This textbook offers an accessible and comprehensive introduction to statistics for all undergraduate psychology students, but particularly those in their second and third years who have already covered an initial introductory course. It covers all of the key areas in quantitative methods including sampling, significance tests, regression, and multivariate techniques and incorporates a range of exercises and problems at the end of each chapter for the student to follow.
The free CD-ROM with tutorial modules complements and enhances the exercises in the text, offers scope for distance learning, and makes both the traditional and non-traditional approaches much more accessible.
Key points of the book are: an emphasis on measurement, data summaries and graphs; a clear explanation of statistical inference using sampling distributions and confidence intervals, making significance tests much easier to understand; and help for students to understand and judge the use of particular tests in the research context beyond simple recipe following.
Chapter 9: Predicting Categorical Variables: Contingency Tables and Chi-Square
Predicting Categorical Variables: Contingency Tables and Chi-Square
Tabulations and Contingency Tables
Predicting categorical variables involves working with tables, and tables (or tabulations) are among the most widely used ways of displaying data. In Chapter 3, we saw that categorical variables could be described quite well with frequency distributions presented in a tabular format. The frequency distribution of a variable presents the categories of that variable and the frequency with which each of them occurs. Usually, percentages are also provided in such tables.
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