Strategic Management in Schools and Colleges

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Edited by: David Middlewood & Jacky Lumby

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    Series Editor's Foreword

    As we approach the new millennium, the pace of change affecting educational institutions shows no sign of slackening. National governments, anxious about the performance of schools and conscious of the link between educational achievement and economic growth, continue to impose new demands and to expect ‘results’ within tough and often unrealistic timescales. These requirements range widely and may include the curriculum, teaching and learning, staff management, budgeting and external relations, all within a framework of ‘school improvement’.

    In England and Wales, and in many other English-speaking countries, the responsibility for implementing national reforms rests largely with the leaders of individual institutions. The shift to self-managing schools, and incorporated colleges, means that the role of intermediary bodies, such as the local education authorities, has been much reduced. Principals, senior staff and lay governors are expected to lead their institutions towards the fulfilment of school objectives within the framework of national policies.

    Because the levers of control are largely held at institutional level, it is both possible and desirable for leaders to adopt a strategic approach to management. This stance involves taking a holistic view of the organisation and planning for the long term within a framework of clearly articulated values and objectives. Strategic management requires the ability to integrate different aspects of the school to ensure the best possible educational outcomes.

    The development of effective managers in education requires the support of literature which presents the major issues in clear, intelligible language while drawing on the best of theory and research. The purpose of this series is to examine the management of schools and colleges, drawing on empirical evidence. The approach is analytical rather than descriptive and generates conclusions about the most appropriate ways of managing schools and colleges on the basis of research evidence.

    The aim of this series, and of this volume, is to develop a body of literature with the following characteristics:

    • Directly relevant to school and college management.
    • Prepared by authors with national and international reputations.
    • An analytical approach based on empirical evidence but couched in intelligible language.
    • Integrating the best of theory, research and practice.

    Strategic Management in Schools and Colleges is the second volume in the series and it is underpinned by the view that a strategic approach is essential if leaders are to handle, and integrate, the plethora of internal and external initiatives. Self-management presents serious challenges for managers but also provides the potential for self-determination in a way that was simply not possible before this fundamental reform. Strategy was formerly the business of local or regional government but is now very much the responsibility of internal leaders. The purpose of this book is to support managers in developing the strategic approach which is vitally important to successful self-management.

    TonyBushUniversity of Leicester September 1997

    Preface

    At the end of the 1990s, as we approach the millennium, a book on strategic management may seem to be particularly relevant because of the topic's requirement to take account of the future. As the future in education faces ever-increasing change and an ever-faster pace of change, the need is greater than ever for managers and leaders who will be skilled in the ability to influence their institutions' futures.

    Equally relevant, as far as the future is concerned, the shift in many countries over recent years to the self-management of schools and colleges has brought a double-edged pressure. On the one hand there is greater freedom for schools and colleges to shape their own futures; on the other, there is a far greater necessity in a self-managing world with an emphasis on performance for individual schools and colleges to succeed – or close down.

    In England and Wales, the legislation of the Education Reform Act (ERA) in the late 1980s and the incorporation of further education colleges in the early 1990s mean that schools and colleges now have sufficient experience for research into that experience to be relevant. Since strategic management concerns itself with longer time frames than operational management, institutions and their managers are now in a position to learn from those first years of, for example, initial strategic planning.

    During the 1990s, requirements and pressures have been placed upon schools and colleges to produce development plans and/or strategic plans by bodies such as the Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) and the Further Education Funding Council (FEFC). The introduction of a new qualification for headteachers in schools (NPQH) has also recognised the critical importance of strategic management through making it the compulsory and most important element of what is needed for effective school leadership.

    To all these factors supporting the need for a book such as this can be added the fact that very little literature exists at present upon strategic management which is specific to schools and colleges. There is ample literature from the business world, some of which of course is relevant to education and referred to by contributors in this volume. However, there is much in that literature which is clearly not relevant and there is, therefore, a need to examine the situation of schools and colleges specifically.

    Strategic management involves taking a view of the whole organisation, its key purpose, its direction and its place in its environment. In so doing, strategic managers must consider carefully their accountability to a wide variety of stakeholders who are involved in the education that their institution provides. These stakeholders may range from taxpayers at the national level to local employers and parents, as well as, most notably, students and children themselves. This area of accountability is one where business differs from education in the nature of who the stakeholders are and the nature of their relationship with the managers themselves. The theme of accountability therefore is a recurring one in this volume and most contributors see it as a key aspect of the strategic issue with which they are concerned.

