Sociology and the New Materialism: Theory, Research, Action
The first book of its kind, Sociology and the New Materialism explores the many and varied applications of “new materialism,” a key emerging trend in 21st century thought, to the practice of doing sociology. Offering a clear exposition of new materialist theory and using sociological examples throughout to enable the reader to develop a materialist sociological understanding, the book: • Outlines the fundamental precepts of new materialism • Explores how materialism provides new perspectives on the range of sociological topic areas • Explains how materialist approaches can be used to research sociological issues and also to engage with social issues. Sociology and the New Materialism is a clear and authoritative one-stop guide for advanced undergraduates and postgraduates in sociology, cultural studies, social policy and related disciplines.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: NEW MATERIALISM AND THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION
- Chapter 1: IntroductionMaterialism re-booted – Why a new materialist sociology? –Challenges for a new materialist sociology – Structure of the book
- Chapter 2: Foundations – New Materialism and the Sociological ImaginationNew materialism: four voices (Bruno Latour; Deleuze and Guattari; Karen Barad; Rosi Braidotti) – Propositions for a new materialist sociology – Applying the new materialist imagination sociologically – The micropolitics of social production
- Chapter 3: Environment – Humans, Posthumans and Ecological SociologySociology, humans and the environment – Evidencing anthropocentrism: health and the environment –Environmental sociology: beyond anthropocentrism, towards the posthuman – Materialism, sociology and ‘sustainability’
- Chapter 4: Society – Beyond Systems, Structures and StratificationMaterialism and the ‘sociology of associations’ – Social organization – Social institutions – Structures, systems and mechanisms – Social stratification: differentiation or aggregation? – The micropolitics of social divisions
Part 2: APPLYING NEW MATERIALISM SOCIOLOGICALLY
- Chapter 5: Creativity – Imagination, Social Production and Social ChangeCreativity and production – Creativity and the sociological imagination – The artwork made me do it: materialist rumblings – Towards a materialist view of creativity – Four propositions for a sociology of creativity – Is ‘creativity’ special? – Creativity and social change
- Chapter 6: Sexuality – Desire, Intensification, BecomingSexuality from biomedicine and religion to the cultural turn –Materialism and the ‘sexuality-assemblage’ – The micropolitics of sex and sexualities – The sexualities of young men – ‘Sexuality is everywhere’?
- Chapter 7: Emotions – Embodiment, Continuity and ChangeSociology and the study of emotions – Emotions and affect –The love-assemblage – Emotions, social continuity and social change
- Chapter 8: Health – Beyond the Body-with-OrgansRe-materializing health – The ill-health assemblage – The ‘health’ assemblage – The micropolitics of health – Health and technology: cyborgs and citizen health – Personal health technologies – Posthuman health
Part 3: RESEARCH, POLICY AND ACTIVISM
- Chapter 9: Research – Designs, Methods and the Research AssemblageMaterialism and social inquiry – The research assemblage –A materialist analysis of the research encounter –Dis-assembling social research – The micropolitics of social inquiry – Re-engineering methodology
- Chapter 10: Change –Action, Policy, Social TransformationSocial action, power and resistance – The micropolitics of politics and policy – Materialism and activism – Conclusion: an engaged sociology of materiality
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© Nick J. Fox and Pam Alldred 2017
First published 2017
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About the Authors
Note: q.v. (quod vide, or ‘see this item’) indicates a term also appears within the glossary.
Action by citizens to effect social change or to improve or ameliorate social conditions.
actor-network theory, ANT
Approach to social theory and research that recognizes objects as agents operating alongside humans in networks or assemblages.
The interaction of affective movements circulating within an assemblage that together establishes its capacities.
May be used to refer to emotions, but in this book affect is used to connote ‘something that affects or is affected’.
Used in sociology to describe action, usually associated with humans, and sometimes contrasted with social structure (q.v.).
A micropolitical movement within an assemblage that establishes similarities between persons, bodies or objects.
An unofficial term used by some scientists to describe a sub-division of geological time during which human activity has affected the Earth’s geology and ecosystems.
A perspective that takes humans as the central focus and the standard against which other animate or inanimate entities are judged.
A philosophical position that rejects and seeks to overturn humanist assertions of the inherent value of human thoughts, beliefs and/or actions.
Common translation of agencement (arrangement) in Deleuze and Guattari’s work, connoting an unstable coalescence of relations (q.v.).
In Marxist dualist theory describes the economic foundations of a social system such as capitalism upon which a superstructure of social relations may be built.
A process of transformation usually associated with an increase in or diversification of capacities to act.[Page 196]
A branch of philosophy focusing on biology, the biological and issues concerning life.
The body of biomedical theory, understood in terms of biological function, and comprised of inter-dependent organs.
A term used by Deleuze and Guattari to refer to the limits of what a body (a biological body or any assemblage of relations) can do, in terms of its capacities.
An ability to do, think or desire; in new materialist theory capacities are not considered as fixed attributes but as properties of bodies or things emergent within particular contexts.
In Marxist theory, capital refers solely to economic resources such as money, raw materials and the means of material production (factories, machinery); this economic capital was supplemented in Pierre Bourdieu’s analysis to incorporate symbolic capital (respect, reputation), social capital (social connections, mutual obligations) and cultural capital (knowledge, skills).
An economic and social system that establishes and promotes private ownership of the means of economic production, requiring workers to sell their labour to the owners of capital, in return for a wage.
Map-making, used in Deleuzian and feminist materialist theory to describe an approach that aims to map the flows of affects, power and lines of flight (q.v.) in an event or assemblage, recognizing that mapping is itself experimental and a ‘becoming’ (q.v.).
A social theory of knowledge that focuses upon humans’ construction of a shared understanding of the world. Extreme versions regard these social constructs as the only knowable entities, in contrast with realism (q.v.). See also ‘post-structuralism’.
