Special Needs Offenders in Correctional Institutions


Edited by: Lior Gideon

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    To my sons Jonathan and Eithan May you have the insight to be tolerant and understanding to the needs of others

    —L. Gideon


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    Offenders with special needs have always been part of the criminal justice system. However, up until recently their visibility in correctional institutions was very low. For several decades, not much attention was given to anyone who harmed society; they were considered castaways, people society was better off without. Usually they were sentenced to jail or prison, and that was it—justice was served. Recent years, however, have seen a fresh interest in what is going on inside our prisons, and in particular how offenders are (or are not) being rehabilitated. This interest followed a period of what could be called an obsession with crime, during which the number of people sentenced to do time steadily increased, and convicted criminals were simply “warehoused,” shut away from society behind massive walls and barbed wire. The policy was little more than “lock them up and throw away the key.”

    In addition, people finally came to understand that about 90% of these incarcerated people would inevitably be released and return to the communities from which they originally came. This sparked an interest in understanding these populations, what was being done for them while they were behind bars, and how society could better prepare to handle these masses of released offenders. Once more, rehabilitation—along with its associated terms, reentry, and reintegration—became the buzzword of correctional practice. With that, scholars began to understand that simply incarcerating people does not make society any safer, and in many cases, it even causes more harm than good, by harming the offenders, their families, their communities, and society as a whole. Consequently, evidence-based research began to form around the question of just what are the best correctional and rehabilitation practices for reducing recidivism and promoting public safety. Such endeavors led scholars to understand that because not all individuals are the same, it would stand to reason that the same is true for incarcerated individuals. This in turn led to the development of intake methods that focus on identifying risks and needs for each incarcerated individual upon admission to a correctional institution, and often even earlier, during the sentencing stages.

    This book focuses on offenders who have special needs within the corrections system—special groups with particular concerns and needs, or who present certain challenges to prison staff. What are their experiences behind bars, and how do these experiences contribute—or not—to the rehabilitative efforts made by correctional institutions? Each chapter of the book identifies and describes the characteristics of a particular group and explains why it should be considered a special needs case. The author then discusses the challenges such offenders face as inmates, as well as the challenges they pose to correctional management and the daily routine of the facilities. When relevant, such discussions turn to efforts at rehabilitation and preparations for the inevitable reentry and reintegration. At the end of each chapter, the authors suggest guidance for related policy, which may also be used by readers as further points of discussion.

    The book has a total of 17 chapters, including the introduction. These are designed to fit a semester-long course, so this may also be used as a primary textbook. Or it can be used as a supplemental textbook for students to focus on a specific group of inmates (or several), as each of the chapters functions on its own, using original and up-to-date data and research. All chapters are followed by discussion questions to promote critical thinking and class discussion, as well as a list of supplementary suggested readings and websites to feed curiosity.

    Astute readers will also notice the thread that flows through the pages of the book, guiding readers to think about rehabilitation, reentry, and reintegration of special needs offenders. Chapters of the book are ordered in such a way that more visible groups of inmates are presented and discussed first (Chapters 26); Chapters 710 deal with groups of inmates that have always been present in correctional facilities but have received very little attention; and the last chapters, Chapters 1115 deal with smaller, less visible special needs inmates that are often left out of the correctional discussion. Finally, an examination of substance abusing inmates, a well-documented and researched group, is presented in Chapter 16. Ending the book this way seems fitting, as inmates with substance problems are in fact the majority of incarcerated offenders, so their needs are quite urgent.

    A key feature of the book is an integrative conclusion that brings together the policy recommendations of each of the chapters. It is within this context that a theoretical model is presented to illuminate the need to assess each and every individual offender before he or she is sentenced and processed into the correctional system. It is hoped that this theoretical model will further the discussion on special needs offenders and the manner in which their multifaceted characteristics will be addressed. The goal is to provide not just much-needed intervention, but also a just form of punishment, one that is proportional to the offense and fits the offender without causing further and unnecessary damage that might prevent him or her from successfully reintegrating.



    As I taught a number of introductory and advanced courses in corrections, it became apparent that our system does not live up to society's expectations of correction. Offenders go in and come out in the same state, and at times in even worse condition. That led to the examination of rehabilitation, reentry, and reintegration, and ultimately to a previous book published on this topic: Rethinking Corrections: Rehabilitation, Reentry, and Reintegration (with Hung-En Sung). Through the pages of that book, a recurring theme was the need to individualize corrections-based intervention. Thus, to supplement this first discussion of the later phases of the corrections process, it was almost a natural step to initiate a discussion of the special needs of offenders earlier in the process, starting with sentencing and intake, and to acknowledge that although they committed a crime, they are still individuals, and as such have special needs.

    Colleagues who teach corrections supported this initiative commenting on the almost complete absence of material in a single collection. Accordingly, it made perfect sense to compile the accumulated knowledge into one book. The process was invigorating and provided me with the amazing opportunity to work with ambitious individuals in the corrections field, both as practitioners and scholars (and a few who work as both). Each and every one of them was a true inspiration, and taught me a great deal about the topic thanks to their different approaches and perspectives. Yet, we all share a common notion and understanding that inmates are individual people, and although they must pay for their wrongdoing and crimes, something must be done to address their particular needs—not just for their sake, but for the sake of those who serve them, and above all, for the sake of public safety.

