Squatting with Dignity: Lesson from India
Publication Year: 2010
This is the story of the successes and challenges faced in building the fast expanding rural sanitation network in India. It presents a detailed account of the development of the rural sanitation movement in India in the last decade. It is a story of breaking of sanitation taboos in India and teaching people to defecate with dignity and privacy. The book presents a historical account of the importance attached to sanitation and hygiene in ancient India and the evolution of sanitation policy in modern India.
Operationalizing reforms in a vast country like India, where pace and status of development varies significantly from state to state, is not an easy task. This book captures in detail the key debates and challenges faced in making policy makers and ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: Rural Sanitation: Development in Phases
- Chapter 3: Debate on Key Policies and Evolution of Implementation Strategy
- Chapter 4: Systems Building
- Chapter 5: Geographical Spread
- Chapter 6: Spread of the Movement
- Chapter 7: Key Achievements and Learnings
- Chapter 8: Key Challenges
- Chapter 9: The Way Forward
Copyright © Kumar Alok, 2010
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2010 by
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Kumar Alok, 1965-
Squatting with dignity: lessons from India/By Kumar Alok.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Sanitation, Rural—India. I. Title.
ISBN: 978-81-321-0305-9 (HB)
The SAGE Team: Rekha Natarajan, Aditya Sikder and Trinankur Banerjee
To all the dedicated souls who worked selflessly for promoting sanitation in rural areas of India and to my parents.[Page vi]
List of Tables[Page ix]
- 1.1 Dropout rates of girls in classes I–VIII 7
- 2.1 Subsidy structure for household latrines 50
- 2.2 Component-wise fund allocation in TSC 51
- 2.3 Incentive pattern in Nirmal Gram Puraskar 54
- 2.4 Key milestones in sanitation programme in India 55
- 4.1 Comparison between leach pit and septic tank 176
- 4.2 Requirement of sanitary pans and traps 183
- 4.3 Year wise household toilet construction 202
- 6.1 Year wise status of NGP awards 250
- 6.2 State wise number of GPs awarded NGP in first three years 251
- 8.1 NGP-awarded GPs reporting open defecation 293
- 8.2 Hand-washing practices among adults in NGP-awarded panchayats 310
- 9.1 Disability-affected people in India 322
- 9.2 Waste management-related CDM projects in India 332
- 9.3 List of a few approved methodologies related to methane recovery 337 [Page x]
- 9.4 Nutrients in human urine and faeces 339
- 9.5 Methane emissions in three different cases 346
List of Figures[Page xi]
- 1.1 Disease transmission route 5
- 1.2 Sanitation barrier 5
- 1.3 Year wise rural sanitation growth in India 15
- 1.4 Year wise construction of household toilets 16
- 2.1 Year wise sanction of TSC projects 49
- 3.1 Adoption by groups over time 90
- 3.2 School water and sanitation coverage during education surveys 120
- 4.1 Comprehensive Bayesian Network for TSC 128
- 4.2 Key factors influencing TSC success 130
- 4.3 Year wise release of state share in TSC 137
- 4.4 Borehole latrine 169
- 4.5 Dug well latrine 169
- 4.6 Hand flush water seal toilet 170
- 4.7 Squatting pan and trap for pour flush toilet 171
- 4.8 Design of P-trap for rural pan 172
- 4.9 Off site double pits with RCC rings 174
- 4.10 Rectangular lined direct pit 174
- 4.11 Circular unlined direct pit 174
- 4.12 Off site single pit with RCC rings 175
- 4.13 Off site double pits—brick honeycomb 175 [Page xii]
- 6.1 Increase in sanitation coverage and introduction of NGP 252
- 6.2 Annual construction of household toilets 252
- 6.3 Annual construction of school toilets 253
- 8.1 IHHL being used as regular and functional toilet 294
- 8.2 Social mobilization process in NGP-awarded GPs 294
- 8.3 System for monitoring to ensure Open Defecation Free (ODF) status 295
- 8.4 State wise percentage of SC and ST households gaining access to toilets 297
- 8.5 Reasons for toilets being non-functional 303
- 8.6 State wise share of NGP awards 304
- 8.7 Projected sanitation coverage in states by 2012 305
- 8.8 Projected year for full sanitation coverage in states 305
- 8.9 Share of states in achieving full sanitation coverage at the national level 306
- 8.10 Use of household toilets in NGP-awarded GPs 309
- 8.11 State wise expenditure of IEC fund 313
- 9.1 Methane emissions in three different cases 347
List of Photographs
List of Abbreviations[Page xv]
