Stress and Health: Biological and Psychological Interactions is a brief and accessible examination of psychological stress and its psychophysiological relationships with cognition, emotions, brain functions, and the peripheral mechanisms by which the body is regulated. Updated throughout, the Third Edition covers two new and significant areas of emerging research: how our early life experiences alter key stress responsive systems at the level of gene expression; and what large, normal, and small stress responses may mean for our overall health and well-being.
Chapter 4: Physical and Psychological Stress
Physical and Psychological Stress
- Some stressors are challenges to homeostasis because they threaten the physical integrity of the system.
- Some stressors originate as thoughts and ideas that cause negative emotions.
- The two types of stressors are fundamentally different in nature. Physical stressors act at the peripheral physiology. Psychological stressors originate in higher brain centers.
- Exercise increases cardiovascular activation due to both top-down and bottom-up effects on the system.
- Sympathetic autonomic outflow to the periphery can increase cardiovascular activation based on exercise-like behavioral demands. Cortisol is more specifically tied to negative affective states.
In order to consider the possible effects of long-term stress on the body, we should first examine the acute changes that occur during brief periods of stress. This information helps answer our original ...