    Equally important to this project are the people how provided us with valuable support and feedback. I would like to thank Jerry Westby, Sage's executive editor, and his assistant, Erim Sarbuland, as well as the editorial team for their impeccable work. Both Jerry and Erim were my control tower in sometimes very dark skies; Jerry also helped navigate and overcome the unexpected winds that blew away some of the initial contributors. He was always available and willing to give a guiding hand to find a replacement for lost or otherwise off-the-radar contributors, and also to offer good advice and reassurance whenever the need arose. But above all, Jerry believes in my work and in the success of this project, and this is the best one can ask for. Erim seems to be always on the other end of the line (or web) and was very quick to respond and provide assistance and solutions. I was truly blessed to have the wonderful opportunity to work with a great copy editor, Diane DiMura, who was highly devoted to this project. Diane's very precise, and punctual work without doubt improved this manuscript, and for that I am grateful. Appreciation is also extended to dear colleague, Staci Strobl, for her useful comments and support on the first draft of the proposal to this book. I would also like to express my gratitude to my personal editor, Zora O'Neill, for being critical of my work, revising my writing, and on top of it all making my ideas clear to others. Thank you!

    Bringing different contributors into a new project is not an easy task, and at times it may also be a challenge. Each one writes in a different style and introduces a unique spin on things, which can make reviewers somewhat unhappy! By now I believe I was able to navigate through these reviews successfully, but not without the help of the wonderful contributors, as well as my colleagues who shared their ideas and criticism (sometimes unstintingly), with one aim in mind: to improve this project. Indeed, their input was often insightful and provided contributors with necessary direction and advice on how to revise their work while aligning the chapters in a coherent fashion. I would like to extend my gratitude to Elizabeth Dretsch (Troy University-Dothan), Shannon Hankhouse (Tarleton State University), Robert Michels (Santa Clara University), and Vanessa Woodward (University of Southern Mississippi) who provided the project with some highly valuable insights. This book is a result of a truly peer-reviewed effort, and for this we are all grateful.

    As always, I reserve special thanks for those who inspire me the most—my family. Both my sons, Jonathan and Eithan Gideon, spent hours doing what they like the most, surfing the Internet, but with one aim: to help me design the cover for this book. Their many suggestions, discussions, and insights on each and every picture and design were truly remarkable. Gideon boys, you are the best team ever!