    Strategic management as described above has relevance to all educational institutions, regardless of size and composition. A small rural primary school, for example, with three teachers has the same imperative to review its key purpose, its place in its local community, to look at the opportunities and challenge of the future and be concerned about its growth or survival as does a large FE college or secondary school in an urban area, competing for students with neighbouring rival institutions. The NPQH requirements recognise this, of course. This book therefore will have relevance for managers in all educational institutions whatever their size.

    Many aspects of strategic management are generic and the title of this volume, Strategic Management in Schools and Colleges, reflects the editors' belief that the issues involved are meaningful to managers in all educational institutions. However, there are a few areas where the processes are markedly different between statutory schooling and further education. In a few cases, therefore, chapters have been commissioned that are phase specific; these relate to those on the formal planning processes and the specific governance of schools.

    The purpose of this book is to harness relevant research and theory in order to enhance management practice in education. It aims to avoid that kind of literature which prescribes ‘best practice’ for managers but provides little empirical support for such prescriptions. The editors' intention is to provide information and ideas from the most recent research and to stimulate and suggest practical ways of developing an aspect of the role of those managing in schools and colleges. The book is meant to enrich and provide possibilities, not to deter by setting up a normative picture of the ideal, which no ordinary human could achieve! All chapters have been specifically commissioned for this volume.

    The book is organised in four sections each of which addresses broad aspects of strategic management. Section A examines strategic management in terms of definitions and purposes, as well as some of the major factors affecting its effectiveness. An overview of strategic management and thinking is followed by studies of vision and mission, and organisational culture. Section B focuses on the critical aspects of implementing strategy, including some of those most relevant to the educational context today such as marketing and resources. The importance of planning is examined separately for schools and for further education colleges. Section C concentrates on the management roles undertaken by people in implementing strategy. The vital importance of collaborative management is examined first and then the contributions of leaders, middle managers and school governors. Section D studies the least examined part of strategic management, that of evaluating and reviewing its effectiveness. Approaches to review are examined first, followed by a study of the place of external inspection in the process and a final reflective analysis of strategic change.

    Some criticisms of recent years have focused on the gap between the managerialism of leaders and the key purpose of a school or college, i.e. teaching and learning. The editors readily acknowledge the central importance of teaching and learning which should be the focus for educational leaders. They also believe that the ability to know the future direction of that teaching and learning, to identify and hold to that path over the next few years are of major importance.

    The editors are grateful to all the contributors whose work is featured in this book for their co-operation. We also wish to thank Tony Bush as series editor for his personal support and professional expertise offered so generously to us, Marianne Lagrange of Paul Chapman Publishing for her support and advice, and Christopher Bowring-Carr for preparing the index. Finally, we express our warmest thanks to Joyce Palmer and Debbie Simister for their invaluable work in producing the manuscript and to Jacqui and David (from David and Jacky respectively!) and other family members for their encouragement, patience and support.

    DavidMiddlewood and JackyLumby October 1997

    Notes on Contributors

    Tony Bush is Professor of Educational Management and Director of the Educational Management Development Unit at the University of Leicester. He was formerly a teacher in secondary schools and colleges and a professional officer with a local education authority. He was Senior Lecturer in Educational Policy and Management at the Open University before joining Leicester in January 1992. He has published extensively on several aspects of educational management. His main recent books are Managing Autonomous Schools: The Grant Maintained Experience (1993, with M. Coleman and D. Glover, Paul Chapman), The Principles of Educational Management (1994, with J. West-Burnham, Longman), Theories of Educational Management (1995, Paul Chapman) and Managing People in Education (1997, with David Middlewood, Paul Chapman).

    Carol Cardno is Professor of Educational Management and Head of the School of Education at UNITEC Institute of Technology, New Zealand. She has a wide experience of teaching and managing having taught in primary and secondary schools, and held several senior management positions and the position of principal in a secondary school before establishing an Education Management Centre at UNITEC in 1991. Carol is the author of Collaborative Management in New Zealand Schools (1990, Longman Paul), Effective Performance Appraisal (1997, with Eileen Piggot-Irvine, Longman) and several papers on topics related to her research interests which are staff appraisal, organisational learning, collaborative management and management development.