AEO Additional Executive Officer AFC Agriculture Finance Corporation AIIH&PH All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health AP Andhra Pradesh APL Above Poverty Line ARWSP Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme AS & FA Additional Secretary & Financial Advisor ASHA Auxiliary Social Health Activist BDO Block Development Officer BPL Below Poverty Line BPO Business Process Outsourcing CBO Community Based Organization CCDU Communication and Capacity Development Unit CDM Clean Development Mechanism CDO Chief Development Officer CEO Chief Executive Officer CEP Child Environment Programme CLTS Community Led Total Sanitation CMP Clean Milk Programme CRSP Central Rural Sanitation Programme DANIDA Danish International Development Agency DAVP Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity DDC Deputy Development Commissioner [Page xvi] DDWS Department for Drinking Water Supply DEE&L Department of Elementary Education and Literacy DFID UK Department for International Development DLM District Level Monitor DM District Magistrate DPEP District Primary Education Programme DPRO District Panchayati Raj Officer DRDA District Rural Development Agency DWCD Department of Women and Child Development DWS Drinking Water and Sanitation DWSC District Water and Sanitation Committee DWSM District Water & Sanitation Mission ECOSAN Ecological Sanitation EFC Expenditure Finance Committee FC Finance Commission GHG Green House Gas GOI Government of India GP Gram Panchayat HRD Human Resource Development IAY Indira Awas Yojna IAS Indian Administrative Service ICDS Integrated Child Development Services IEC Information, Education and Communication IFD Integrated Finance Division IHHL Individual House Hold Latrine ILE International Learning Exchange IIMC Indian Institute of Mass Communication IR Indian Railways IRC International Water & Sanitation Centre, Delft IRMA Institute of Rural Management, Anand ISP Intensive Sanitation Project IT Information Technology ITN India Training Network JMP Joint Monitoring Programme KAP Knowledge, Aptitude and Practice KFW Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau [Page xvii] KRWSSA Karnataka Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas LPT Leach Pit Toilet MDG Millennium Development Goals MHM Menstrual Hygiene Management MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey MoHFW Ministry of Health and Family Welfare MP Member of Parliament NABARD National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development NCERT National Council for Education Research and Training NDDB National Dairy Development Board NFHS National Family Health Survey NGO Non-Governmental Organization NGP Nirmal Gram Puraskar (Clean Village Award) NHRDP National Human Resource Development Programme NIC National Informatics Centre NJA Nari Jagriti Abhiyan (Women Awakening Movement) NRHM National Rural Health Mission NSS National Service Scheme NSSC National Scheme Sanctioning Committee NSSO National Sample Survey Organisation NYK Nehru Yuvak Kendra O&M Operation and Maintenance ODF Open Defecation Free ORS Oral Rehydration Solutions PC Production Centre PHED Public Health Engineering Department PIP Project Implementation Plan PMU Project Management Unit PPT Power Point (Presentation) PRAI Planning, Research & Action Institute PRI Panchayati Raj Institution PTA Parent Teachers’ Association [Page xviii] PWD Public Works Department RCC Reinforced Cement Concrete RDSO Research Designs and Standards Organisation RGNDWM Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission RKMLP Ramakrishna Mission Lokshiksha Parishad RSM Rural Sanitary Mart SACOSAN South Asian Conference on Sanitation SC Scheduled Caste SCERT State Council of Educational Research and Training SCOPE Society for Community Organisation and Peoples Education SEI Stockholm Environment Institute SGSY Swarna Jayanti Swarojgar Yojna SGBVSC Sant Gadge Baba Village Sanitation Campaign SHG Self-Help Group SIDA Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency SIPARD State Institute of Public Administration and Rural Development SIPRD State Institute of Panchayat & Rural Development SLWM Solid and Liquid Waste Management SRP Sector Reform Project SSA Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Universal Education Campaign) SSHE School Sanitation & Hygiene Education ST Scheduled Tribe SWASTHH School Water and Sanitation Towards Health and Hygiene SWSM State Water & Sanitation Mission TIFAC Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council TLB Toilet Linked Biogas TLC Total Literacy Campaign TSC Total Sanitation Campaign UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Programme [Page xix] UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund UP Uttar Pradesh USA United States of America USD US Dollar WAPCOS Water and Power Consultancy Services WATSAN Water and Sanitation WB World Bank WES Water and Environmental Sanitation WHO World Health Organization WSP-SA Water and Sanitation Programme-South Asia VHC Village Health Committee VWSC Village Water and Sanitation Committee ZP Zilla Panchayat [Page xx] ZWM Zero Waste Management
Despite the fact that lack of sanitation and hygiene is responsible for a number of diseases especially among the most vulnerable sections of the society, this subject has been treated with a lot of apathy by policy makers across the globe and India has been no exception to this. Only during the last one decade the subject of sanitation especially rural sanitation has started getting attention from the policy makers and implementers in India. With the introduction of Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in 1999, a bold beginning has been made in India to accelerate rural sanitation coverage.
