Spatial Formations

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Nigel Thrift

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  • Theory, Culture & Society

    Theory, Culture & Society caters for the resurgence of interest in culture within contemporary social science and the humanities. Building on the heritage of classical social theory, the book series examines ways in which this tradition has been reshaped by a new generation of theorists. It will also publish theoretically informed analyses of everyday life, popular culture, and new intellectual movements.

    EDITOR: Mike Featherstone, University of Teesside

    SERIES EDITORIAL BOARD

    Roy Boyne, University of Teesside

    Mike Hepworth, University of Aberdeen

    Scott Lash, Lancaster University

    Roland Robertson, University of Pittsburgh

    Bryan S. Turner, Deakin University

    Recent volumes include:

    • The Cinematic Society
    • The Voyeur's Gaze
    • Norman K. Denzin
    • Decentring Leisure
    • Rethinking Leisure Theory
    • Chris Rojek
    • Global Modernities
    • Mike Featherstone, Scott Lash and Roland Robertson
    • The Masque of Femininity
    • The Presentation of Woman in Everyday Life
    • Efrat Tseëlon
    • The Arena of Racism
    • Michel Wieviorka
    • Undoing Culture
    • Globalization, Postmodernism and Identity
    • Mike Featherstone
    • The Time of the Tribes
    • The Decline of Individualism in Mass Society
    • Michel Maffesoli
    • Risk, Environment and Modernity
    • Towards a New Ecology
    • edited by Scott Lash, Bronislaw Szerszynski and Brian Wynne
    • For Weber
    • Essays on the Sociology of Fate
    • Bryan S. Turner
    • Cyberspace/Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk
    • Cultures of Technological Embodiment
    • edited by Mike Featherstone and Roger Burrows

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    For my parents

    Epigrams

    Everything in the universe is encounters, happy or unhappy encounters

    Gilles Deleuze

    The essence of being radical is physical

    Michel Foucault

    Subjects cannot exist outside a world, nor in any conceivable world. The meaning of the term ‘objective’ is here: the possibility supplied to subjects as beings for-themselves by what there is to exist in a world and to organise, each time in another way, what there is.

    Cornelius Castoriadis

    Perceiving is … not an appearance in the theatre of (the individual's) consciousness. It is a keeping-in-touch with the world, an experience of things, rather than a having of experiences. It involves awareness-of instead of just awareness. It may be an awareness of something in the environment or something in the observer or both at once, but there is no content of awareness independent of that of which one is aware.

    James Gibson

    Social events and not social systems should be our concern in any examination of the human world. Such events are always situated in and brought forth by human actions within a human domain or space; they are never stable because they constantly generate responsive actions that differ from the events that elicited them. This background of human practices (linguistic and nonlinguistic) is what corresponds in the human sciences to the structural coupling in the natural world.

    Francisco Varela

    The difficulty – I might say – is not that of finding a solution but rather of recognising as the solution something that looks as if it were only a preliminary to it. … This is connected, I believe, with wrongly expecting an explanation, whereas the solution of the difficulty is description, if we give it the right place in our considerations.

    Ludwig Wittgenstein

    One of the most harmful habits in contemporary thought is the analysis of the present as being, precisely, in history, a present of rupture, or of high point, or of completion or a returning dawn. The solemnity with which everyone engaged in philosophical discourse reflects on his own time strikes me as a flaw. I think we should have the modesty to say to ourselves that, on the one hand, the time we live in is not the unique or fundamental or irruptive point in history where everything is completed and begun again. We must have the modesty to say, on the other hand, that – even without this solemnity – the time we live in is very interesting.

    Michel Foucault

    List of Tables and Figures

    Tables
    • 4.1 Some characteristics of theories and accounts 133
    • 4.2 The General Elections of 1935 and 1945 135
    • 4.3 Proportion of unaccompanied schoolchildren and mothers and children evacuated from some of the major urban areas of England at the outbreak of war 142
    • 4.4 Employment in Great Britain, 1938 and 1944 143–4
    • 4.5 Population increases in selected towns whose population increased by 4 per cent or more, 1938–42 145
    • 4.6 Housing out of civilian use in the United Kingdom, 1944 145
    • 4.7 The distribution of population of Great Britain by region, 1938 and 1942 146
    • 4.8 Consumer purchases of newspapers, magazines and books in the United Kingdom, 1938–44 153
    • 4.9 Fulham Election results, 1935 and 1945 155
    • 5.1 Reconstruction of the monastic day at the beginning of the period 195
    • 5.2 Rates of pay at two of the King's works in the thirteenth century 205
    Figures
    • 1.1 The expansion of subjective experience: increasing travel over four generations of the same family 42
    • 2.1 Mediating concepts in the schemas of various members of the structurationist school 69
    • 2.2 The life path seen as a compositional ordering and a contextual field 82
    • 2.3 Elements of conflict in context 91
    • 3.1 Knowledge and communication 98
    • 3.2 The five kinds of unknowing 99
    • 3.3 The spatial distribution of chapmen licensed in England and Wales, 1697–8 110
    • 3.4 The diffusion of the quarto edition of the Encyclopédie in France, 1777–82 112
    • 3.5 The diffusion of the quarto edition of the Encylopédie outside France, 1777–82 113
    • 3.6 The life paths and the daily paths of James Clegg (1679–1756) and Richard Kay (1716–51) during one week in July 1745 115
    • 3.7 The major components of the process of structuring 121
    • 4.1 The geography of the 1935 General Election 137
    • 4.2 The geography of the 1945 General Election 138
    • 4.3 Total numbers billeted in reception areas under the official scheme, 1940–5 141
    • 4.4 Strength of the Home Guard, 1940–5 147
    • 4.5 Strength of the Royal Observer Corps, 1940–5 148
    • 4.6 Numbers in the Civil Defence Services of Great Britain, 1940–5 148
    • 5.1 Date of first report of mechanical clock 193
    • 5.2 Distribution of monasteries and other religious houses: (a) Benedictine and Cluniac houses founded before 1150; (b) regular canons, c. 1300; (c) the new orders; (d) religious houses for women, c. 1300; (e) priories, c. 1300 197–201
    • 5.3 Distribution of medieval boroughs 203
    • 6.1 The City of London 233
    • 6.2 Business areas within the City of London, 1938/9 234
    • 6.3 Employment in the City of London, 1801–1991 235
    • 6.4 Location of City of London overseas banks, 1993 251
    • 7.1 The UK National Electricity Supply Grid, 1994 307

