about dealing with the mental health of older tenants. Alcohol abuse, mental illness, mental retardation, and physical handicap, as well as possible age integration, are realities of the present-day housing scene. The Section 504 legislation of access and other more recent regulations specify the right of people with all types of disability to be accommodated in publicly assisted housing. The suggestion as to how management can deal with these admittedly difficult problems are fortified by first-hand knowledge of local programs that have successfully coped with integration of disabled and “mainstream” elders.

    A last thought is the hope that enhanced management expertise can help us survive what are surely the darkest days yet seen in the history of housing for the elders. The United States has endured a full decade of famine in planned housing for any but the most economically privileged elders. Every program except the Section 202 program has either stopped completely (e.g., new public housing construction) or has been pure political tokenism (e.g., the Congregate Housing Services Program or the Congregate Voucher Program). Existing housing is being starved in maintenance, rehabilitation, and service-support funding, despite the clear evidence that the aging-in-place population is straining the limits of such environments to meet its needs. A crisis of need and demand is certain to come in the last decade of the twentieth century.

    The lack of national economic resources is the obvious excuse given for such neglect. It will probably be several more years before the crisis deepens enough and political ideology moves enough to enable the nation to accept a realistic level of taxation and public-private partnership to reverse the neglect. In the meantime, creative, effective housing management may be our only hope. The silver lining of the housing neglect of the 1980s may be that there will finally be motivation to utilize management resources to their fullest potential. Creating good management out of hunger is a bad rationale for it, but if creative management achieves its momentum during a period of starvation, it should flourish extraordinarily well when housing resources in general improve.

    M.PowellLawton, Ph.D.Philadelphia Geriatric Center


    I am indebted to so many people who provided inspiration, help, and encouragement as I have pursued my interest in senior housing.

    The Applied Fellowship Program of the Gerontological Society of America and the Connecticut Department on Aging provided funding for my initial experience doing research in senior housing. From this early experience, I am particularly indebted to Kevin Mahoney, Ph.D., for his guidance and support in helping me learn about applied research. I am also indebted to the many elderly tenants in public senior housing who openly shared their experiences concerning living in senior housing.

    Other research endeavors examining facets of planned housing environments have been made possible with the support and cooperation of housing agencies throughout the state. The Connecticut Department of Housing, Connecticut Housing Finance Agency, and local housing authorities have provided consistent support and encouragement in facilitating research examining senior housing. Among the individuals who have made these partnerships possible are Michael Duffy and Richard LoPresti, Connecticut Department of Housing, Ralph Cheyney and Bette Meyerson, Connecticut Housing Finance Agency, and Horace McCaulley, Connecticut Department on Aging.

    In addition, the Administration on Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, has provided funding to carry out several model projects addressing the needs of older persons in senior housing. Both the Elderly Renters Project (90AT042501) and the Elderly Supportive Services Program (90AM043901) have provided the opportunity to work with many dedicated people working the fields of both aging and elderly housing. I am deeply indebted to the many people who have shared their knowledge, expertise, and skills in working with tenants in senior housing. The idea for this book grew out of the experiences of the Elderly Renters Project designed to train housing managers and social services providers to work with elderly tenants. This book is an attempt to address the complex issues that housing managers and social service providers identified growing out of their work with elderly tenants.

    Finally, without the help and technical assistance of my husband, Alfred Tufano, I would never have been able to complete this project. His tireless help in editing versions of the manuscript has provided the essential support and encouragement that I needed.