  • Name Index

    • Aday, R. H., 212, 214
    • Adler, L. E., 351
    • Alarid, L. F., 265
    • Alexander, R. B., 32
    • Alm, S., 479
    • Al-Megrahi, A., 141
    • Alpert, G. P., 495
    • Alpert, L., 155
    • Anderson, C. A., 351, 361
    • Anderson, J. C., 3
    • Andrews, D., 5
    • Andrews, D. A., 278, 297
    • Anthony, B., 160, 161
    • Applebaum, K., 170
    • Arkles, G., 266
    • Arkowitz, S., 304
    • Austin, J., 76
    • Ax, R. K., 173
    • Babchishin, K. M., 301, 302, 303
    • Babcock, S., 390
    • Bachman, R., 247, 248
    • Ballas, D., 443
    • Barbaree, H., 305
    • Barboza, S., 212, 272
    • Bard, B., 389
    • Barker, E. D., 46
    • Barra, D. A., 299
    • Bartol, A. M., 180
    • Bartol, C. R., 180
    • Baunach, J. P., 2
    • Beck, A., 248, 249 (box)
    • Beech, A. R., 299, 300
    • Bell, J., 89
    • Benedetti, J., 219
    • Bennett, R., 247
    • Berwer, J., 409
    • Beszterczey, S., 387
    • Binswanger, I. A., 351, 361
    • Blackburn, A., 248
    • Blackshaw, L., 291
    • Blitz, C., 247, 248
    • Bloom, B., 66, 76, 84
    • Boivin, M. J., 356
    • Bonta, J., 5, 270
    • Booker, A., 247, 248
    • Bordt, R., 57
    • Borduin, C. M., 294
    • Boston, D., 359
    • Bosworth, M., 422
    • Boudouris, J., 86
    • Brandon, J., 436
    • Brewer, J., 411
    • Brown, M., 66
    • Bumby, K., 247, 248
    • Burdon, B. J., 179
    • Burnette, M., 247, 248
    • Burns, A., 92 (box)
    • Bush, G. W., 322, 336, 365, 409
    • Bush, J., 411 (box)
    • Bush-Baskette, S. R., 57
    • Byrne, L., 86, 93
    • Cain, K. C., 272
    • Calkins-Mercado, C., 5, 498
    • Callagan, J. E., 270
    • Capeheart, L., 245
    • Carbonell, J. L., 294
    • Carvajal, R. I., 387
    • Castle, T., 237, 247, 248
    • Cervantes-Gautschi, P., 413
    • Chapman, J. E., 294
    • Cicchetti, D. V., 299
    • Clear, T. R., 2, 332
    • Clemmer, D., 328
    • Clinton, B., 409
    • Cobbina, J. E., 64
    • Cole, G. F., 2
    • Colson, C., 327
    • Côté, S. M., 46
    • Covington, S., 84
    • Crouse, M. A., 25
    • Cumming, G. F., 298
    • Cunningham, M. D., 381, 385, 389, 393, 394, 395, 396
    • Curwen, T., 293
    • Daly, K., 57
    • Davis, A., 246
    • Desai, R. A., 348
    • Dilulio, J. J., 496
    • Ditton, P. M., 387–388, 390
    • Dix, D., 157
    • Dix-Richardson, F., 438
    • Dlugacz, H. A., 175, 176
    • Donahue, T., 76
    • Donaldson, S., 237, 247, 248
    • Dow, M., 423
    • Dowden, C., 297
    • Dowling, C., 103
    • Druce, J. L., 263 (box)
    • Drummond, T., 2
    • Dumond, R., 236
    • Dwyer, J., 352
    • Einat, H., 236
    • Einat, T., 236
    • Ekland-Olson, S., 393
    • Emeka, T. Q., 31
    • English, K., 67
    • Eslinger, D., 8
    • Fabian, J. M., 386
    • Fagan, T. J., 173
    • Feld, B. C., 39
    • Feldman, M., 389
    • Felthous, A. R., 272
    • Feltz, R., 413, 418
    • Figlio, R., 35
    • Filley, C. M., 361
    • Finton, M. C., 436
    • Fishman, J., 234, 236
    • Fitzgerald, A., 171
    • Fleisher, M., 237
    • Fondacaro, K. M., 387
    • Ford, C., 243
    • Forde, S., 412
    • Freedman, D., 389
    • Friedmann, P. D., 473
    • Fualaau, V., 295
    • Furby, L., 291
    • Gallemore, J. L., 385
    • Gaut, G. F., 26
    • Gendreau, P., 266, 270
    • Geoghan, J. J., 262–263 (box)
    • Giallombardo, R., 238, 239, 240
    • Gideon, L., 5, 498
    • Glancy, G. D., 271
    • Glaze, L. E., 179
    • Goffman, E., 213
    • Gonzalez, G., 411 (box)
    • Gookin, K., 305
    • Gordon, A., 291
    • Goshin, S., 86, 93
    • Grassian, S., 270
    • Greenberg, G. A., 348
    • Greenfeld, L., 179
    • Greer, K., 240, 244
    • Grella, C., 179
    • Halleck, S. L., 243
    • Hamm, M. S., 439, 440, 443
    • Hammett, T. M., 2
    • Haney, C., 275–276 (box), 396
    • Hanson, K. R., 301, 302, 303
    • Hanson, R. K., 291, 301
    • Hare, R. D., 304
    • Harlow, C. W., 387
    • Harris, A. J. R., 291
    • Harrison, L. D., 362
    • Harrison, M. T., 219
    • Harrison, P., 248, 249 (box)
    • Harrison, R. H., 270
    • Hartwig, H. J., 31
    • Hawkins, R., 495
    • Hayes, L., 272
    • He, X. Y., 272
    • Heiblum, N., 294
    • Helfand, S. J., 173
    • Hemenway, D., 389
    • Hemmens, C., 2
    • Henderson, C. E., 473
    • Henggeler, S. W., 294
    • Henriques, Z., 2
    • Hensley, C., 237, 242, 245, 247, 248
    • Hepatitis C, 120, 136
    • Hermann, C. A., 301, 302, 303
    • Hersko, M., 243
    • Hoge, R., 5
    • Holbrook, J. G., 347
    • Holt, J. C., 387
    • Holzer, C. E., 272
    • Hudson, D., 390
    • Huggins, D., 245
    • Hughes, G. R., 269
    • Huling, T., 66, 67–68
    • Ibrahim, M. S., 435
    • Inciardi, J., 247
    • Ingram, H., 295
    • Irwin, J., 500
    • Jackson, L., 389
    • Jackson, S., 247, 248
    • James, D. J., 179
    • James, K., 435
    • Janus, E., 305
    • Jeglic, E. L., 5, 498
    • Jenkins, B. M., 435
    • Jenness, V., 247
    • Johnson, B. R., 332
    • Johnson, L. C., 272
    • Johnson, R. J., 387
    • Johnson, S. C., 172
    • Kane, T., 241
    • Kassebaum, G., 238, 239
    • Keeling, J., 299, 300
    • Kennard, A. D., 8
    • Kennedy, J. F., 157
    • Kennedy, S., 2
    • Keohane, P., 209
    • Kil, S. H., 409
    • Kim, K., 160
    • Kirkham, G., 237
    • Klebe, K. J., 272
    • Knickerbocker, B., 3
    • Knoll IV, J. L., 170
    • Koran, the, 445–447
    • Koscheski, M., 245
    • Krabill, J., 212, 214
    • Krentz, R., 411
    • Kuck, S., 2
    • Lamb, R., 8
    • Lambert, N., 299
    • Langan, P. A., 57, 353
    • Larson, D. B., 332