A country as vast as India faces enormous challenges in operationalizing any policy decision. Efficacy of the implementation of the government policies has always remained a big challenge and rural sanitation sector has been no exception. The paradigm shift made by launching community-based TSC has witnessed a slow but continuous process of adoption of the key reform principles by the states over the years. It is interesting to learn the factors which induced different states in adopting TSC principles and also the reasons for not accepting some of them. Introduction of Nirmal Gram Puraskar in 2003 further accelerated the ownership of sanitation issue by the states and districts.
Unlike other sectors, like education and health, policy evolution in rural sanitation has taken place in a relatively short time frame; as a result it is easy to study and analyze the process of sanitation policy evolution and the associated debates and [Page xxii]conflicts. Within a few years, TSC, which remained a neglected subject for our policy makers and implementers, gained the status of one of the seven key national flagship programmes of the Government of India and was the only sector where Planning Commission had increased the 10th plan outlay by more than 100 per cent. As per the claims made by the Government of India, Millennium Development Goals are likely to be achieved ahead of 2015. This calls for a study of the key factors which helped in building the sanitation movement in India. The author of this book, Mr Kumar Alok, had the privilege of working as Director, Sanitation in the Government of India at a time when the TSC programme was gaining roots in many states and has been closely involved in a number of policy decisions and initiatives related to programme implementation.
He has made a sincere attempt to document the policy development and the spread of the sanitation movement in various parts of India including the ongoing policy debates. The book is also about the constraints it faced, intense debate it has gone into and the competing role of its stakeholders that played a critical role in shaping and re-shaping the rural sanitation world of India. A careful reading of this publication will provide the required knowledge.
The way forward as outlined in the last chapter of the book offers enough opportunities for the sanitation professionals to make a strategic shift in both the content and approach of future sanitation interventions. The opportunities available in recycling of waste, bio-methanation and saving in carbon emission are some interventions which have the potential of transforming the whole sector in near future. Even though the book discusses examples from the Indian programme, the experiences gained in India are of significance to many developing countries that face almost similar types of challenges. I am sure the book will be able to guide practitioners of rural sanitation not only in India but in other developing countries too in meeting the global sanitation challenge.Planning Commission, Government of IndiaFormer Secretary,
Sanitation, like education and health, is a fundamental building block in the fight against world poverty. That is why leaders worldwide have committed to halving the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation by 2015, as part of the Millennium Development Goals. History tells us that investments in basic sanitation can help lift people out of poverty, ill health and early death. Today, 2.6 billion people—more than 40 per cent of world's population—lack access to basic sanitation. Meeting the needs of these women, men and children for a private, clean toilet—something taken for granted in developed countries today—is both possible and imperative. Together we can do it—and together, we must do it.
India is one of the countries where the government has committed to address the challenge of sanitation, a much neglected subject with a lot of taboos attached to it. With strong political commitment, the Total Sanitation Campaign was introduced in 1999. Within a decade the sanitation budget increased nine-fold and the programme shifted from a supply-driven programme towards a community demand-based programme with the Panchayati Raj, the local governing body, in the lead.