    Preface

    The bulk of this book consists of a set of seven extended essays. The first essay was written especially for this book. It is followed by three ‘earlier’ essays, originally published in 1983, 1985 and 1986, which are reproduced here in their original form. Three ‘later’ essays, one published in 1988, the other two in 1994, have been extended and updated for this volume.

    Each of these different essays has one thing in common. Hovering, like a buzzing fly, in the background of all of them is a commitment to developing a historical geography of thought, defined as the study of ‘the problematizations through which being offers itself to be, necessarily, thought – and the practices on the basis of which these problematizations are formed’ (Foucault, 1985, p. 11). This is a project with a particular ontological-cum-epistemological stance which includes, at the very least, a commitment to a historicism, but of a limited rather than a full-blown kind, to situated knowledges, and to a light theoretical touch. In turn, this stance has four consequences.

    First, it has led me towards ‘flatter’ theories of society, theories which see society as neither an underlying code nor an inscribed surface but rather as more or less spatially and temporally extensive networks of practices which point not only to the absences in every presence, a common poststructuralist mantra, but also to the presences in every absence. In other words, practices are inherently dialogical, affectively charged and oriented towards mutual re-cognition (J. Benjamin, 1988). Second, it has meant thinking of ‘objects’ as active presences in these networks of practices. In this book, timekeeping devices, money and machines, for example, all both lean on and are attached to these networks but, in turn, they also take on a kind of life of their own (Theweleit, 1994). Third, it has forced me to express considerable scepticism about ‘representation’, understood as singularised images standing for something else. Representational habits of thinking still doggedly persist in the social sciences and humanities. In contrast, this book is more concerned with ‘presentations’, with showings and manifestations, that characterise social knowledge in use (Curt, 1994). In turn, that means being able to escape a set of tyrannies:

    accounts of a ‘real’ world do not, then, depend on a logic of ‘discovery’, but on a power-charged social relation of ‘conversation’. The world neither speaks itself nor disappears in favour of a master decoder. The codes of the world are not still, waiting only to be read … no particular doctrine or representation or decoding or discovery guarantees anything. (Haraway, 1991a, pp. 198–9)

    Fourth, and relatedly, it has guided me towards a modest view of the accomplishments of ‘theory’. Theory is situated and recast as a set of narrative sketches, as ‘fictions’ in Foucault's sense of the term, arising out of ‘a deficiency in our having-to-do with the world concertfully’ (Heidegger, 1962, p. 88). And the knowledge produced and regulated by that ‘theory’ is ‘radial’:

    knowledge, like truth, is relative to understanding. Our folk view of knowledge as being absolute comes from the same source as our folk view that truth is absolute, which is the folk theory that there is only one way to understand a situation. When that folk theory fails, and we have multiple ways of understanding, or ‘framing’ a situation, then knowledge, like truth, becomes relative to that understanding. (Lakoff, 1987, p. 300)

    In other words, I want to achieve a contingent foundationalism. ‘This is not to say no foundations exist but rather, that wherever there is one, there will also be a foundering, a contestation. … Foundations exist only to be put into question’ (Butler, 1992, p. 16). Put another way, I have been concerned to provide narrative sketches of the world which always leave open the possibility of creative play and I have told these stories from within a number of different arenas, from the landscapes of war (1983b, 1985c, 1986a) to the search for democratic economic practices (1994a, 1994m, 1995k)1 and, as the six chapters that follow the introductory chapter show, from medieval time consciousness to modern international finance.

    These six chapters are also bound together by other concerns. First, I make claims about orderings and not about orders. It follows that I am not particularly interested in producing a finished, systematic theory of modernity or postmodernity in these chapters, in part because I do not believe that such a feat is possible (or necessary) and, in part, because too many attempts to do so have been laced with all kinds of customs and traditions (many of them inherited from the patrician élite of Ancient Greece) which are actually to do with forming a specular watchtower. However, it also follows that I am also not particularly interested in going to the opposite extreme, which, in fact, only holds up a mirror to these customs and practices, by adding to the multiplying kinds of self-conscious commentaries on academic texts which now seem to be in vogue. Like Latour (1988) and Bourdieu (1990a; Bourdieu and Wacquant, 1992), I believe that too many of these exercises in ‘reflexivity’ are simply a means of retreating from the one special responsibility that I do think academics have, which is to multiply the communicative resources that people have available to them. In other words, these reflexive exercises too often end up simply patronising readers, both through making the absurd assumption that readers naïvely believe that texts are in some way related to a referent out there and through making the assumption that a text about the way a text is produced is somehow more reflexive than a text with an actual object. Instead, I am in favour of what Latour (1988) calls ‘infra-reflexivity’, which includes in its credo: the deflation of methodology and its replacement by style; self-exemplification rather than self-reference; being on the side of the known rather than on the side of knowing; not being ashamed of weak explanations; working for equal relations between the represented and the representational; and automatically assuming transdisciplinarity. Whether this means that my stories are ‘theories’, I am not sure (M. Hannah, 1992).