    • Lax, G., 209
    • Leggett, W., 272
    • Leland, H., 299
    • Letourneau, E. J., 294
    • Letourneau, M. K., 295
    • Levin, D. J., 353
    • Levitt, L., 180
    • Lewis, D., 389
    • Lisak, D., 387
    • Lockwood, D., 247
    • Lombardi, G., 393
    • Loper, A. B., 180
    • Loper, M., 247, 248
    • Lovell, D., 272
    • Low, J. Y., 175, 176
    • Lyon, A. D., 396
    • MacKinnon, C., 68
    • MacNeil, L. W., 270
    • Maile, C., 5, 498
    • Maitland, A., 247
    • Malik-Kane, K., 367
    • Marquart, J., 248, 393
    • Marques, J. K., 291
    • Martinez, R., 361
    • Martinson, R., 5, 291
    • Maruna, S., 332
    • Marzulli, J., 155
    • Mathews, J., 296
    • Mathews, R., 296
    • Matsuda, K., 247
    • Mauer, M., 66, 67
    • Maxson, C., 247
    • May, D. C., 495
    • McCart, M. R., 294
    • McClellan, D. S., 72–73
    • McGovern, S. K., 294
    • McGrath, R. J., 298
    • McGuire, J., 350
    • Mckeiver, J., 27
    • McMullan, E. C., 138, 160, 169
    • Menjivar, C., 409
    • Messina, N., 179
    • Miller, H. A., 271, 272
    • Miller, W., 30
    • Molinder, I., 288
    • Moller, L. F., 180
    • Moloney, K. P., 180
    • Morash, M., 89
    • Morton, D. C., 60, 62, 63, 64, 65
    • Mullins, J., 248
    • Mumola, C. J., 3, 11, 175, 365
    • Munetz, M. R., 171
    • Murphy, C., 304
    • Murphy, W., 291
    • Murray, E. L., 271
    • Myers, J. E., 31, 34
    • Nacci, P., 241
    • Nagin, D., 46
    • Nash, R., 272
    • Nathan, P. E., 270, 272
    • Newman, A. F., 270
    • Newman, E., 245
    • Nichols, H. R., 288
    • Nihira, K., 299
    • Noonan, M. E., 3, 11
    • Obama, B., 423
    • O'Connor, T. P., 332
    • O'Keefe, M. L., 272
    • Ortiz-Smykla, J., 2, 13
    • Otis, K. E., 294
    • Otis, M., 242
    • Owen, B., 71, 84, 244
    • Panton, M. A., 385
    • Parker, J., 241, 247, 265
    • Pavle, J., 8
    • Pentland, B., 352
    • Perdoni, M. L., 362
    • Perryclear, M., 332
    • Peters, R. J., 387
    • Pierson, T. A., 272
    • Pincus, J., 389
    • Pitts, T. C., 332
    • Pizarro, J., 272
    • Poey, E. L., 294
    • Powell, T. A., 387
    • Pratsinak, G. J., 32
    • Prendergast, M., 179
    • Prentky, R. A., 293, 305
    • Price, K., 390–393
    • Propper, A., 244
    • Quinsey, V. L., 291
    • Rafter, N. H., 57, 59
    • Reagan, R., 409
    • Reidy, T. J., 393, 394, 395
    • Reisig, M. D., 2
    • Reitzel, L. R., 294
    • Righthand, S., 293
    • Roberts, C., 2
    • Robertson, G. J., 299
    • Rocheleau, A. M., 2
    • Rosario, M., 156
    • Rose, J. L., 299, 300
    • Rosenheck, R. A., 348
    • Ross, M. W., 387
    • Rossi, A. M., 270
    • Rucker, L., 247, 248
    • Rule, B. G., 270
    • Rupp, E. E., 431
    • Rush, B., 156, 157
    • Sabol, W. J., 179
    • Sachs, E., 155, 156
    • Saldana, L., 294
    • Sanchez, O., 155–156
    • Sarteschi, C. M., 160
    • Saum, C., 247
    • Sawyer, D. A., 272
    • Schaeffer, C. M., 294
    • Schewe, P. A., 294
    • Schlossman, S. L., 29
    • Schmalleger, F., 2, 13
    • Schram, P. J., 89
    • Schroeder, C., 89
    • Schumer, C., 442
    • Schwartz, B. K., 305
    • Sed, S., 209
    • Seiter, R. P., 3, 6, 9
    • Sellin, T., 35
    • Selling, L., 243
    • Seto, M. C., 301
    • Shephard, J. M., 269
    • Sherman, L. W., 495
    • Shi, J., 247, 248
    • Sickmund, M., 42
    • Siegel, J., 247, 248
    • Silverman, M., 215
    • Sluder, R., 247, 393
    • Smith, J., 438
    • Smith, P. S., 270
    • Snell, T. L., 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 179
    • Solomon, P., 270
    • Sorensen, J., 31
    • Sorensen, J. R., 381, 393, 394, 395
    • Sparrow, S. S., 299
    • Speltz, K., 296
    • Stana, R. M., 13
    • Stein, B., 72
    • Stenius, V. M. K., 272
    • Sterns, A. A., 209
    • Sterns, R. S., 209
    • Stohr, M. K., 2
    • Struckman-Johnson, C., 247, 248
    • Struckman-Johnson, D., 247, 248
    • Stucker, A., 272
    • Sturm, K., 272
    • Suedfeld, P., 270
    • Sumner, J., 247
    • Sumter, M., 332
    • Sung, H. E., 5, 498
    • Surratt, H., 247
    • Sutherland, E. H., 5
    • Swartz, J., 123
    • Sykes, G. M., 213, 237
    • Taxman, F. S., 362, 473
    • Taylor, W. C., 387
    • Tellier, M., 266
    • Teplin, L. A., 123, 171, 172
    • Tetlock, P. E., 270
    • Tewksbury, R., 237, 242, 245, 247, 248
    • Tharp, J., 161
    • Thienhaus, O. J., 176
    • Toch, H., 264
    • Torrey, E. F., 8
    • Trashorras, J. E. S., 435
    • Tremblay, R. F., 46
    • Tuddenham, R., 449
    • Umar, W. D., 442
    • Vaillancourt, T., 46
    • Van den Bergh, B. J., 180
    • Vanyur, J. M., 443–444, 448
    • Vaughn, M. G., 160
    • Veasey, S., 272
    • Vega, W. M., 215
    • Vess, J., 304
    • Vigen, M. P., 381, 385, 389
    • Visher, C., 367
    • Vito, G. F., 215
    • Wagner, W., 275 (box)
    • Walker, D. F., 294
    • Wallace, D., 393
    • Waller, J. M., 438, 439
    • Walsh, A., 2
    • Walters, R. H., 270
    • Ward, D., 238, 239
    • Warren, J., 247, 248
    • Way, B. B., 272
    • Weinrott, M. R., 291
    • West, H. C., 179
    • Wichmann, C., 278
    • Wilkinson, G. S., 299
    • Williams, M. L., 387
    • Wilson, D. G., 215
    • Wilson, J., 212
    • Wolff, N., 247, 248
    • Wolfgang, M. E., 35
    • Wong, R. Y., 155, 156
    • Wood, P. B., 495
    • Wooden, W., 241, 247, 265
    • Woods, S. O., 381
    • Woody, M., 171
    • Worling, J. R., 293
    • Wormith, J. S., 266
    • Wortzel, H. S., 351, 361
    • Wright, J., 237, 242
    • Young, G. R., 272
    • Zinger, I., 278
    • Zubek, J. P., 269