    Marianne Coleman has extensive experience in education, mainly teaching in secondary schools, and also working in the advisory service of a large LEA. She is co-author of Managing Autonomous Schools: The Grant Maintained Experience. She has also published a range of materials as part of the EMDU's distance-learning MBA, including ‘Marketing in education’ and ‘Women in educational management’. She has published articles on gender issues in management and contributed chapters to the widely read Principles of Educational Management (1995, T. Bush and J. West-Burnham) and Managing People in Education (1997, T. Bush and D. Middlewood). She has also written on the subject of mentoring. She is currently engaged in comparative research projects in China and South Africa.

    Michael Creese taught physics before becoming the headteacher of a 13–18 school in his native county of Suffolk. He then moved into governor training and was awarded his doctorate for a thesis on governor-teacher relationships. His book Effective Governors – Effective Schools; Developing the Partnership was published in 1995. He now works as a freelance consultant/researcher and is currently conducting research into the role of governors in school improvement.

    Peter Earley was a schoolteacher originally. He then worked for many years at the National Foundation for Educational Research undertaking a number of projects in the areas of educational management, governance and professional development. He is currently a senior lecturer in the Management Development Centre at the Institute of Education, University of London, where he is also an associate director of the International School of Effectiveness and Improvement Centre. He is currently researching school governing bodies and their role in school improvement. His most recent publications include Improvement through Inspection: Complementary Approaches to School Development and OFSTED Inspections: The Early Years (both edited with Fidler and Ouston and published by David Fulton in 1996).

    Keith Foreman was the principal of two community colleges in Cambridgeshire and Leicestershire before joining the Educational Management Development Unit of Leicester University in 1994 as Senior Tutor. He is a consultant to schools and LEAs, and was a member of the DES School Management Task Force from 1989 to 1992. His research interests lie in the broad field of school leadership.

    Nick Foskett has taught in both secondary and post-16 sectors and has held middle and senior management posts in a range of educational institutions, including roles as marketing manager. He is currently Senior Lecturer in Education at the University of Southampton, and Director of the Centre for Research in Education Marketing. His work includes management training and staff development with school and college managers, heads and principals, and he has provided marketing consultancy to schools, colleges, universities and government organisations. His specific interests lie in marketing and strategic planning in education, and he has researched and published extensively in these fields.

    Valerie Hall is Reader in Education in the Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol. She currently manages the taught doctor of education (EdD) programme at the University of Bristol, the first of its kind in Europe. She has taught in schools, colleges and universities for over 30 years. During the past 20 years she has been involved in a number of research projects, including the POST Project looking at the selection of secondary heads, the CROSH Project (changing role of the secondary head) and the SMT Project (senior management teams in secondary schools). Her latest book, Dancing on the Ceiling: A Study of Women Managers in Education, describes her study of education management from a gender perspective.

    Brian Hardie has taught children and adults in a variety of schools and universities for 35 years. Ten years were spent in three secondary schools including being a head of department. Fifteen years were spent teaching in primary schools first as a teaching deputy and subsequently as head of a middle school. In three universities he has taught master's students education management for over ten years in the UK, USA and Israel. He has published the books Marketing in the Primary School (1991, Northcote House) and Evaluating in the Primary School (1995, Northcote House) as well as contributing to edited volumes.

    Edith Jayne is currently running the portfolio of education leadership and management courses at the University College of St Mark and St John in Plymouth after similar appointments at two other universities. She began her career teaching early years and then heading an innovative community nursery school (in the USA). Following childrearing breaks, she then spent a decade doing educational research for the Inner London Education Authority. Her research interests are in school effectiveness and women leaders.

    Jacky Lumby is a lecturer in educational management at the Educational Management Development Unit at Leicester University. She has previously taught in a range of educational settings, including schools, community and further education. Prior to joining Leicester University, she worked in a training and enterprise council with responsibility for the development of managers in both business and education. Current projects include research in the management of vocational education in China and human resource management in South African schools. She has published articles on the management of the curriculum and the development of managers in further education and also on the development of headteachers. She has published within EMDU's distance-learning MBA and was a contributor to the previous volume in this series, Managing People in Education (1997, T. Bush and D. Middlewood).