    Second, these six chapters constantly cross the boundaries between categories like the economic, the social and the cultural. I want to see these categories, which are in any case increasingly redundant, fail. Why? Because, too often, they signal a kind of self-censorship on the part of authors about what it is appropriate for them to study (M. Morris, 1992b), or, even worse, a kind of intellectual snobbery.

    Third, I use large amounts of historically and geographically specific material. I do this because, on the whole, I am wary of purely theoretical excursions. Their lack of contextual detail (which usually means that they have a very specific but uncharted context) often makes these exercises obscure, even as claims to the contrary are being registered (Bordo and Moussa, 1993).

    Fourth, and finally, I have striven for a particular, tentative written style, which at one time might have been called ‘meat and potatoes’ but nowadays is probably best described as ‘simple side salad’. One of the most important insights of poststructuralism is that ‘what we can communicate … can be overcome by a change of style’ (Wood, 1990, p. 116), but, in practice, this has often meant that writing has become elliptical rather than multidirectional and therefore reliant on petrified exegetical and interpretational habits (including many of the manifestations of deconstruction). In particular, I have tried to write in a way which mirrors my concern with undermining the ‘representation’ of intention or meaning which can so easily turn into the compulsion ‘to see meanings, and particularly hidden ones, everywhere’ (Pfeiffer, 1994, p. 7).

    It has to be said that this book has been a long time coming. In part, this tardiness is the result of my aforementioned suspicions about the powers of what is conventionally regarded as theory. In part, it is because I have tried to forge a particular form of theory, one that is always situated, and, in consequence, I have tried to move away from the kind of abstract theory which washes away content by ignoring context, leaving only empty panoptic visions. In part, it is because, except for a brief period when structuration theory was ‘in’, I have pursued these thoughts outside the theoretical and empirical mainstream of geography, a subject within which I have been glad to live my life but which seems to me to have a disturbing tendency to sort itself into cosy intellectual-interactional coteries too quickly and too finally. Then last, it is also because, in part, I have some doubts about the ethics of sitting comfortably theorising in a study when the world is clearly in such a dreadful state: I have always wanted to produce ‘theoretical’ excursions in parallel with more ‘applied’ work which can have some immediate impacts, however humble these might be.

    What is certain is that this book could not have been produced at all without being able to translate the affirmative energies of many people. It is difficult to know where to start – or stop – in making due acknowledgement to them.

    Any book is, first of all, the product of convivial contexts. I want to single out three of these. At the Australian National University, I want to thank Dean Forbes, Mike Taylor and Peter Williams. At Saint David's University College, Lampeter, I want to acknowledge the sturdy companionship of Paul Cloke and David Kay. At the University of Bristol I have received the support of many, many people but especially Malcolm Anderson, Keith Bassett, Allan Frey, Paul Glennie, Peter Haggett, Les Hepple, Tony Hoare, Paul Routledge, John Thornes and Sarah Whatmore.

    Second, I want to single out some of my co-authors over the years. I often work with others (as the list of Selected Writings makes clear). I would only add that this has been a matter of principle as well as a source of pleasure since it seems to me that if, as I believe, authorship, like subjectivity, exists between people, then we can either acknowledge this overtly or covertly, and I prefer the former option. Those who have shared a third space over the years have included Ash Amin, Jonathan Beaverstock, Tommy Carlstein, Paul Cloke, Stuart Corbridge, Peter Daniels, Michael Dear, Peter Dicken, Paul Glennie, Peter Jackson, Ron Johnston, Andrew Leyshon, John Lovering, Don Parkes, Richard Peet, Steve Pile, Allan Pred, Mike Taylor and Peter Williams.

    Third, I want to thank the postgraduate students who I have been involved in supervising or co-supervising over the years. They have produced inspiration (and references) when I most needed them: Jonathan Beaverstock, Nick Bingham, James Boardwell, Catherine Brace, Paul Chatterton, Rebecca Chiu, Ian Clarke, Ian Cook, Mike Crang, Neil Cuthbertson, Marcus Doel, Rowan Douglas, Shaun French, Emily Gilbert, Darren Hall, Billy Harris, Rob Harris, Bon Holloway, Sonia Juvik, Birgit Kehrer, Alan Latham, Phil McManus, Kris Olds, Doug Porter, Martin Roche, Paul Sheard and Richard Smith.

    Fourth, I want to make mention of my journal compatriots over many years: Michael Dear, Derek Gregory, Peter Jackson, Gerry Pratt and Allen Scott at Society and Space, and John Ashby, Trevor Barnes, Bill Clark, Ron Johnston, Paul Knox, Jan Schubert, Sarah Whatmore, Ros Whitehead and Alan Wilson at Environment and Planning A.

    Fifth, I want to note all the people who specifically commented on one or more of the seven essays in this book: Barbara Adam, John Allen, David Austin, Etienne Balibar, Jack Barbalet, Deirdre Boden, Robert Brenner, Phil Cooke, Denis Cosgrove, Mike Crang, Mike Davis, Dipesh Chakrabarty, Nigel Dodds, Gary Dymski, Neil Fligstein, Anthony Giddens, Derek Gregory, Chris Hamnett, Ray Hudson, Geoffrey Ingham, Bob Jessop, Marina Jirotka, Ron Johnston, Kenichi Kawasaki, Andrew Leyshon, John Lovering, Tim Luke, Doreen Massey, Danny Miller, Gunnar Olsson, Chris Paris, Steve Pile, Allan Pred, Ulker Seymen, John Shotter, Ed Soja, Malcolm Smith, Judith Squires, Richard Swedberg, Peter Taylor, John Urry, Richard Walker, Ed Weissmann, Sarah Whatmore, Peter Williams and Anna Wynne. Andrew Sayer gave the complete manuscript of the book a close and careful reading and his constructive challenges have often forced me to rethink or rephrase, always for the better.

