Stress and Health: Biological and Psychological Interactions, Second Edition examines the biological links between our emotions and changes in our health. Author William R. Lovallo provides an introduction to the concept of psychological stress, its physiological manifestations, and its effects on health and disease. The book concentrates on the psychophysiological relationship between cognitions, emotions, brain functions, and the peripheral mechanisms by which the body is regulated. Stress and Health is the only book on the biology of psychological stress for students and researchers in the behavioral sciences.
Chapter 4: Homeostatic Regulation
Understanding homeostatic regulation during stress requires understanding the mechanisms the body uses to maintain homeostatic function during more normal periods. We can divide homeostatic regulation into five layers:
- Organs and their local reflexes. Organs can regulate their own functions with systems of built-in reflexes that need no higher level of control to function effectively.
- Autonomic and endocrine messengers. The autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system form two channels of descending communication from the central nervous system to the individual organs.
- Brainstem regulation. The brainstem regulates autonomic outputs to the organs through a complex network of reflex centers.
- Hypothalamic integrations. The hypothalamus regulates endocrine messengers to the body. It also coordinates actions of the brainstem autonomic nuclei.
- Inputs from higher brain centers. Brain areas above the hypothalamus ...