    David Middlewood is a senior tutor in educational management and Director of School and College-based Programmes at the Educational Management Development Unit of the University of Leicester. He taught in schools and community colleges for 25 years, including nine years as a headteacher, before joining Leicester University in 1990. His special interests are appraisal (in which he has extensive research experience), staff selection and development and management structures. His publications include work on appraisal, human resources and development planning, and most recently Managing People in Education (1997, with Tony Bush), the first volume in this series. Current research involves human resource management in South African schools.

    Tim Simkins is Head of the Centre for Education Management and Administration in the School of Education at Sheffield Hallam University. He has more than 20 years' experience teaching, consulting, researching and writing on education planning and management both in the UK and a number of overseas countries, and is currently Chair of the British Educational Management and Administration Society. His particular interests are in strategic and resource management in education and the management of educational change in developing countries.

  • Glossary of Terms

    CEFCollege Employers Forum.
    CERICentre for Educational Research and Innovation.
    DESDepartment of Education and Science.
    DFEEDepartment for Education and Employment.
    ECISEuropean Council of International Schools.
    ERAEducation Reform Act 1988.
    FEDAFurther Education Development Agency.
    FEFCFurther Education Funding Council.
    FEUFurther Education Unit.
    GMgrant maintained.
    GNVQGeneral National Vocational Qualification.
    HEADLAMPHeadteacher Leadership and Management Programme.
    HEIhigher education institution.
    HMCIHer Majesty's Chief Inspector of Schools.
    HMIHer Majesty's Inspector.
    HRMhuman resource management.
    INSETin-service education and training (of teachers).
    ITEinitial teacher education.
    LEAlocal education authority.
    LMIlabour market information.
    LMSlocal management of schools.
    MCIManagement Charter Initiative.
    NAONational Audit Office.
    NCNational Curriculum.
    NCENational Commission for Education.
    NFERNational Foundation for Educational Research.
    NPQHNational Professional Qualification for Headship.
    NQTnewly qualified teacher.
    NVQNational Vocational Qualification.
    OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
    OfstedOffice for Standards in Education.
    PIperformance indicator.
    PITPool of Inactive Teachers.
    PRPperformance related pay.
    SDPschool development plan.
    SMTsenior management team.
    SMTFschool management taskforce.
    SWOTstrengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.
    TECTraining and Enterprise Council.
    TESThe Times Educational Supplement.
    TTATeacher Training Agency.
    TQMtotal quality management.