    Sixth, I cannot help but acknowledge the particular help and comradeship of Ash Amin, Trevor Barnes, Gordon Clark, Paul Cloke, Paul Glennie, Derek Gregory, Chris Hamnett, Andrew Leyshon, Allan Pred, Mike Taylor, John Urry (who suggested the book's title) and Sarah Whatmore.

    Last, but certainly not least, my love and apologies go to Lynda, Victoria and Jessica. They chiefly experienced this book as a series of bad moods.

    Note

    1. Italicised date references relate to entries in the list of Selected Writings.

    Acknowledgements

    The author and publisher wish to thank the following publishers, journals and editors for kind permission to reprint these papers: to Edward Arnold for ‘The arts of the living and the beauty of the dead: anxieties of being in the work of Anthony Giddens’, Progress in Human Geography (1993), 17, 111–21; Pion Ltd for ‘On the determination of social action in space and time’, Environment and Planning D. Society and Space (1983), 1, 23–57; Macmillan for ‘Flies and germs: a geography of knowledge’, in D. Gregory and J. Urry (eds) Social Relations and Spatial Structures (1985), pp. 330–73; Croom Helm for ‘Little games and big stories: accounting for the practices of personality and politics in the 1945 General Election’, in K. Hoggart and E. Kofman (eds) Politics, Geography and Social Stratification (1986), pp. 90–155; Routledge for “Vivos voco: ringing the changes in the historical geography of time consciousness', in T. Schuller and M. Young (eds) The Rhythms of Society (1988), pp. 53–94; Butterworth-Heinemann for (with A. Leyshon) ‘A phantom state? The detraditionalisation of money, the international financial system and international financial centres’, Political Geography (1994), 13, 299–327; Paul Chapman for ‘Inhuman geographies: landscapes of speed, light and power’, in P.J. Cloke, M. Doel, D. Matless, M. Phillips and N.J. Thrift Writing the Rural. Five Cultural Geographies (1994), pp. 191–248.