  • Appendix A: Assessment of Independent Living Skills

    Assessment of Independent Living Skills

    Appendix B: Computerized Case Management Assessment

    Example of Computerized Wellness Profile Functional Assessment


    Adams, R.G. (1985–1986). Emotional closeness and physical distance between friends: Implications for elderly women living in age-segregated and age-integrated settings. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 22, 55–76.
    Aging in place: “Indicators” trigger assessment (1989, October). Housing the Elderly Report, 10, 1–2.
    Alexander, F., & Duff, R. (1988). Social interaction and alcohol use in retirement communities. The Gerontologist, 28, 632–636.
    Allen, D.G. (1986). Alzheimer's disease. Madison: Center for Health Sciences of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Ambrogi, D.M. (1990). Nursing home admissions: Problematic process and agreements. Generations, XIV (Supplement), 72–74.
    American Psychiatric Association. (1988a). Anxiety disorders. Washington, DC: Author.
    American Psychiatric Association. (1988b). Obsessive-compulsive disorders. Washington, DC: Author.
    Amis, K. (1987). The old devils. New York: Summit Books, Simon and Schuster.
    Ansello, E.F., & Zink, M.B. (1990, February). The Partners Project: Targeting community-based research and education on aging developmental disabilities. Paper published in the Proceedings of the 1990 Lifelong Learning Research Conference, Arlington, Virginia.
    Antonucci, T.C. (1990). Social supports and social relationships. In R.H.Binstock & L.K.George (eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 205–226). New York: Academic Press.
    Atkinson, R. (1984). Substance abuse and abuse in later life. In R.Atkinson (ed.), Alcohol and drug abuse in old age (pp. 2–17). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
    Bauwens, S. (1986). Drug and alcohol abuse among older people. Madison: Center for Health Sciences of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., & McElroy, M.G. (1982). Relationships of hopelessness, depression and previous suicide attempts to suicidal ideation in alcoholics. Journal of Studies of Alcoholism, 43, 1042–1046.
    Benedict, R. (1977). Integrating housing and services of older persons. In W.Donahue, M.Thompson, & D.Cumen (eds.), Congregate housing for older persons: An urgent need, a growing demand (pp. 21–26). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Bennett, R. (1973). Living conditions and everyday needs of the aged with specific reference to social isolation. Journal of Aging and Human Development, 4, 179–198.
    Bevis, L., & Bing, L. (1961). Senior housing golden age center program. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Biegel, D.E., Shore, B.K., & Gordon, E. (1984). Building support networks for the elderly: Theory and application. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Bienenfeld, D. (1987). Alcoholism in the elderly. American Family Physician, 36, 163–169.
    Blank, T.O. (1991). Working with frail elderly renters: The physical environment. Storrs: University of Connecticut.
    Borgatta, E.F., Montgomery, R.J.V. & Borgatta, M.L. (1982). Alcohol use and abuse, life crisis events, and the elderly. Research on Aging, 4, 378–408.
    Brody, E.M. (1985). Parent care as a normative family stress. The Gerontologist, 25, 19–29.
    Brody, J. (1982). Aging and alcohol abuse. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 30, 123–126.
    Brody, J. (1984). Remarks during general discussion panel. In G.Maddox, L.Robins, and N.Rosenberg (eds.), Nature and extent of alcohol problems among the elderly (pp. 319–320). NIAAA Research Monograph No. 14, DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 84-1321. Washington: Government Printing Office.
    Butterfield, D., & Weidemann, S. (1987). Housing satisfaction of the elderly. In V.Regnier & J.Pynoos (eds.), Housing the aged: Design directives and policy considerations (pp. 133–152). New York: Elsevier North-Holland.
    Cantor, M., & Little, V. (1986). Aging and social care. In R.Binstock & E.Shanas (eds.), Handbook of aging and the social science (pp. 745–781). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    Carp, F. (1987). The impact of planned housing: A longitudinal study. In V.Regnier & J.Pynoos (eds.), Housing the aged: Design directives and policy considerations (pp. 43–79). New York: Elsevier North-Holland.
    Carstensen, L. (1987). Age-related changes in social activity. In L.Carstensen, & B.Edelstein (eds.), Handbook of clinical gerontology (pp. 222–237). New York: Pergamon.
    Cavanaugh, J.C. (1990). Adult development and aging. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Chappell, N.L., & Badger, M. (1990). Social isolation and well-being. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 44, 169–176.
    Charatan, F. (1985). Depression and the elderly: Diagnosis and treatment. Psychiatric Annals, 5, 313–316.