    Author Index

    • Abbott, I. 6
    • Aitken, G. 56
    • Ansoff, H. I. and McDonnell, E. J. 195, 196, 199, 200
    • Argenti, J. 98
    • Attwell, G. 197
    • Audit Commission 66, 68, 70
    • Audit Commission/Ofsted 68, 70, 100, 123, 131
    • Austin, M. 93
    • Bagley, C., Woods, P. and Glatter, R. 55
    • Bailey, A. and Johnson, G. 177, 187
    • Ball, S. 143
    • Barth, R. 22
    • Bartlett, W. and Le Grand, J. 47
    • Bassett-Jones, N. and Brewer, R. 99
    • Beare, H., Caldwell, B. and Millikan, R. 22, 33, 35, 36, 117
    • Bell, J. and Harrison, B. T. 29
    • Bennett, N. 149, 150, 152, 155
    • Bennis, W. and Nanus, B. 20–1, 30
    • Biott, C., Easen, P. and Atkins, M. 82
    • BIS/DFE/Ofsted 122, 126, 128
    • Bhindi, N. and Duignan, P. 137–8, 148
    • Blandford, S. 159
    • Blase, J. and Kirby, P. 142
    • Block, P. 22, 23
    • Boiset, M. 81
    • Bolam, R., McMahon, A., Pocklington, K, and Weindling, D. 25, 28, 139, 140, 142, 144
    • Bollen, R. 1
    • Bolman, L. G. and Deal, T. E. 139
    • Bourdieu, P. and Wacquant, L. 49
    • Bowe, R. and Ball, S. 72
    • Bradford LEA 79
    • Bradley, B. 65
    • Bridge, W. 34, 40, 42
    • Bridges, E. M. 111
    • Brighouse, T. 49
    • Brimblecombe, N., Ormston, M. and Shaw, M. 185, 188
    • Brown, A. 39
    • Brown, M. and Rutherford, D. 155
    • Bryson, J. M. 105, 108, 111, 117
    • Bull, J. 195, 199, 200
    • Bullock, A. and Thomas, H. 69, 74
    • Burridge, E. and Ribbins, P. 80, 88
    • Burton, S. 158
    • Bush, T. 3, 33, 39, 106, 137
    • Busher, H. and Saran, R. 4, 5
    • Caldwell, B. and Spinks, J. 11, 21–2, 140, 173, 186
    • Campbell-Evans, G. 36
    • Cardno, C. 106, 110
    • Carlson, R. 2
    • Carroll, S. 72
    • Carroll, S. and Walford, G. 53
    • Centre for Education Research and Innovation (CERI) 179–80
    • Clark, J. 39
    • Clarke, J. and Newman, J. 48
    • Clemmett, A.J. and Pearce, J.S. 181
    • Cohen, M. D. and March, J.G. 80
    • Collins, C. and Porras, J. 19, 27
    • Corrick, M. 120, 121, 122
    • Covey, S. 23
    • Cowell, D. 58
    • Cowham, T. 11, 14, 102, 157
    • Credland, I. 152
    • Creese, M. 129,
    • Creese, M. and Bradley, H. 126
    • Crisp, P. 91, 92, 157
    • Curtis, A. 120, 130
    • Dalin, P. with Rolff, H. and Kleekamp, B. 294
    • Davies, B. and Ellison, L. 78, 87
    • Davies, P. and Scribbins, K. 59
    • Deal, T. 32
    • Dearing, R. 157
    • Department for Education (DFE) 122
    • DFE/WO 122
    • Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) 70
    • Department of Education and Science (DES) 78
    • Downey, C. J., Frase, E. F. and Peters, J. J. 27
    • Drodge, S. and Cooper, N. 73, 103, 157–8
    • Drucker, P. 3, 101, 105, 198, 199, 201
    • Dunham, J. 196
    • Earley, P. 120–1, 158
    • Earley, P. and Fletcher-Campbell, F. 149, 152, 155
    • Earley, P., Fidler, B. and Ouston, J. 183
    • Eccles, T. 194
    • Edwards, M. 186
    • Edwards, R. 152
    • Elliott, G. 133, 142
    • Elliott, G. and Crossley, M. 5, 73
    • Elliott, G. and Hall, V. 73
    • European Council of International Schools (ECIS) 180
    • Evans, B. 6, 141
    • Evans, I. 53
    • FIEDA 96, 97–8, 101, 102, 103, 153
    • FEFC ix, 2, 3, 14, 26, 48, 53, 54, 55, 66, 92, 93, 94–5, 96, 101, 103, 157, 178, 179, 182, 183, 184
    • FEFC/NAO 53, 61