  • Selected Writings by Nigel Thrift and Others

    1975a. (with D.N.Parkes) ‘Timing space and spacing time’, Environment and Planning A, 7, 651–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a070651
    1975b. (with J.Oakes) ‘Spatial interpolation of missing data: an empirical comparison of some different methods’, Computer Applications, 2, 335–55.
    1977a. ‘An Introduction to time-geography’, Concepts and Techniques in Modern Geography, No. 12. Norwich: Geo-Abstracts.
    1977b. ‘Time and theory in human geography, Part 1’, Progress in Human Geography, 1, 65–101.
    1977c. ‘Time and theory in human geography, Part 2’, Progress in Human Geography, 1, 415–57.
    1978a. (co-edited with T.Carlstein and D.N.Parkes) Timing Space and Spacing Time (3 vols). London: Edward Arnold.
    1978b. (with D.N.Parkes) ‘Putting time in its place’, in T.Carlstein, D.Parkes and N.J.Thrift (eds) Timing Space and Spacing Time. Volume 1, London: Edward Arnold, pp. 119–29.
    1978c. (with T.Carlstein) ‘Afterword: towards a time-space structured approach to society and environment’, in T.Carlstein, D.Parkes and N.J.Thrift (eds) Timing Space and Spacing Time. Volume 2. London: Edward Arnold, pp. 225–63.
    1979a. (co-edited with R.L.Martin and R.J.Bennett) Towards the Dynamic Analysis of Spatial Systems. London: Pion.
    1979b. (with R.L.Martin and R.J.Bennett) ‘Future directions in dynamic modelling in geography’, in R.L.Martin, R.J.Bennett and N.J.Thrift (eds) Towards the Dynamic Analysis of Spatial Systems. London: Pion, pp. 1–15.
    1979c. ‘Unemployment in the inner city: urban problem or structural imperative? A review of the British experience’, in D.T.Herbert and R.J.Johnston (eds) Geography and the Urban Environment. Volume 2. Chichester: John Wiley, pp. 125–226.
    1979d. (with D.N.Parkes) ‘Time spacemakers and entrainment’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS4, 353–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622056
    1979e. (with K.P.Burnett) ‘New approaches to travel behaviour’, in P.Stopher and D.A.Hensher (eds) Behavioural Travel Demand Modelling. London: Croom Helm, pp. 116–34.
    1979f. ‘Limits to knowledge in social theory: towards a theory of human practice’, Australian National University, Department of Human Geography, Seminar Paper.
    1980a. (with D.N.Parkes) Times, Spaces, Places. A Chronogeographic Perspective. Chichester: John Wiley.
    1980b. (with P.Keys) ‘Industrial environments: a niche theoretic interpretation’, Urban Studies, 14, 115–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420988020080291
    1980c. ‘Frobel and the new international division of labour’, in J.R.Peet (ed.) An Introduction to Marxist Theories of Underdevelopment, Department of Human Geography Publication HG14, Canberra, pp. 181–9.
    1980d. (with M.J.Taylor) ‘Large corporations and concentrations of capital in Australia: a geographical analysis’, Economic Geography, 56, 261–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/143325
    1980e. ‘Review of various books on local history’, Environment and Planning A, 12, 855–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a120855
    1981a. (with M.J.Taylor) ‘Variations in enterprise: the case of firms headquartered in Melbourne and Sydney’, Environment and Planning A, 13, 137–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a130137
    1981b. (with M.J.Taylor) ‘Flows of capital and the semiperipheral economy: some geographical implications’, Tidjschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 58, 194–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9663.1981.tb00938.x
    1981c. (with A.R.Pred) ‘Time-geography: a new beginning’, Progress in Human Geography, 5, 277–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030913258100500209
    1981d. (with M.J.Taylor) ‘British capital overseas: direct investment and Arm development in Australia’, Regional Studies, 15, 183–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09595238100185211
    1981e. ‘Owners’ time and own time: the making of a capitalist time consciousness, 1300–1880’, in A.R.Pred (ed.) Space and Time in Geography. Essays Dedicated to Torsten Hägerstrand. Lund Studies in Geography, Series B, No. 48, Lund: C.W.K. Gleerup, pp. 56–84. (Reprinted in 1990 in J.S.Hassard (ed.) The Sociology of Time. London: Macmillan, pp. 105–29; and in 1996 in J.Agnew, D.N.Livingstone and A.Rogers (eds) Human Geography. An Essential Anthology. Oxford: Blackwell.)
    1981f. (with M.J.Taylor) ‘Variations in enterprise in Australia’, Australian Geographer, 15, 98–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00049188108702802
    1982a. (co-edited with M.J.Taylor) The Geography of Multinationals. London: Croom Helm.
    1982b. (with M.J.Taylor) ‘Models of corporate development and the multinational corporation’, in M.J.Taylor and N.J.Thrift (eds) The Geography of Multinationals. London: Croom Helm, pp. 14–32.
    1982c. (with J.Hirst and M.J.Taylor) ‘The geographical pattern of the Australian trading banks’ overseas representation’, in M.J.Taylor and N.J.Thrift (eds) The Geography of Multinationals. London: Croom Helm, pp. 117–35.
    1982d. (with M.J.Taylor) ‘Industrial linkage and the segmented economy 1: Theory’, Environment and Planning A, 14, 1601–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a141601
    1982e. (with M.J.Taylor) ‘Industrial linkage and the segmented economy 2: An empirical reinterpretation’, Environment and Planning A, 14, 1614–32.
    1982f. ‘Behavioural geography: paradigm in search of paradigm’, in N.Wrigley and R.J.Bennett (eds) Quantitative Geography. Retrospect and Prospect. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 352–65.
    1983a. (with M.J.Taylor) ‘The role of finance in the evolution and functioning of industrial systems’, in F.E.I.Hamilton and G.J.R.Linge (eds) Spatial Analysis, Industry and the Environment. Volume 3. Chichester: John Wiley, pp. 359–85.
    1983b. ‘Literature, the production of culture and the politics of place’, Antipode, 15, 12–24.
    1983c. ‘On the determination of social action in space and time’, Environment and Planning D. Society and Space, 1, 23–57 (this volume). http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d010023
    1983d. (with D.K.Forbes) Review essay: ‘A landscape with figures: political geography with human conflict’, Political Geography Quarterly, 2, 247–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0260-9827%2883%2990030-7
    1983e. (with P.Williams and D.K.Forbes) ‘The Institute of Australian Geographers’, Australian Geographical Studies, 21, 3–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8470.1983.tb00420.x
    1983f. (with M.J.Taylor) ‘Business organisation, segmentation and location’, Regional Studies, 17, 445–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09595238300185441