As a result the riskiest sanitation practice, open defecation, in rural areas has dropped from 89 per cent in 1990 to 74 per cent in 2006 and there are over 142 million new users in the country. Despite such concerted efforts, one in two people or some [Page xxiv]600 million Indian still defecate in the open. The quantities of human excreta they produce in an increasingly densely populated environment allow diseases to spread easily. This is taking its daily toll in sickness, deaths, absenteeism from school, loss of productivity and exposing young women to risks of violation of privacy and violence.
The actual account of the current achievements, approaches and experiences in India deserve to be put on paper. The author of this book, Kumar Alok, worked as Director, Sanitation in the Government of India and as Water and Sanitation Specialist in UNICEF's Delhi office. He is widely acknowledged for his contributions in the development of the sanitation sector in India.
I am in no doubt that this book will inspire and guide many people to address the sanitation challenge and that the lessons drawn from the vast and rich Indian Total Sanitation Campaign can be applied within and far beyond India.UNICEF Country Representative, New Delhi
Founder of All World Gayatri Pariwar and great seer, Pundit Shriram Sharma Acharya has observed, ‘As opposed to writing something worth reading, it is always better to achieve something which deserves writing.’ Sanitation movement in India in the beginning of this century has been one of such initiatives which deserves special writing and documentation. It is a saga of thousands of dedicated sanitation volunteers from all walks of life who have worked selflessly and tried to promote sanitation and hygiene in rural households of the country. In my opinion rampant open defecation has been the biggest national shame and these volunteers have tried their best to wipe out this slur afflicting national pride and glory. One can see thousands of fellow country men and women defecating in open field, along the roadsides, railway tracks, rivers/lakes and any other open space completely oblivious of the health hazards as well as the associated human indignity. In such a situation promoting sanitation and hygiene has been one of the biggest challenges in the country. Implementation of Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC)—the national sanitation programme—has been one of the largest sanitation initiatives ever taken up in India and that too in a very short time frame which has directly or indirectly influenced the lives of millions of rural people across the length and breadth of India. It has been the story of large scale behaviour change of millions of people who had been used to the extremely [Page xxvi]demeaning practice of open defecation for ages but adopted sanitary toilets for safe disposal of their excreta.
Poor sanitation coverage is a challenge not only in India but many other developing nations. National Governments, Development agencies, donor community and sanitation professionals have been struggling to tackle this problem and meet the Millennium Development Goals related to sanitation but so far limited success has been achieved. Considering the vastness of India and variety of situations—administrative, economic, social, geographical—there are a large number of success stories as well as failures and challenges which need to be shared among the sanitation professionals and the key stakeholders. This book is an attempt to analyze the growth of sanitation movement in India—the evolution of policy and associated achievements and challenges in operationalising the policy and programmes in various provinces of India. It was my fortune to be an active participant in this national movement initially as Director of the Total Sanitation Campaign in the Government of India and later on as WES specialist in UNICEF, New Delhi. An effort has been made to correctly capture the evolution of the programme and strengthening of the sanitation movement in India so that development professionals can make best use of the learnings. Any critical comments on the policy, programme, opinion of individuals or organizations have been made only to give the correct perspective to the readers so that they may avoid the mistakes, if any, in future development of a similar programme.
Sanitation is a noble mission for the nation and a large number of dedicated individuals and organizations have worked for this mission. I acknowledge the contributions made by each and every such individual and organization in building this movement who have been a source of inspiration for me to take up this documentation with the prime objective of correctly capturing the process of programme evolution as well as contributions made by various key players. The readers will be able to judge how effective I have been in this endeavour. Even though I had the desire to write this book, there was hardly enough determination to reach the destination. But for the continuous persuasion and encouragement of [Page xxvii]Dr Kamal Mazumdar and Mr Manu Prakash, this book would have been a non starter. I am extremely thankful to both of them.