    About the Editor

    Lior Gideon, PhD, is an associate professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York, New York. He specializes in corrections-based program evaluation and focuses his research on rehabilitation, reentry, and reintegration issues and in particular by examining offenders' perceptions of their needs. His research interests also involve international and comparative corrections-related public opinion surveys and their effect on policy. To that extent, Dr. Gideon published several manuscripts on these topics, including two previously published books on offenders needs in the reintegration process: Substance Abusing Inmates: Experiences of Recovering Drug Addicts on Their Way Back Home (2010, Springer), and Rethinking Corrections: Rehabilitation, Reentry, and Reintegration (with Hung-En Sung, 2011, Sage). Aside from the above, Dr. Gideon has published, or is in the process of completing, two books in methodology. His other works were recently published in The Prison Journal, the International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, and the Asian Journal of Criminology. Dr. Gideon earned his PhD from the Faculty of Law, Institute of Criminology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel, and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Maryland's Bureau of Governmental Research.

    About the Contributors

    Traqina Q. Emeka, PhD, is an assistant professor at the University of Houston Downtown. She serves as the assistant chair and graduate coordinator in the Department of Criminal Justice. Her research interests include juvenile delinquency, victimology, recidivism, and community corrections. She is also the coauthor of American Victimology and has published in the areas of child abuse, juvenile recidivism, and community corrections.

    Nelseta V. Walters-Jones, PhD, is a faculty member in the Department of Justice Administration at University of Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky. She received her PhD in Juvenile Justice from Prairie View A & M University in Prairie View, Texas, in 2008. She has published in Texas Probation Journal, Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, and American Journal of Criminal Justice.

    Lisa Pasko, PhD, is an assistant professor at the University of Denver in Colorado. She received her PhD from the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Lisa's primary research and teaching interests include criminology, punishment, sexualities/gender studies, as well as methodological issues in conducting studies of crime and deviance. She is coauthor of The Female Offender and other articles that explore issues of gender and delinquency. Dr. Pasko has published in a variety of areas, including ethnography of stripping, pathways predictors of juvenile justice involvement, a feminist analysis of restorative justice initiatives, and evaluations of two girl offender programs. Dr. Pasko teaches courses on criminology, the female offender, men and masculinities, and crime and punishment. Her current research is funded by the Colorado Division of Criminal Justice and examines the treatment of sexual minority girls in youth corrections.

    Meda Chesney-Lind, PhD, is a professor of Women's Studies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. She has served as vice president of the American Society of Criminology and president of the Western Society of Criminology. Dr. Chesney-Lind's work on women and crime, and girls in the criminal justice are nationally recognized. Her books include Girls, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice was awarded the American Society of Criminology's Michael J. Hindelang Award for the “outstanding contribution to criminology, 1992.” An equally important and influential book, The Female Offender: Girls, Women, and Crime, was published in 1997 by Sage. Her most recent book is an edited collection entitled Female Gangs in America and has just been published by Lakeview Press. She has also received the Distinguished Scholar Award from the Women and Crime Division of the American Society of Criminology, the Major Achievement Award from the Division of Critical Criminology, and the Herbert Block Award for service to the society and the profession from the American Society of Criminology. Finally, she has received the Donald Cressey Award from the National Council on Crime and Delinquency in 1997 for “her outstanding academic contribution to the field of criminology.” Locally, she has been awarded the University of Hawaii Board of Regent's Medal for “Excellence in Research.”