    1984a. (co-edited with C.Adrian, C.C.Kissling and M.J.Taylor) Regional Impacts of Resource Developments. Sydney: Croom Helm.
    1984b. (with D.K.Forbes) ‘Town and city in Vietnam’, Vietnam Today, 28, 3–7.
    1984c. (with D.K.Forbes) ‘Determination and abstraction in theories of the articulation of modes of production’, in D.K.Forbes and P.J.Rimmer (eds) Uneven Development and the Geographical Transfer of Value. Department of Human Geography Publication HG16: Canberra, pp. 111–34.
    1984d. (with M.J.Taylor) ‘The regional consequences of a dualistic industrial structure: the case of Australia’, Australian Geographical Studies, 22, 72–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8470.1984.tb00462.x
    1984e. (with D.K.Forbes) ‘Urbanisation in non-capitalist developing countries: the case of Vietnam’, in R.D.Bedford (ed.) Urbanisation in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of a Symposium of the Pacific Science Congress: Dunedin, pp. 1–27.
    1985a. ‘Taking the rest of the world seriously? British urban and regional research in a time of economic crisis’, Environment and Planning A, 17, 7–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a170007
    1985b. ‘Flies and germs: a geography of knowledge’, in D.Gregory and J.Urry (eds) Social Relations and Spatial Structures. London: Macmillan, pp. 330–73 (this volume).
    1985c. (with D.K.Forbes) ‘Cities, socialism and war: Hanoi and Saigon under socialist rule’, Environment and Planning D. Society and Space, 3, 270–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d030477
    1985d. Review essay: ‘Bear and mouse or bear and tree? Anthony Giddens's reconstitution of social theory’, Sociology, 19, 609–23. (To be reprinted in 1996 in C.Bryant and D.Jary (eds) Anthony Giddens. Critical Assessments. London: Routledge.)
    1986a. (with D.K.Forbes) The Price of War. Urbanisation in Vietnam 1954–1985. London: George Allen and Unwin.
    1986b. (co-edited with M.J.Taylor) Multinationals and the Restructuring of the World Economy. London: Croom Helm.
    1986c. (with M.J.Taylor) ‘New theories of the multinational corporation’, in M.J.Taylor and N.J.Thrift (eds) Multinationals and the Restructuring of the World Economy. Beckenham: Croom Helm, pp. 1–20.
    1986d. ‘The internationalisation of producer services and the integration of the Pacific Basin property market’, in M.J.Taylor and N.J.Thrift (eds) Multinationals and the Restructuring of the World Economy. Beckenham: Croom Helm, pp. 142–92.
    1986e. ‘The geography of international economic disorder’, in R.J.Johnston and P.J.Taylor (eds) A World in Crisis: Geographical Perspectives on Global Problems. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 12–67. (Reprinted in 1988 in D.Massey and J.Allen (eds) Uneven Re-development. Cities and Regions in Transition. London: Hodder and Stoughton, pp. 6–46.)
    1986f. (with P.Daniels) ‘The international context for producer services’, in Producer Services Working Party, Uneven Development in the Service Economy. Understanding the Location and Role of Producer Services. London: Institute of British Geographers, pp. 98–130.
    1986g. ‘Little games and big stories: accounting for the practices of political personality in the 1945 General Election’, in K.Hoggart and E.Kofman (eds) Politics, Geography and Social Stratification. Beckenham: Croom Helm, pp. 90–155 (this volume).
    1987a. (co-edited with D.K.Forbes) The Socialist Third World Urban Development and Territorial Planning. Oxford: Blackwell.
    1987b. (with D.K.Forbes) ‘Introduction’, in D.K.Forbes and N.J.Thrift (eds) The Socialist Third World. Urban Development and Territorial Planning. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 1–26.
    1987c. (with D.K.Forbes) ‘Territorial organisation, regional development and the city in Vietnam’, in D.K.Forbes and N.J.Thrift (eds) The Socialist Third World. Urban Development and Territorial Planning. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 98–128.
    1987d. (co-edited with P.Williams) Class and Space. The Making of Urban Society. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    1987e. (with P.Williams) ‘An introduction to the geography of class formation’, in N.J.Thrift and P.Williams (eds) Class and Space. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 1–22.
    1987f. ‘The geography of nineteenth-century class formation’, in N.J.Thrift and P.Williams (eds) Class and Space. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 25–50.
    1987g. ‘The geography of late twentieth-century class formation’, in N.J.Thrift and P.Williams (eds) Class and Space. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 207–53.
    1987h. (with R.Harris) ‘Internationalisation of demand’, World Property, April, 65–7.
    1987i. ‘Manufacturing rural geography’, Journal of Rural Studies, 3, 77–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0743-0167%2887%2990011-8
    1987j. (with D.K.Forbes) ‘International impacts on the urban process in the Asian region: a review’, in R.W.Fuchs, E.Pernia and G.W.Jones (eds) Urbanisation and Urban Policies in Pacific Asia. Boulder, CO: Westview, pp. 67–87.
    1987k. ‘The fixers: the urban geography of international commercial capital’, in M.Castells and J.Henderson (eds) Global Restructuring and Territorial Development. London: Sage, pp. 219–47. (Reprinted in 1994 in R.Roberts (ed.) International Financial Centres, Volume 1. London: Edward Elgar, pp. 157–90.)
    1987l. ‘The growth of service class labour markets: the case of Britain’, in M.Fischer and P.Nijkamp (eds) Spatial Labour Markets. Amsterdam: North Holland, pp. 313–44.
    1987m. ‘ “Difficult years”: ideology and urbanisation in South Vietnam, 1975–1985’, Urban Geography, 8, 429–39. (Reprinted in 1993 in G.Demko and J.Regulska (eds) Socialist Cities. A Comparative Perspective, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.)
    1987n. (with D.Drakakis-Smith and J.Doherty) ‘Introduction: what is a socialist developing country?’, Geography, 72, 333–5.
    1987o. ‘Vietnam: geography of a socialist siege economy’, Geography, 72, 340–4.
    1987p. ‘No perfect symmetry: a response to David Harvey’, Environment and Planning D. Society and Space, 5, 400–7.
    1987q. (with P.J.Cloke) ‘Intra-class conflict in rural areas’, Journal of Rural Studies, 4, 321–33. (To be reprinted in 1996 in H.Newby (ed.) Rural Studies. London: Edward Elgar.)
    1988a. (contribution to J.N.Marshall, P.Wood, P.Daniels, A.Mackinnon, J.Batchelor, P.Damesick, A.Gillespie, A.Leyshon and A.Green) Services and Uneven Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    1988b. ‘ Vivos voco: ringing the changes in the historical geography of time consciousness’, in T.Schuller and M.Young (eds) The Rhythms of Society. London: Routledge, pp. 53–94 (this volume).
    1988c. (with A.Leyshon and P.Daniels) ‘Large accountancy firms in the UK: operational adaptation and spatial development’, The Service Industries Journal, 8, 315–44.