    Chellis, R., Seagle, J., & Seagle, B. (1982). Congregate housing for older persons: A solution for the 1980s. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Christensen, D., & Cranz, G. (1987). Examining physical and managerial aspects of urban housing for the elderly. In V.Regnier & J.Pynoos (eds.), Housing the aged: Design directives and policy considerations (pp. 105–132). New York: Elsevier North-Holland.
    Christenson, M.A. (1990). Aging in the designed environment. New York: Haworth.
    Clayton, D., Schmall, V., & Pratt, C. (1985). Enhancing linkages between formal services and the informal support systems of the elderly. Gerontology and Geriatrics, 5, 3–11.
    Cohen, F., Bearison, D.J., & Muller, C. (1987). Interpersonal understanding in the elderly. Research on Aging, 9, 79–100.
    Cohen, G.D. (1990). Psychopathology and mental health in the mature and elderly adult. In J.E.Birren, & K.W.Schaie (eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (pp. 359–374). New York: Academic Press.
    Cotten, P.D., & Spirrison, C.L. (1986). The elderly mentally retarded (developmentally disabled) population: A challenge for the service delivery system. In S.J.Brody, & G.E.Ruff (eds.), Aging and rehabilitation: Advances in the state of the art (pp. 159–187). New York: Springer.
    Cranz, G. (1987). Evaluating the physical environment: Conclusions from eight housing projects. In V.Regnier & J.Pynoos (eds.), Housing the aged: Design directives and policy considerations (pp. 81–104). New York: Elsevier North-Holland.
    Diamond, R.J. (1987). Depression among older people. Madison: Center for Health Sciences of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Diehl, P. (1990). Workbook for developing a Personal Care Sponsor Statement for the residents of Bacon Congregate Housing, Hop River Homes, Welles Country Village, Westerleigh. Vernon, CT: Elderly Housing Management.
    DiStefano, A.F., & Ashton, S.J. (1986). Rehabilitation for the blind and visually impaired. In S.J.Brody & G.E.Ruff (eds.), Aging and rehabilitation: Advances in the state of the art (pp. 203–217). New York: Springer.
    Ekerdt, D., DeLabry, L., Glynn, R., & Davis, R. (1989). Change in drinking behaviors with retirement: Findings from the Normative Aging Study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50, 347–353.
    Evans, D.A., Funkenstein, H.H., Albert, M.S., Scherr, P.A., Cook, N.R., Chown, M.J., Hebert, L.E., Hennekens, C.H., & Taylor, J.O. (1989). Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in a community population of older persons: Higher than previously reported. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262, 2551–2556.
    Faletti, M. (1984). Human factors research and functional environments for the aged. In I.Altman, M.P.Lawton, & J.Wohlwill (eds.), Elderly people and the environment (pp. 195–239). New York: Plenum.
    Falk, G.W., & Philbrick, J. (1991). Working with frail elderly renters: Legal issues for housing managers. Storrs: University of Connecticut.
    Feingold, E., & Werby, E. (1990). Supporting the independence of elderly residents through control over their environment. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 6, 25–32.
    Finlayson, R.E. (1984). Prescription drug abuse in older persons. In R.M.Atkinson (ed.), Alcohol and drug abuse in old age (pp. 62–70). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
    Fisk, C.F. (1988, March). Address. Surgeon General's Workshop: Health Promotion and Aging. Proceedings. Social Security Administration Publication No. 11-11542. Baltimore, MD: Social Security Administration.
    Froland, C. (1982). Community support systems: All things to all people. In D.Biegel, & A.Naparstek (eds.), Community support systems and mental health (pp. 253–266). New York: Springer.
    Gaitz, C, & Baer, P. (1971). Characteristics of elderly patients with alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 24, 372–378.
    Gaylord, S.A., & Zung, W.W.K. (1987). Affective disorders among the elderly. In L.L.Carstensen, & B.A.Edelstein (eds.), Handbook of clinical gerontology (pp. 76–95). New York: Pergamon.
    Hamden Housing Authority. (1990). Personal Care Sponsor Statement. Hamden, CT: Author.
    Harel, Z., & Harel, B. (1978). On-site coordinated services in age-segregated and age-integrated public housing. The Gerontologist, 18, 153–158.
    Hellman, L.H. (1990). Senior resident vs. senior highrise—Liability for transferring elderly residents. In L.Pastalan (ed.), Aging in place: The role of housing and social supports (pp. 101–105). New York: Haworth.
    Hiatt, L. (1987). Designing for the vision and hearing impaired. In V.Regnier, & J.Pynoos (eds.), Housing the aged: Design directives and policy considerations (pp. 341–372). New York: Elsevier North-Holland.