The entire team of sanitation professionals working in West Bengal deserve special thanks as they have provided me immense support for writing the book. Mr Chandi Charan Dey has been kind enough to spend considerable amount of time with me. He has always given his invaluable inputs to me. Dr M. N. Roy and Mr Chandan Sengupta not only encouraged me but also spent plenty of time in sharing their precious experience in the sanitation sector. I express my gratitude to both of them. Dr S. V. Mapuskar, Mr Srikant Navrekar, Mr K. K. Jadeja, Dr M. S. Kalshetti, Mr A. K. Singh, Mrs Sumita Ganguly, Mr C. Srinivasan, Mr P. Toshniwal, Mr P. S. Ojha, Mr S. N. Singh, Mrs Alka Malhotra, Mr Prakash Kumar, Father George have always been proactive in extending their support whenever I needed. They have given their vital and significant inputs in writing this book. My special thanks to Ms Arpita Choudhary for drawing the various sketches used in this book.
I am thankful to all my ex-colleagues in Government of India and UNICEF for giving me required support in this initiative. My special thanks to Ms Lizette Burgers who not only encouraged me but also gave important suggestions in improving the content of the book. My wife Preeti, son Anshumaan and daughter Shradha have been the real supports and sources of strength for me. I am grateful to a large number of officials and sector professionals who have not only encouraged me to write this book but also actively supported me and without their help this work could not have been completed. I hope that the book will be useful for large number of sanitation professionals both within and outside India.
[Above/Below] Poverty Line: The Planning Commission of the Government of India uses a food adequacy norm of 2,100 to 2,400 calories per capita per day to define state-specific poverty lines separately for rural and urban areas.
Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme: National programme of the Government of India to augment water supply in rural areas.
Additional Secretary & Financial Advisor: Each ministry in Government of India has a financial advisor who is usually in the rank of additional secretary.
Anganwadi: Pre-school initiative under the Integrated Child Development Scheme of the Government of India.
ASHA: Auxiliary Social Health Activist appointed on honorary basis at village level under NRHM.
Block Development Officer: Key development functionary at block level, serving a population of about 100,000.
Central Rural Sanitation Programme: First national sanitation programme introduced by Government of India in 1986.
Chief Executive Officer: Administrative head of the district panchayat (Zilla Panchayat).[Page 365]
Child Environment Programme: UNICEF's water and sanitation programme to improve child environment.
Clean Development Mechanism: Carbon emission reduction mechanism approved under Kyoto protocol.
Clean Milk Programme: Initiative taken up by National Dairy Development Board to improve the quality of milk through a number of initiatives, including sanitation and hygiene promotion.
Communication and Capacity Development Unit: Set up in each state to take up communication and capacity development activities for TSC, Swajaldhara, water-quality monitoring and other programmes supported by Government of India.
Community Led Total Sanitation: A community-wide approach based on participatory principles which seeks to achieve 100 per cent open defecation-free communities.
District Water & Sanitation Mission/Committee: Separate institutional structure promoted by Government of India to implement TSC and Swajaldhara at district level.
Ecological Sanitation (ECOSAN): A sanitation method which regards human waste as a resource. In ECOSAN, urine and faeces are separated at source and not mixed with water. The separated urine can be applied as fertilizer after treatment and faeces can be composted.
Expenditure Finance Committee: Committee headed by Finance Secretary, Government of India for appraisal and approval of government-funded plan schemes/projects.
Finance Commission: Statutory commission set up every five years to recommend distribution of net proceeds of taxes between union government and state governments.
Gram Panchayat: Local governments at the village level in India.
Green House Gas: Gases in atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range.[Page 366]
Indira Awas Yojna: Rural housing scheme sponsored by the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India.
Infant Mortality Rate: Refers to number of deaths per thousand live births in the first year of a child's life.
Information, Education and Communication: Software activities, for example, media campaigns, capacity-building activities and community hygiene promotion, that support and promote the programme implementation.
Integrated Child Development Services: A centrally sponsored programme aimed at providing services to pre-school children in rural, tribal and slum areas in an integrated manner so as to ensure proper growth and development.
Integrated Finance Division (IFD): Every ministry in the Government of India has an integrated finance division which is responsible for providing advice and support on all financial matters and monitoring the progress of expenditure on various activities.
Intensive Sanitation Project: Community-based sanitation project taken up in Medinipur district of West Bengal in early 1990s.
International Learning Exchange: Learning exchange in water and sanitation sector initiated by UNICEF, New Delhi in partnership with Government of India for international professionals.