    Zelma Weston Henriques, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Law, Police Science and Criminal Justice Administration at John Jay College, City University of New York. She was a Rockefeller Research Fellow in Human Rights at Columbia University. Her research interests are imprisoned mothers and their children; women in prison; race, class, and gender issues; and cross-cultural studies of crime. She is the author of Imprisoned Mothers and Their Children.

    Bridget P. Gladwin, MA, is retired from a thirty-four year career in New York state and local government. Twenty-eight of those years were spent in state and local corrections. She has served as warden of three different minimum and medium security male and female New York State correctional institutions. Nine of those years were spent implementing and developing the very successful nursery program at Taconic Correctional Facility. She holds a BSW in Sociology from London University and an MSW from Rutgers University. Since her retirement, she has been an adjunct professor at Pace University, St. John's University, and currently teaches at John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

    Anna Curtis, MA, is a doctoral candidate in the sociology department at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. She is also a graduate fellow in the legal studies department at the same university. Her dissertation research focuses on incarcerated fathers, exploring the ways that fatherhood and masculinity are deployed within prison in order to control and discipline male prisoners as well as how incarcerated fathers negotiate the tensions between their masculine practices and their expectations for responsible fathering behavior.

    Elizabeth Corzine Dretsch, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Troy University. She earned her PhD in the administration of justice with a graduate minor in educational research from the University of Southern Mississippi. Dr. Dretsch served as the key academic advisor to the Jacksonville Reentry Center and the Jacksonville Mental Health Court in Jacksonville, Florida. Her work has been published in Women & Criminal Justice, the Journal of Interpersonal Violence, International Journal of Cyber Criminology, the Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture and Rethinking Corrections: Rehabilitation, Reentry, and Reintegration (2011).

    Lorie A. L. Nicholas, PhD, is a staff psychologist in the Federal Bureau of Prisons and an adjunct professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in the Law and Police Science Department. Her work consists of conducting suicide risk assessments and monitoring overall mental health services. Dr. Nicholas has presented at many conferences and conducted workshops and trainings on topics which include stress management, race-related concerns, the criminal justice system, substance abuse, violence, incarcerated mothers and their children, and financial stress/financial literacy. Dr. Nicholas has an extensive background working with children, youth and adults. She has been involved with numerous research projects as well.

    Gerard Bryant, PhD, is the Northeast Regional Psychology Services Administrator for the Federal Bureau of Prisons. He is also currently teaching correctional psychology courses at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, which is part of the City University of New York.

    Ronald H. Aday, PhD, is professor of sociology at Middle Tennessee State University. He received his PhD from Oklahoma State University, with specialties in crime, corrections and gerontology. His lifelong work on aging and health issues in the field of corrections has contributed significantly to the public policy debate on older offenders. He has published extensively on the topic including Aging Prisoners: Crisis in American Corrections and is coauthor of Women Aging in Prison: A Neglected Population in the Correctional System.

    Jennifer J. Krabill, MA, is a research associate at the Tennessee Center for Gerontology and Geriatric Research. She received her MA degree in sociology from Middle Tennessee State University. A coauthor of Women Aging in Prison: A Neglected Population in the Correctional System, her extensive research has examined a variety of topics on aging offenders in the criminal justice system. Her most recent work focuses on religion in the lives of older female lifers.

    Christopher Hensley, PhD, is an associate professor of criminal justice in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. He received his doctorate in sociology from Mississippi State University. His most recent publications appear in the International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology and the Journal of Interpersonal Violence. His research interests include the link between childhood animal cruelty and later violence toward humans, prison sexuality, and attitudes toward correctional issues.

    Helen Eigenberg, PhD, is professor and department head in the Criminal Justice Department at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. She worked for five years at a federal, male prison both as a correctional officer and a case manager. She received her PhD in criminal justice in 1989 from Sam Houston State University. She taught and served as department head at Old Dominion University from 1988-1995 and Eastern Kentucky University from 1995-1997. She has been at UTC since 1998. Her research interests include women and crime, victimology, violence against women, institutional corrections, and male rape in prisons. She has published a book on domestic violence: Woman Battering in the United States (2001). She also has published over 25 articles in a wide variety of journals including: American Journal of Police, Women and Criminal Justice, Criminal Justice Review, Journal of Criminal Justice Education, Journal of Criminal Justice, Justice Quarterly, and The Prison Journal. She was the editor of Feminist Criminology and currently is on their editorial board. She has won several national and state awards for her innovation and success in teaching, research, and service.

    Lauren Gibson, MA, is a recent graduate of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, where she received her master's degree in criminal justice. Her future publication will appear in The Prison Journal. Her research interests include prison sexuality, attitudes toward sexual assault, and LGBT prison subcultures.

    Holly A. Miller, PhD, is an assistant dean of undergraduate programs and professor in the College of Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University. She received her BA from Bethel College in St. Paul, Minnesota, and her PhD in clinical psychology from Florida State University. She teaches, consults, and conducts research in the areas of malingered psychopathology, assessment and treatment of offenders, psychopathy, sexual offenders, and diversity issues in criminal justice.