    Hofland, B. (1990). Value and ethical issues in residential environments for the elderly. In D.Tilson (ed.), Aging in place: Supporting the frail elderly in residential environments (pp. 241–271). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    Holshouser, W.L. (1985). Aging in place: The demographic and service needs of elders in urban public housing. Boston, MA: Citizens Housing and Planning Association.
    Hooyman, N. (1983). Social support networks in services to the elderly. In J.Whittaker, & J.Garbarino and Associates (Eds.), Social support networks: Informal helping in the human services (pp. 133–164). Hawthorne, NY: Aldine.
    Hurt, R., Finlayson, R., Morse, R., & Davis, L. (1988). Alcoholism in elderly persons: Medical aspects and prognosis of 216 inpatients. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 63, 753–760.
    Kane, R.A., & Kane, R.L. (1981). Assessing the elderly: A practical guide to measurement. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Karasik, R.J. (1989). Social interaction and integration among elderly, frail elderly, and younger handicapped tenants of public senior housing. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Connecticut, Storrs.
    Krause, M.W. (1986). Long-term care issues in mental retardation. Paper presented at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Kennedy Foundation Conference, Mental retardation: Accomplishments and new frontiers, Bethesda, MD.
    Kultgen, P., & Guidry, J., Cohen, G.J., Sanddal, N., & Bourne, B. (1989). Enhancing services for mentally retarded/developmentally disabled residents in nursing homes. Kansas City, MO: UMKC Institute for Human Development University Program Affiliated Program for Developmental Disabilities and Columbia, MO: Office of Continuing Education and Extension.
    Kuypers, J.A., & Bengston, V.L. (1983). Toward competence in the older family. In T.H.Brubaker (ed.), Family relationships in later life (pp. 211–228). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Lawton, M.P. (1975). Planning and managing housing for the elderly. Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole Publishing.
    Lawton, M.P. (1980). Environment and aging. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Lawton, M.P. (1983). Environment and other determinants of well-being in older persons. The Gerontologist, 23, 349–357.
    Lawton, M.P. (1985). The elderly in context: Perspectives from environmental psychology and gerontology. Environment and Behavior, 17, 501–519.
    Lawton, M.P., Greenbaum, M., & Liebowitz, B. (1980). The lifespan of housing environments. The Gerontologist, 20, 56–64.
    Lawton, M.P., Moss, M., & Grimes, M. (1985). The changing service needs of older tenants in planned housing. The Gerontologist, 25, 258–264.
    Lawton, M.P., & Nahemow, L. (1973). Ecology and the aging process. In C.Eisdorfer, & M.P.Lawton (eds.), Psychology of adult development and aging (pp. 619–674). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Manton, K.G. (1984, March). The future growth of the long-term care population: Projection based on 1977 National Nursing Home Survey and the 1982 Long-Term Care Survey. In U.S. Congress, Senate, Special Committee on Aging, Development in Aging Report (Vol. 1.).
    Manton, K.G., & Liu, K. (1984). The future growth of the long-term care population: Projections based on the 1977 national nursing home survey and the 1981 long-term care survey. Washington, DC: Health Care Financing Administration.
    Moore, G.T. (1986, November). The environment in interactional and transactional theories of environment and aging. Paper presented at the 39th Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Chicago.
    Moos, R.H., Lemke, S., & David, T.G. (1987). Priorities fordesign and management in residential settings for the elderly. In V.Regnier & J.Pynoos (eds.), Housing the aged: Designing directives and policy considerations (pp. 179–206). New York: Elsevier North-Holland.
    Morris, J., Gutkin, C, Ruchlin, H., & Sherwood, S. (1990). Aging in place: A longitudinal example. In D.Tilson (ed.), Aging in place: Supporting the frail elderly in residential environments (pp. 25–52). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    Morse, R. (1988). Substance abuse among the elderly. Bulletin of the Menniger Clinic, 52, 259–269.
    National Center for Health Statistics. (1986, September). Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey. DHHS Pub No. (PHS) 86-1588, Hyattsville, MD: Author.
    National Institute on Aging Eighth Report to Council on Program Fiscal Year1986. (1986). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    National Mental Health Association. (1986). Schizophrenia. Alexandria, VA: Author.
    National Mental Health Association. (1987). Stigma: A lack of awareness and understanding. Alexandria, VA: Author.
    National Mental Health Association. (1988). Depression. Alexandria, VA: Author.
    Newman, S. (1985). Housing and long term care: The suitability of the elderly's housing to the provision of in-home services. The Gerontologist, 25, 35–40.