Joint Monitoring Programme: Established by WHO and UNICEF at the end of the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981–90) to report globally on the status of water supply and sanitation sector.
Menstrual Hygiene Management: Promoting hygiene and sanitation amongst adolescent girls and women during menstruation period.
Millennium Development Goals: The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals to be achieved by 2015 that respond to the world's main development challenges.
Nari Jagriti Abhiyan: Women's wing of All World Gayatri Pariwar working for empowerment of women.[Page 367]
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development: The apex institution accredited with all matters concerning policy, planning and operations in the field of credit for agriculture and economic activities in rural areas in India.
National Council for Education Research and Training: An autonomous organization set up in 1961 to assist and advise the governments at centre and in states in implementation of their policies for education.
National Dairy Development Board: Founded in 1965 to transform dairying into an instrument for the development of India's rural people.
National Family Health Survey: A large-scale, multi-round survey conducted every 5–6 years in a representative sample of households throughout to provide essential data and information on important health and family welfare issues.
National Informatics Centre: A government organization set up to provide network backbone and e-governance support to central government, state governments, districts and other government bodies.
National Rural Health Mission: National Mission to provide effective health care to the rural population.
National Scheme Sanctioning Committee: A committee headed by Secretary, DWS, with official and non-official members to scrutinize and sanction TSC projects.
National Service Scheme: An initiative aimed at inculcating the spirit of voluntary work among the students and teachers through sustained community interaction.
Nirmal Gram Puraskar: Innovative incentive scheme launched by the Government of India for local self-governments to attain open defecation-free status.
Panchayati Raj Institution: Three-tier institutions of self-governance mandated by the 73rd constitution amendment.
Parent Teachers’ Association: Outlet for parent participation at most public and private schools.[Page 368]
Production Centre: Promoted under TSC to produce low-cost sanitary wares.
Project Implementation Plan: Comprehensive plan to be developed by each TSC-implementing district, covering both software and hardware activities.
Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission: Mission set up by the Government of India in 1986 to mitigate water supply and water quality problems in India.
Ramakrishna Mission Lokshiksha Parishad: Rural and social development wing of spiritual organization Ramakrishna Mission which was set up by Swami Vivekananda.
Rural Sanitary Mart: Promoted under TSC to procure and supply sanitary wares, toilet technology and services for setting up sanitary toilets.
SACOSAN: South Asian Conference on Sanitation organized every two years in one of the South Asian countries to promote sanitation in the region.
Sant Gadge Baba Village Sanitation Campaign: An incentive scheme introduced by Maharashtra government to promote rural sanitation. The scheme promotes competition among PRIs to claim the sanitation awards.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: A national flagship programme to universalize elementary education by community-ownership of the school system.
Scheduled Caste: Indian population groupings that are explicitly recognized by the Constitution of India, otherwise known as Harijans.
Scheduled Tribe: Indian indigenous population groupings explicitly recognized by the Constitution of India.
School Sanitation & Hygiene Education: An important component of TSC to promote sanitation and hygiene in schools and among children.[Page 369]
School Water and Sanitation Towards Health and Hygiene: A USAID-funded project implemented by UNICEF in select districts in Jharkhand and Karnataka to promote water supply, sanitation and hygiene in schools.
Sector Reform Project: Demand-responsive reform initiatives introduced by the Government of India in 1999 aiming at decentralized management of water and sanitation programmes by the local communities.
Self-Help Group: A group of rural poor who volunteers to organize themselves into a group for eradication of poverty of the members.
State Water & Sanitation Mission: State-level institution usually headed by the chief secretary to plan and monitor water supply and sanitation programmes.
Total Literacy Campaign: District-specific campaign launched throughout India in early 1990s for eradication of adult illiteracy in India.
Total Sanitation Campaign: Revamped central rural sanitation programme launched in 1999.
Village Health Committee: Village-level committee to plan and implement health and family welfare programme under NRHM. It is also being used to implement sanitation programme in many states.
Village Water & Sanitation Committee: Village-level committee set up for implementation of TSC and Swajaldhara.
Zero Waste Management: Innovative solid waste management initiative taken up in Tamil Nadu.
Zilla Panchayat: District-level elected body as part of three-tier Panchayati Raj system.
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