This textbook offers an accessible and comprehensive introduction to statistics for all undergraduate psychology students, but particularly those in their second and third years who have already covered an initial introductory course. It covers all of the key areas in quantitative methods including sampling, significance tests, regression, and multivariate techniques and incorporates a range of exercises and problems at the end of each chapter for the student to follow.
The free CD-ROM with tutorial modules complements and enhances the exercises in the text, offers scope for distance learning, and makes both the traditional and non-traditional approaches much more accessible.
Key points of the book are: an emphasis on measurement, data summaries and graphs; a clear explanation of statistical inference using sampling distributions and confidence intervals, making significance tests much easier to understand; and help for students to understand and judge the use of particular tests in the research context beyond simple recipe following.
Chapter 2: Variables and Measurement
Variables and Measurement
Observational and Measurement Strategies
Why should we concoct systematic strategies for observing or measuring anything? There are at least four compelling reasons. First, all of us have only very limited first-hand knowledge of anything about the world, including human existence. The vast majority of what we think we know or believe is based solely on second- and third-hand accounts by authorities such as parents, teachers, and the media. Often, that is the best we can do. Nevertheless, without first-hand experience, ...