    Newman, S. (1990). The frail elderly in the community: An overview of characteristics. In D.Tilson (ed.), Aging in place: Supporting the frail elderly in residential environments (pp. 3–24). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    Osgood, N.J. (1987). The alcohol-suicide connection in late life. Postgraduate Medicine, 81, 379–384.
    Parmelee, P.A., & Lawton, M.P. (1990). The design of special environments for the aged. In J.E.Birren & K.W.Schaie (eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (pp. 464–488). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Pastalan, L.A. (1990). Designing a humane environment for the frail elderly. In D.Tilson (ed.), Aging in place: Supporting frail elderly in residential environments (pp. 273–286). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    Patterson, C. (1990). Meeting the demands of a graying America, Journal of Property Management (reprint).
    Perry, D., Kurland, J., & Citron, H. (1989). More than a place to live: A training manual for managers of housing and health care facilities for the elderly. Baltimore, MD: National Health Publishing.
    Philbrick, J., Sheehan, N.W., & Blank, T. (1991). Managing for success: Problem solving strategies in working with frail elderly renters (90AT0425/01). Washington, DC: Administration on Aging.
    Pruzinsky, E.W. (1987). Alcohol and the elderly: An overview of problems in the elderly and implications for social work practice. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 11, 81–93.
    Pynoos, J. (1987). Housing the aged. Public policy at the cross-roads. In V.Regnier, & J.Pynoos (eds.), Housing the aged: Design directives and policy considerations (pp. 25–40). New York: Elsevier North-Holland.
    Pynoos, J. (1990). Public policy and aging in place: Identifying the problems and solutions. In D.Tilson (ed.), Aging in place: Supporting the frail elderly in residential environments (pp. 167–208). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    Randolph, F.L., Laux, B., & Carling, P.J. (1987). In search of housing: Creative approaches to financing integrated housing. (Monograph Series on Housing and Rehabilitation in Mental Health). Boston, MA: Boston University, Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation.
    Rathbone-McCuan, E., & Hashimi, J. (1982). Isolated elders. Rockville, MD: Aspen Systems.
    Regnier, V. (1987). Design directives: Current knowledge and future needs. In V.Regnier, & J.Pynoos (eds.), Housing the aged: Design directives and policy considerations (pp. 3–24). New York: Elsevier North-Holland.
    Rodin, J., Timko, C, & Harris, S. (1985). The construct of control: Biological and psychosocial correlates. Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 5, 3–55.
    Roff, L.L., & Atherton, C.R. (1989). Promoting successful aging. Chicago: Nelson Hall.
    Rook, K. (1984). The negative side of social interaction: Impact on psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 1097–1108.
    Ryff, C. (1986, November). The failure of successful aging research. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Chicago.
    Ryther, B. (1987). Aging in place … training for managers. Washington, DC: Council of State Housing Agencies and the National Association of State Units on Aging.
    Schlesinger, L., & Morris, J. (1982). Characteristics of public housing clients. In J.Morris, S.Sherwood, & L.Schlesinger (eds.), Serving the vulnerable elderly in Massachusetts: The role of the Commonwealth's Home Care Corporations (pp. 101–108). Report submitted to the Massachusetts Department of Elder Affairs.
    Seltzer, M.M., & Krause, M.W. (1987). Aging and mental retardation: Extending the continuum. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.
    Sheehan, N.W. (1986a). Aging of tenants: Termination policy in public senior housing. The Gerontologist, 26, 505–509.
    Sheehan, N.W. (1986b). Informal support among the elderly in public senior housing. The Gerontologist, 26, 171–175.
    Sheehan, N.W. (1987). “Aging in place” in public senior housing: Past trends and future needs. Home Health Care Services Quarterly, 8, 55–77.
    Sheehan, N.W. (1988a). The Caregiver Information Project: Establishing an information network for family caregivers (No. 90AT0309/01). Final Report submitted to the Administration on Aging, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.
    Sheehan, N.W. (1988b). The dynamics of helping behavior in congregate housing. Activities, Aging and Adaptation, 12, 13–26.
    Sheehan, N.W. (1989). The Caregiver Information Project: A mechanism to assist religious leaders to help family caregivers. The Gerontologist, 29, 703–706.
    Sheehan, N.W. (1991). The Elderly Renters Project: A model training program for housing managers and social service providers (90AT0425/01). Washington, DC: Administration on Aging.