    • FEU 157, 201
    • Fidler, B. 8, 14, 87, 118, 121, 135
    • Fletcher, M. 153
    • Floyd, S. and Wooldridge, B. 151
    • Foskett, N. H. 50, 53, 59–60, 69
    • Foskett, N. H. and Hesketh, A. J. 54, 55, 58, 59–60, 61
    • Freeman, R. E. 168–9
    • Fullan, M. 5, 19–20, 82, 107, 140, 191, 193, 198, 201
    • Fullan, M. and Hargreaves, A. 34
    • Fung, A. 140, 141
    • Gale, A. and Cartwright, S. 38
    • Gee, R. 195, 197–8, 199, 200
    • Gewirtz, S., Ball, S. and Bowe, R. 48, 53
    • Glatter, R., Woods, P. A. and Bagley, C. 53, 56–7
    • Glover, D. 66, 78, 87
    • Glover, D., Levacic, R., Bennett, N. and Earley, P. 73, 87–8, 181–2, 186–7, 188
    • Gold, A. 159
    • Goldring, E. 135
    • Gorringe, R. 26, 42
    • Government of New Zealand 108
    • Grace, G. 136
    • Gray, L. 51, 58–9, 59
    • Graystone, J. 130
    • Gronlund, N. E. 164
    • Hall, V. 136, 138, 141, 144
    • Hall, V., Cromey-Hawke, N. and Oldroyd, D. 138
    • Hall, P., Norris, P. and Stuart, R. 10
    • Handy, C. 3
    • Hanford, P. 8
    • Hanson, E.M. and Henry, W. 51–2, 56
    • Hardie, B. L. 166, 167
    • Hargreaves, A. 55, 136, 138, 199
    • Hargreaves, D.H. 37, 41
    • Hargreaves, D.H. and Hopkins, D. 78, 80, 82, 85
    • Hargreaves, D.H. and Reynolds, D. 49
    • Harling, P. 33
    • Harris, A., Jamieson, I. and Russ, J. 159
    • Harris, C. 32
    • Harrison, R. and Stokes, H. 84
    • Harvey, T. 56
    • Henley College 11
    • Hewitt, P. and Crawford, M. 69, 72
    • Higgins, J. M. 170
    • Hodgkinson, C. 135–6
    • Holder, B. 199
    • Holly, P. 175
    • Holly, P. and Southworth, G. 78, 80
    • Holmes, G. 24
    • HMI 158, 163
    • HMI/Scottish Office 82
    • Hopkins, D. 39, 40
    • Hopkins, D., Ainscow, M. and West, M. 5, 7
    • Hopkins, D., West, M. and Ainscow, M. 123
    • Hopkins, D. and Lagerweiji, N. 7, 9, 80
    • Hoyle, E. 35, 37, 43, 143
    • Hoyle, J. R. 24
    • Huckman, L. 121
    • Hunger, J. D. and Wheelan, T. L. 172, 174
    • Hutchinson, B. 78
    • ILEA 77
    • James, C. and Phillips, P. 53, 58
    • Janes, F. 152
    • Jenkins, H. O. 118
    • Jirasinghe, D. and Lyons, G. 142
    • Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. 13, 81, 167–8, 170
    • Joint Funding Councils 69
    • Jones, J. and O'Sullivan, F. 151, 159
    • Kaufman, R. and Herman, J. 106
    • Kogan, M., Johnson, D., Whitaker, T. and Packwood, T. 120
    • Kotler, P. and Fox, K. 56, 57–8
    • Kotter, J.P. 137
    • Kouzes, J. M. and Posner, B.Z. 18, 19, 24–5
    • Leask, M. and Terrell, I. 159
    • Levacic, R. 68, 69, 72
    • Levacic, R. and Glover, D. 182–3
    • Levin, H. M. 70
    • Lewis, D. 38
    • Lewis, N. 141–2, 144
    • Limb, A. 5, 7, 11, 42, 93, 97, 138, 157
    • Lorange, P., Morton, M. F. S. and Ghoshal, S. 170, 172
    • Lorsch, J. 44
    • Lumby, J. 72
    • MacGilchrist, B. 87
    • MacGilchrist, B., Mortimore, P., Savage, J. and Beresford, C. 80, 82, 83, 87, 183
    • Marris, P. 193
    • Marsh, J. 9
    • Martin, Y. 10, 55
    • Maychell, K. and Pathak, S. 184, 187
    • McAleese, K. 70
    • McBeath, J., Boyd, B., Rand, J. and Bell, S. 82, 174
    • McLaughlin, A. 9
    • Meadows, E. 197, 200, 201
    • Middlewood, D. 5
    • Middlewood, D. and Riley, M. 82
    • Minter, K. 53, 58
    • Mintzberg, H. 7–8, 80
    • Mitchell, M. 70