    Leah A. McCoy, MA, is a doctoral student in the College of Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University. She received her BA in psychology from West Virginia State University in Institute, West Virginia, and her MA in criminal justice and criminology from Sam Houston State University. Her research interests include gender issues in crime and criminal justice, legal issues in criminal justice, and victimology.

    Christian Maile, MA, is a PhD candidate in the Clinical Forensic Psychology Doctoral Program at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York. He is currently completing his predoctoral internship at St. Joseph's Healthcare in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. His research interests include forensic assessment and the etiology and treatment of sex offending.

    Cynthia Calkins-Mercado, PhD, is an associate professor in the John Jay College Department of Psychology. Her research aims to inform sex crime policy and sexual violence prevention through use of empirical data.

    Elizabeth L. Jeglic, PhD, is an associate professor in the psychology department at John Jay College. Her research interests include the treatment and assessment of sex offenders and sex offender public policy.

    Barbara H. Zaitzow, PhD, professor of criminal justice at Appalachian State University, conducts research projects in men's and women's prisons and has been involved in local, state and national advocacy work for prisoners and organizations seeking alternatives to imprisonment. Zaitzow has served on various editorial boards for nationally-recognized journals and she has published a coedited book, articles, and book chapters on a variety of prison-related topics including HIV/AIDS and other treatment needs of women prisoners and the impact of prison culture on the “doing time” experiences of the imprisoned which appear in Criminal Justice Policy Review, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, Journal of Crime and Justice, Journal of Gang Research, Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, Justice Policy Journal, and Names.

    Richard S. Jones, PhD, is an associate professor of sociology at Marquette University. He is the author of the books, Doing Time: Prison Experience and Identity (with Tom Schmid) and Global Perspectives on Re-Entry (with Ikponwosa O. Ekunwe), and has published in the areas of prison experience, social identity, and the problems of reentry faced by previously incarcerated individuals.

    Joel Rosenthal, PhD, received his PhD in clinical psychology from Georgia State University in 1988 and has been a licensed practicing clinical psychologist in California since 1990. He has been employed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs since 1987, currently in the position of National Training Director, Veterans Justice Programs. In this capacity, Dr. Rosenthal is responsible for development and oversight of the training and education of the over 200 VA staff responsible for outreach to justice involving veterans in prisons, jails, and courts throughout the United States. Prior to his current VA position, Dr. Rosenthal served on the staff of the VA Palo Alto Healthcare System as Coordinator of Clinical Services for Domiciliary Care, overseeing all clinical services provided in the 100-bed residential and aftercare programs serving homeless and substance dependent veterans. Dr. Rosenthal previously worked in community-based mental health in the provision of individual, adolescent, and family treatment, including serving as executive director of Iowa Runaway Service, Des Moines, Iowa.

    Jim McGuire, LCSW, PhD, is a social work researcher and program administrator whose current position is National Director, VHA (Veterans Health Administration) Veterans Justice Program, which includes VA Healthcare for Reentry Veterans (HCRV) Program (prison outreach and reentry services) and VA Veterans Justice Outreach (law enforcement, jail, and court-based services for justice involved veterans). His research included: (1) longitudinal evaluations of a. VA-funded residential care outcomes for homeless veterans and b. colocation of primary care and homeless services for homeless veterans to improve access and health status; (2) outreach and treatment for incarcerated veterans reentering the community; (3) elderly homeless and incarcerated veterans; and (4) VA-community agency partnerships. Dr. McGuire has also been PI or Co-PI at VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System on VA's NEPEC (Northeast Program Evaluation Center) studies of Supported Employment, Seeking Safety, Critical Time Intervention (CTI), and the VA-HUD Collaborative Initiative to Help End Chronic Homelessness (CICH). Dr. McGuire was a clinician and administrator at Didi Hirsch Community Mental Health Center in Culver City, California, for 22 years prior to employment at VA. He worked in crisis intervention, substance abuse, family and child guidance, and justice treatment programs during his tenure in community mental health.

    Mark D. Cunningham, PhD, ABPP, is a prolific scholar regarding death-sentenced inmates, rates and correlates of prison violence, and death penalty sentencing considerations. Dr. Cunningham's research contributions have been honored with the 2006 American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, the 2005 Texas Psychological Association Award for Outstanding Contribution to Science, and election as a Fellow of the American Psychological Association. He is board-certified in clinical and forensic psychology by the American Board of Professional Psychology. Dr. Cunningham's practice is national in scope and he is licensed as a psychologist in 20 states. Dr. Cunningham earned his doctorate in clinical psychology at Oklahoma State University, completed a clinical psychology internship at the National Naval Medical Center, and did postdoctoral studies at the Yale University School of Medicine. He can be contacted at: mdc@markdcunningham.com

    Keith J. Price, PhD, is an associate professor of criminal justice and sociology at West Texas A&M University. He spent thirty years of employment with the Texas prison system where he served in numerous positions, including as warden of five maximum security prisons. His research interests include capital punishment and Texas prisons.

    Harald E. Weiss, PhD, is assistant professor of sociology in the Department of Sociology at Mississippi State University. He earned his PhD from Ohio State University in 2008 and conducts research on the development of adolescent social capital, as well as on its protective effects on delinquency. A second focus of his research is the relationship between immigration and crime. In this area, he particularly focuses on the economic factors that may tie immigration to rates of offending in the U.S. His work has appeared in Social Science Research, Sociological Perspectives, and Justice Quarterly.