    1988d. (with A.Leyshon and P.Daniels) ‘Trends in the growth and location of professional producer services: UK property consultants’, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 79, 162–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9663.1988.tb00594.x
    1988e. (with A.Leyshon) ‘The gambling propensity: banks, developing country debt exposures and the new international financial system’, Geoforum, 19, 55–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7185%2888%2980005-8
    1988f. (with A.Leyshon and P.Daniels) ‘The internationalisation of professional producer services: accountancy conglomerates’, in P.Enderwick (ed.) Multinational Services Corporations. Beckenham: Croom Helm, pp. 79–106.
    1989a. (co-edited with R.J.Peet) New Models in Geography. The Political Economy Perspective (2 vols). London: Unwin Hyman. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203400531
    1989b. (with R.J.Peet) ‘Political economy and human geography’, in R.J.Peet and N.J.Thrift (eds) New Models in Geography. Volume 1. London: Unwin Hyman, pp. 3–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203400531_chapter_1
    1989c. (with A.Leyshon and C.Tommey) ‘The rise of the British provincial financial centre’, Progress in Planning, 31(3), 151–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-9006%2889%2990004-4
    1989d. (with M.J.Taylor) ‘Battleships and cruisers: the new geography of multinational corporations’, in D.Gregory and R.Walford (eds) New Horizons in Human Geography. London: Macmillan, pp. 279–97.
    1989e. (with A.Leyshon) ‘South goes north? The rise of the British provincial financial centre’, in J.Lewis and A.Townsend (eds) The North—South Divide. Regional Change in Britain in the 1980s. London: Paul Chapman, pp. 114–56. (Reprinted in 1994 in R.Roberts (ed.) International Financial Centres, Volume 3. London: Edward Elgar, pp. 139–86.)
    1989f. ‘Images of social change’, in L.McDowell, P.Sarre and C.Hamnett (eds) The Changing Social Structure of Britain. London: Sage, pp. 12–42.
    1989g. (with P.Daniels and A.Leyshon) ‘Internationalisation of producer services and metropolitan development’, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 80.
    1989h. ‘The geography of international economic disorder’, in R.J.Johnston and P.J.Taylor (eds) A World in Crisis: Geographical Perspectives on Global Problems (
    2nd edn
    ), pp. 15–77.
    1990a. (with A.Leyshon) ‘The chartered surveying industry’, in P.Healey and R.Nabarro (eds) Land and Property Development Processes in a Changing Context. Farnborough: Gower.
    1990b. ‘Transport and communication, 1730–1914’, in R.L.Dodgshon and R.Butlin (eds) A New Historical Geography of England and Wales (
    2nd edn
    ). London: Academic Press, pp. 453–86.
    1990c. ‘Doing global regional geography: the City of London and the south-east of England’, in R.J.Johnston, J.Hauer and G.A.Hoekveld (eds) Regional Geography. Current Developments and Future Prospects. London: Routledge, pp. 180–207.
    1990d. (with P.J.Cloke) ‘Rural change and intra-class conflict’, in T.K.Marsden, S.Whatmore and P.Lowe (eds) Critical Perspectives on Rural Change: Volume 1. Rural Restructuring. Global Processes, Local Responses. London: Fulton, pp. 165–81.
    1990e. ‘For a new regional geography 1’, Progress in Human Geography, 14, 272–9.
    1991a. ‘Muddling through: world orders and globalisation’, Professional Geographer, 44, 3–7.
    1991b. ‘For a new regional geography 2’, Progress in Human Geography, 15, 456–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030913259101500407
    1991c. ‘Over-wordy worlds? Thoughts and worries’, in C.Philo (ed.) New Words, New Worlds. Reconceptualising Social and Cultural Geography. Lampeter: IBG Social and Cultural Study Group, pp. 144–8.
    1992a. ‘Light out of darkness? Social theory in Britain in the 1980s’, in P.J.Cloke (ed.) Policy and Change in Thatcher's Britain. Oxford: Pergamon, pp. 1–32.
    1992b. (with A.Leyshon) ‘In the wake of money: the City of London and the accumulation of value’, in L.Budd and S.Whimster (eds) Global Finance and Urban Living. London: Routledge, pp. 282–311.
    1992c. (with J.Beaverstock, A.Leyshon, T.Rutherford and P.Williams) ‘Moving houses: the geographical reorganisation of the estate agency industry in England and Wales in the 1980s’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 17, 166–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622544
    1992d. (with P.Dicken) ‘The organisation of production and the production of organisation’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 17, 279–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622880
    1992e. (with A.Leyshon) ‘Liberalisation and consolidation: the Single European Market and the remaking of European Financial Capital’, Environment and Planning A, 24, 49–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a240049
    1992f. ‘Apocalypse soon, or, why human geography is worth doing’, in A.Rogers, H.Viles and A.Goudie (eds) The Student's Companion to Geography. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 8–12.
    1992g. (with P.Glennie) ‘Modernity, urbanism and modern consumption’, Environment and Planning D. Society and Space, 10, 423–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d100423
    1992h. (with A.Amin) ‘Neo-Marshallian nodes in global networks’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 16, 571–87. (Reprinted in 1995 in W.Krumbein (ed.) Ökonomische und Politische Netwerke in der Region. Münster: LitVerlag, pp. 115–40; and in 1996 in S.Daniels and R.Lee (eds) Modern Geography. A Reader. London: Arnold.)
    1993a. (with A.Leyshon and M.Justice) Reversal of Fortune? Financial Services in the Southeast of England. London: SEEDS.
    1993b. Review essay: ‘The arts of the living and the beauty of the dead: anxieties of being in the work of Anthony Giddens’, Progress in Human Geography, 17, 111–21 (this volume). (To be reprinted in 1996 in C.Bryant and D.Jary (eds) Anthony Giddens. Critical Assessments. London: Routledge.)
    1993c. ‘For a new regional geography 3’, Progress in Human Geography, 17, 92–100.
    1993d. (with M.Dear) ‘Unfinished business: ten years of Society and Space’, Environment and Planning D. Society and Space, 10, 715–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d100715
    1993e. Review essay: ‘The urban impasse’, Theory, Culture & Society, 10, 229–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327693010002012
    1993f. (with J.Lovering) ‘Bristol: a city which has reached the end of the old road’, in B.Blanke and R.Smith (eds) The Future of the Medium-Sized City in Britain and Germany. London: Anglo-German Foundation, pp. 47–69.