    • Monk, C. 121
    • Morgan, G. 33, 34, 35, 36, 43, 138, 194, 200
    • Mortimore, P., Mortimore, J. with Thomas, H. 68
    • Moss-Kantor, R. 110, 193
    • Murgatroyd, S. and Morgan, C. 2, 11–12, 24, 28, 56
    • National Audit Office (NAO) 66, 69, 95–6, 101, 102, 153, 157
    • Newman, E. and Pollard, A. 82
    • Newman, J. and Clarke, J. 73
    • Newton, C. and Tarrant, T. 196, 198
    • Nias, J., So:uthworth, G. and Yeomans, R. 33–4, 35, 43, 156
    • Nixon, J. 165–6, 180
    • O'Donoghue, D. 191–2, 196, 198
    • Ofsted ix, 3, 66, 69, 122–3, 124, 156, 159, 178, 180, 181, 183
    • Ohmae, K. 165
    • O'Neill, J. 33, 37
    • O'Sullivan, C. and O'Sullivan, T. 51
    • Ouston, J., Fidler, B. and Earley, P. 184, 185, 187
    • Owen, A. A. 102
    • Owens, R.G. 111
    • Packwood, T. 121
    • Parker, R. 10, 12
    • Parsons, C., Howlett, K. and Corbett, F. 15
    • Pascal, C. 121
    • Pascale, R. 6
    • Pashiardis, P. 116
    • Payne, A., Christopher, M., Clarke, M. and Peck, H. 50
    • Peeke, G. 28–9, 97, 154, 157
    • Peters, T. 7, 98, 99, 150, 193
    • Peters, T. and Waterman, R. 7, 174–5
    • Pfeffer, J. 200
    • Pieda 53, 54, 59, 61
    • Preston, D. 39
    • Price, C. 195
    • Puffitt, R., Stoten, B. and Winkley, D. 99, 100, 101
    • Quinn, J. B. 96
    • Reynolds, D. 41
    • Roberts, M., Carpenter, B. and Stoneham, C. 186
    • Roveche, J. and Baker, G. 22
    • Ruddock, J., Chaplain, R. and Wallace, G. 82
    • Ruddock, J. 197, 199
    • Russell, S. 9, 10, 184, 185, 188
    • Sagor, R. and Barnett, B. G. 28
    • Sallis, E. 84
    • Sammons, P., Thomas, S. and Mortimore, P. 159
    • Scheider, S. and Barsoux, J. 33, 34
    • Schein, E. 37–8, 44
    • Scheive, L. and Schoenheit, F. 22
    • Schlecty, P. C. 29
    • Schmidt, J. A. 170–1
    • Scott, J. 6
    • Senge, P. 87, 107
    • Sergiovanni, T. 23, 34, 134
    • Simkins, T. 66, 68, 70, 72, 73, 74
    • Simkins, T. and Lancaster, D. 66
    • Skelton, M., Reeves, G. and Playfoot, D. 78
    • Smith, D. and Tomlinson, S. 159
    • Smith, D., Scott, P. and Lynch, J. 54, 55, 59, 60, 61
    • Smyth, J. 136
    • Stacey, R.D. 21, 80
    • Starrat, R.J. 21
    • Steingraber, F. G. 165
    • Stokes, D. 51, 53
    • Stoll, L. and Fink, D. 4, 137, 138, 144
    • Stoner, J. A. F. and Freeman, R. E. 165, 172, 173
    • Stott, K. and Walker, A. 23, 28
    • Sutton, M. 73
    • Taylor Report 122
    • Teacher Training Agency (TTA) 20, 134, 152–3, 162
    • Telford, H. 137, 139
    • Thomas, H. and Martin, J. 66, 69, 121
    • Tilles, S. 167
    • Togher, J. 143, 144
    • Tristram, P. 93
    • Turner, C. 36, 37, 40–1, 42, 159
    • Wallace, M. 80, 155, 201–2, 209
    • Wallace, M. and Hall, V. 35, 133, 138–9, 144–5
    • Wallace, M. and Huckman, L. 156
    • Wallace, M. and McMahon, A. 135, 136, 137, 140
    • Webb, R. 201
    • Webb, R. and Vulliamy, G. 136, 156, 157
    • Weick, K. 33
    • Weil, S. 201
    • Weindling, D. 8, 148–9
    • West, N. 152
    • West-Burnham, J. 9, 10, 14, 117, 165, 187
    • West-Burnham, J., Bush, T., O'Neill, J. and Glover, D. 10, 14
    • Wheale, J. 92
    • Wideen, M. F. 198–9
    • Wilcox, B. and Gray, J. 185, 188
    • Wilkinson, D. and Pedler, M. 93, 198
    • Wilson, B. L. and Corcoran, B. C. 25–6

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