    Lauren M. Vasquez, MA, is currently a doctoral student (ABD) at Mississippi State University. Her areas of interest are criminology and gender, and she is currently investigating techniques of neutralization through a gendered lens. Her past research has focused on such topics as rural crime and immigration, representations of crimes in popular media, and fear of crime management among newly married African American couples. Lauren recently completed work on a Verizon Wireless Fellowship she received last year. The fellowship allowed her to research policies and procedures on dealing with intimate partner violence and rape across several university campuses. Her work on this topic has led to several presentations that are intended to promote awareness about intimate partner violence and rape on college campuses.

    Aaron Rappaport, JD, is a professor of law at the University of California Hastings College of the Law. He writes and teaches in the areas of criminal law, sentencing law, and terrorism.

    Tinka Veldhuis, PhD, is a PhD Fellow and lecturer in the sociology department of the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. In addition, she is a research fellow at the Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael,’ and at the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism (ICCT)—The Hague. Her research focuses on radicalization, violent extremism and counter-terrorism. In particular, she develops interdisciplinary research frameworks to examine detention and reintegration of violent extremist offenders and radicalization and deradicalization processes in prison. In 2010, she was involved in evaluation research commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice, to evaluate Dutch terrorist detention policies.

    Amos N. Guiora, JD, is a professor of law at the S. J. Quinney College of Law, the University of Utah. Guiora who teaches criminal procedure, international law, global perspectives on counterterrorism and religion and terrorism incorporates innovative scenario-based instruction to address national and international security issues and dilemmas. He is a member of the American Bar Association's Law and National Security Advisory Committee; a research fellow at the International Institute on Counter-Terrorism, The Interdisciplinary Center, Herzylia, Israel; a corresponding member, The Netherlands School of Human Rights Research, University of Utrecht School of Law. He was awarded a Senior Specialist Fulbright Fellowship for the Netherlands (2008) and research grant from the Stuart Family Foundation (2011). Professor Guiora has published extensively in the U.S. and Europe on issues related to national security, limits of interrogation, religion and terrorism, the limits of power, multiculturalism, and human rights. Guiora is the author of numerous articles, op-eds and books. His recent books include Global Perspectives on Counterterrorism, Fundamentals of Counterterrorism, Constitutional Limits on Coercive Interrogation, Freedom from Religion: Rights and National Security and Homeland Security: What Is It and Where are We Going? He served for 19 years in the Israel Defense Forces as lieutenant colonel (retired), and held a number of senior command positions, including commander of the IDF School of Military Law, legal advisor to the IDF Home Front Command and legal advisor to the Gaza Strip. Professor Guiora received the S. J. Quinney College of Law Faculty Scholarship Award (2011).

    Hung-En Sung, PhD, is professor of criminal justice at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. He specializes in offender rehabilitation, correctional health, and comparative analysis of crime and justice. His current work focuses on the diversion and treatment of chronic offenders with co-occurring disorders and the therapeutic mechanisms of faith-based recovery interventions. Dr. Sung is also examining the impact of morbidity and healthcare needs on criminal recidivism among offenders under institutional or community supervision. In 2010, the National Institute of Justice awarded him the W. E. B. Du Bois Fellowship to research on the safety and health consequences of the legal exclusion of undocumented migrants.

    Linda Richter, PhD, is the associate director of the Division of Policy Research and Analysis at The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. Dr. Richter is responsible for overseeing the preparation of all research-related proposals and products of the division which focuses on the impact of substance use and addiction on systems and populations in the United States and aims to integrate the prevention and treatment of addiction into mainstream medicine. Dr. Richter has taught in the psychology department at Barnard College and in the Department of Organization and Leadership at Teachers College of Columbia University. She received her PhD in social psychology from the University of Maryland at College Park.

    Roger D. Vaughan, PhD, received his doctorate in biostatistics from the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University in 1997, and has been a professor there since 2003. He is currently the interim chair of the Department of Biostatistics and director of the Clinical Research Methods track. His research interests revolve around rigorous evaluation methods, methods for the analysis of data from Group Randomized Trials and of correlated data, and innovative teaching methods for the quantitative sciences. Dr. Vaughan also serves as the editor for statistics and evaluation for the American Journal of Public Health, and is the director of the Design and Biostatistics Resources of the Irving Institute for Clinical and Translational Research.

    Susan E. Foster, MSW, is VP, Director of Policy Research and Analysis, and director of The Califano Institute at The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA Columbia). Projects under her direction have included studies of addiction prevention and treatment in the US; the impact of substance use and addiction on federal, state and local budgets, juvenile and adult corrections, schools, welfare, the family, and women; the diversion and misuse of prescription drugs; and research on the commercial value of underage and pathological drinking to the alcohol industry. She has an MSW in social policy from Rutgers University and has authored publications on a broad range of public policy issues. She is responsible for the production of CASA's first book, Women under the Influence, published by The Johns Hopkins University Press and released in February of 2006. Prior to joining CASA, she worked in local and state government, was a partner in the public policy consulting firm of Brizius & Foster, and served as Deputy Under Secretary for Intergovernmental Affairs in the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

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