    Sheehan, N.W., & Mahoney, K. (1984). Connecticut's elderly living in public senior housing. Report submitted to the Gerontological Society of America, Washington, DC.
    Spring, J.C, & Kuehn, N.H. (1990). Legal services. In A.Monk (ed.), Handbook of gerontological services (pp. 420–449). New York: Columbia University Press.
    Springer, D., & Brubaker, T. (1984). Family caregivers and impaired elderly: Minimizing stress and maximizing independence. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Struyk, R.J. (1987). Housing adaptations: Needs and practices. In V.Regnier, & J.Pynoos (eds.), Housing the aged: Design directives and policy considerations (pp. 259–276). New York: Elsevier North-Holland.
    Suggs, P.K., Stephens, V., & Kivett, V.R. (1987). Coming, going, remaining in public housing: How do the elderly fare?Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 4, 87–104.
    Summers, J., & Reese, M. (1986). Residential services. In J.Summers (ed.), The right to grow up (pp. 119–148). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
    Sykes, J.T. (1989). Housing managers care managers. Madison: Center for Health Sciences of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Taylor, S.E., & Brown, J.D. (1988). Illusion and well-being. A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 193–210.
    Tenant Assistance Program of the Massachusetts Housing Finance Agency (1991). Alcohol abuse: A guide for managers for the elderly. Boston: Massachusetts Housing Finance Agency.
    Thompson, M. (1982). Enriching environments for older persons. In R.Chellis, J.Seagle, & B.Seagle (eds.), Congregate housing for older persons: A solution for the 1980s (pp. 1–12). Lexington, MA: D. C. Health.
    Tilson, D., & Fahey, C.J. (1990). Introduction. In D.Tilson (ed.), Aging in place: Supporting the frail elderly in residential environments (pp. xv–xxxiii). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    Timko, C, & Moos, R.H. (1990). Determinants of interpersonal support and self-direction in group residential facilities. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 45, S184–192.
    Tiven, M., & Ryther, M. (1986). State initiatives in elderly housing: What's new, what's tried and true. Washington, DC: Council on State Housing Agencies and National Association of State Units on Aging.
    Tobias, C, Lippmann, S., Pary, R., Oropilla, T., & Embry, C. (1989). Alcoholism in the elderly: How to spot and treat a problem the patient want to hide. Postgraduate Medicine, 86, 67–79.
    Tobin, S.S., & Toseland, R.W. (1990). Models of services for the elderly. In A.Monk (ed.), Handbook of gerontological services (pp. 27–51). New York: Columbia University Press.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1987, September). Report to Congress by Task Force on Long-Term Care Policies. Washington, DC.
    U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (1983, August). Memo from the U.S. Department of Urban Development Boston Regional Office, Boston, MA.
    U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Boston Regional Office, Region 1 (1991, April). Memo concerning screening tenants and complying with civil rights laws. Boston, MA.
    United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Aging. (1989). The 1988 National Survey of Section 202 Housing for the Elderly and Handicapped. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    United States Senate, Special Committee on Aging. (1990). Special Committee on Aging, Developments in aging:1989 (Vol.1). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Wolfsen, C.R., Barker, J.C., & Mitteness, L.S. (1990). Personalization of formal social relationships by the elderly. Research on Aging, 12, 94–112.

    Name Index

    About the Author

    Nancy W. Sheehan, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor in the School of Family Studies, University of Connecticut, Storrs, and a Faculty Associate of the Travelers Center on Aging. Her most recent scholarly activity has examined the role of informal support in the lives of elderly persons. Specific areas of research include: informal support and helping among elderly tenants in senior housing, family caregiving, and the role of the church in providing aging supportive services. Most recently she has been involved in developing a model training program for housing managers and social service providers to assist them in responding to the needs of elderly tenants who have aged in place. In addition, she is investigating the impact of the placement of Resident Services Coordinators in federally assisted senior housing on elderly tenants' well-being. She has coauthored Managing for Success: Problem Solving Strategies for Working with Frail Elderly Tenants. Her publications examining elderly housing issues have appeared in The Gerontologist, Journal of Gerontological Social Work, and Home Health Care Services Quarterly.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website