    1993g. (with J.Beaverstock, A.Leyshon, T.Rutherford and P.Williams) ‘ “Agents of change”: the restructuring of the estate agency industry in the East Midlands in the 1980s’, East Midland Geographer, 16, 11–21.
    1993h. ‘Consumption’, ‘disorganised capitalism’, ‘money, geography of’, ‘producer services’, ‘services, geography of’, ‘tourism’ – entries for R.J.Johnston, D.Gregory and D.Smith (eds) The Dictionary of Human Geography (
    3rd edn
    ). Oxford: Blackwell.
    1993i. (with P.Glennie) ‘Historical geographies of urban life and modern consumption’, in G.Kearns and C.Philo (eds) Selling Places. The City as Cultural Capital, Past and Present. Oxford: Pergamon, pp. 33–48.
    1993j. (with P.Glennie) ‘Modern consumption: theorising commodities and consumers’, Environment and Planning D. Society and Space, 11, 606–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d110603
    1993k. (with R.J.Johnston) ‘Ringing the changes: the intellectual history of Environment and Planning A’, Environment and Planning A, 25, 14–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a251527
    1993l. (with R.J.Johnston) ‘The futures of Environment and Planning A’, Environment and Planning A, 25, 83–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a251527
    1993m. (with A.Leyshon) ‘The restructuring of the UK financial services industry in the 1990s: a reversal of fortune?’, Journal of Rural Studies, 9, 223–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0743-0167%2893%2990068-U
    1993n. ‘The light fantastic: culture, postmodernism and the image’, in G.L.Clark, D.K.Forbes and R.Francis (eds) Multiculturalism, Difference and Postmodernism. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, pp. 1–21.
    1994a. (co-edited with A.Amin) Globalisation, Institutions and Regional Development in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    1994b. (with A.Amin) ‘The local in the global’, in A.Amin and N.J.Thrift (eds) Globalisation, Institutions and Regional Development in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1–22.
    1994c. ‘Holding down the global’, in A.Amin and N.J.Thrift (eds) Globalisation, Institutions and Regional Development in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 257–60.
    1994d. (co-edited with S.Corbridge and R.L.Martin) Money, Power and Space. Oxford: Blackwell.
    1994e. (with S.Corbridge) ‘The geography of money’, in S.Corbridge, N.J.Thrift and R.L.Martin (eds) Money, Power and Space. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 1–25.
    1994f. ‘On the social and cultural determinants of international financial centres’, in S.Corbridge, N.J.Thrift and R.L.Martin (eds) Money, Power and Space. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 327–55.
    1994g. ‘Inhuman geographies: landscapes of speed, light and power’, in P.J.Cloke, M.Doel, D.Matless, M.Phillips and N.J.ThriftWriting the Rural. Five Cultural Geographies. London: Paul Chapman, pp. 191–248 (this volume).
    1994h. ‘Globalisation, regulation, urbanisation: the case of the Netherlands’, Urban Studies, 31, 365–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420989420080381
    1994i. ‘Taking aim at the heart of the region’, in D.Gregory, R.L.Martin and G.Smith (eds) Human Geography. Society, Space and Social Science. London: Macmillan, pp. 200–31.
    1994j. (with A.Leyshon) ‘European financial capital: the global context’, in L.Albrechts, S.Hardy, M.Hart and A.Katos (eds) An Enlarged Europe. Regions in Competition?. London: Jessica Kingsley, pp. 109–44.
    1994k. (with A.Leyshon) ‘A phantom state? The detraditionalisation of money, the international financial system and international financial centres’, Political Geography, 13, 299–327 (this volume). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0962-6298%2894%2990001-9
    1994l. (with A.Leyshon) ‘Access to financial services and financial infrastructure withdrawal: problems and policies’, Area, 26, 268–75.
    1994m. (with A.Amin) ‘Globalisation, institutional thickness and local prospects’, Revenue d'Economie Régionale et Urbaine, 3, 405–27.
    1995a. (co-edited with A.Cliff, P.Gould and A.G.Hoare) Diffusing Geography. Essays for Peter Haggett. Oxford: Blackwell.
    1995b. ‘A life in geography’, in A.D.Cliff, P.A.Gould, A.G.Hoare and N.J.Thrift (eds) Diffusing Geography. Essays for Peter Haggett. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 375–95.
    1995c. (co-edited with S.Pile) Mapping the Subject. Geographies of Cultural Transformation. London: Routledge.
    1995d. ‘Introduction’, in S.Pile and N.J.Thrift (eds) Mapping the Subject. Geographies of Cultural Transformation. London: Routledge, pp. 1–12.
    1995e. ‘Mapping the subject’, in S.Pile and N.J.Thrift (eds) Mapping the Subject. Geographies of Cultural Transformation. London: Routledge, pp. 13–51.
    1995f. ‘A hyperactive world’, in R.J.Johnston, P.J.Taylor and M.Watts (eds) Geographies of Global Change. Oxford: Blackwell.
    1995g. (with P.Glennie) ‘Gender and consumption’, in N.Wrigley and M.Lowe (eds) Retailing, Consumption and Capital. Towards the New Retail Geography. London: Longman, pp. 221–37.
    1995h. (with P.Glennie) ‘Consumers, identities, and consumption spaces in early modern England’, Environment and Planning A, 28, 25–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a280025
    1995i. (with P.Glennie) ‘Time and work in historical perspective: three decades on’, Time and Society, 4.
    1995j. (with P.Glennie) ‘Time standing still? Comments on a chapter absent from Customs in Common’, Social Science History, 19.
    1995k. (with A.Amin) ‘Institutional issues for the European regions: from markets and plans to socioeconomics and powers of association’, Economy and Society, 24, 41–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149500000002
    1995l. (with A.Amin) ‘Territoriality in the global political economy’, Nordisk Samhallsgeografisk Tidskrift, 20, 3–16.
    1995m. (with A.Leyshon) ‘Geographies of financial exclusion’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 20, 312–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622654
    1995n. (with P.J.Cloke and M.Phillips) ‘The new middle classes and the social constructs of rural living’, in M.Savage (ed.) New Theories of the Middle Class. London: UCL Press, pp. 220–38.
    1995o. (with P.Jackson) ‘Geographies of consumption’, in D.Miller (ed.) Acknowledging Consumption. A Review of New Studies. London: Routledge, pp. 204–37.
    1995p. ‘Classics in human geography revisited: on the determination of social action in space and time’, Progress in Human Geography, 19, 528–30.
    1996a. ‘New urban eras and old technological fears. Reconfiguring the goodwill of electronic things’, Urban Studies, 33.
    1996b. (with K.Olds) ‘Refiguring the economic in economic geography’, Progress in Human Geography, 20.
    1996c. (with A.Leyshon) Money/Space. London: Routledge.

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