A strand within psychology that questions the individualism of the subject’s mainstream, to offer a more social and political analysis of psychological phenomena.
A philosophy of (social) science that seeks to disclose the mechanisms that underpin social events, though acknowledging that these mechanisms may be affected by social processes.
In science fiction, an amalgam of living tissues and machines; in materialist theory also used as a metaphor to acknowledge that culture and nature are both material.[Page 197]
Conventionally understood as an absence to be filled by the acquisition of a desired object; used by Deleuze and Guattari to describe a force or affect productive of actions, interactions or ideas.
A generalizing process within an assemblage that counters specification, definition or territorialization (q.v.).
An approach developed by Donna Haraway and Karen Barad in an effort to avoid linear representations and explore interferences, for instance by reading multiple data sources together, or reading different theorists alongside one another.
The division of a phenomenon into two opposed or contrasting aspects, such as male/female.
The study of interactions between organisms and their environment.
An approach to social inquiry (q.v.) that emphasizes the importance of observations of events. In materialist ontology, an empiricist focus is underpinned by the proposition of the ‘exteriority of relations’ (q.v.) which considers that an entity’s capacities depend entirely upon its relations to other assembled entities.
An aspect of the philosophy of science that addresses how these things can be known by an observer.
A perspective that holds that an entity such as a body or a stone has intrinsic attributes or properties that define it absolutely.
An occurrence in time and space marked by some kind of physical, social, cultural, psychological or other interaction by assembled relations; events comprise the flow of history and to social production and as such are the focus for materialist social inquiry.
An approach that explores which aspects of human psychology are associated with evolutionary processes of natural and sexual selection.
exteriority of relations
A principle in materialist theory that an entity’s capacities depend entirely upon its relations to other assembled entities, rather than because of essential or interior attributes or characteristics.
A hypothesis formulated by chemist James Lovelock in the 1970s that argues that the Earth is a complex, self-regulating ecosystem.
A micropolitical process within an assemblage that increases a relation’s capacities; synonymous with ‘de-territorialization’ (q.v.).[Page 198]
A Foucauldian concept that addresses the social shaping of conduct through the disseminated operation of power and knowledge throughout a society.
A concept used by some sexualities theorists to refer to the dominant form/s of masculinity in particular societies; contemporary Western forms are founded upon heterosexuality, homophobia and misogyny.
A societal understanding that asserts heterosexuality as a norm and other sexualities as deviant.
A theory of history most closely associated with Karl Marx, in which a society’s organisation and development are understood in terms of the material processes associated with economic production.
A view that asserts the inherent value of human thoughts, beliefs and/or actions.
In sociology, a perspective that emphasizes the role played by human ideas, beliefs and values in shaping both society and our capacity to gain research knowledge of the social world.
Used in this book to assess the strength of affectivity within assemblages; the process of increasing affective intensity.
A neologism coined by Karen Barad (as an alternative to ‘interaction’), to stress her view that entities are not prior and independent, but themselves emerge from their ‘intra-active’ relationality with other entities.
line of flight
An extreme de-territorialization (q.v.) – an ‘escape route’ from territorialization – that opens up hitherto untapped capacities for a body or thing, and may lead to the formation of novel assemblages.
A term sometimes used to describe the shift within the humanities and social sciences to post-structuralist (q.v.) concerns with language, texts and knowledge as the basis for social organisation and power.
The quality of being composed of matter; also used as a plural noun in new materialist theory to describe the range of things capable of having material effects.
Used here to describe the internal movements of power and resistance within assemblages; contrasted with ‘macro’ level politics applied in social science to examine social movements or governments.
An era from about 1800 to the present day characterized by application of rational and/or scientific efforts to elucidate the world (for example by observation, experiment and the development of theoretical models), and linked to ideas of social and scientific progress through the exercise of these techniques.[Page 199]
A term (deriving from physical chemistry) used by Deleuze and Guattari to describe aggregated relations, or aggregative affects within assemblages (see aggregation).
A term (deriving from physical chemistry) used by Deleuze and Guattari to describe unique or singular relations and affects in assemblages.
A philosophical perspective that considers that phenomena inhabit a single realm or are comprised of a single substance (for example, matter), in contrast to dualistic (q.v.) ontologies.
A set of market-oriented practices, and a philosophical and policy orientation towards individualized self-interest and the market as the foundation for most if not all human interaction.
Deleuze and Guattari’s philosophical project to develop a science and strategy for living that celebrates and encourages becoming and diversity rather than norms and aggregation (q.v.).
An approach developed in human geography by Nigel Thrift and others that focuses on events, activities and practices rather than representations such as human accounts, texts and images.
A term introduced by Karen Barad to make the point that events and observation are part of the same phenomenon – their ‘intra-action’ (q.v.) means that issues of epistemology are intimately linked to ontology.
Concerns propositions about the fundamental nature of things and the kinds of things that exist.
Critical approach to the history and the cultural and material legacies of colonialism and imperialism.
A philosophical position – most clearly articulated by Rosi Braidotti – that acknowledges the continuities between human and non-human, nature and culture. The post-human is the assemblage reflecting these continuities (see also ‘cyborg’).
Perspective in the arts, humanities and social sciences that is suspicious of the commitments of modernism (q.v.) to rationality, science and grand theories of the social and the human subject.
A range of philosophical perspectives in the arts, humanities and social sciences that reject structural explanations, seeking to explore the links between knowledge and power, as exemplified in the work of Foucault, Derrida and Lyotard.[Page 200]
A branch of physics that explores the behaviour of sub-atomic particles and waves, recognising the interactions between events and observers.
Critical and deconstructive approach within social theory that acknowledges the constructed and therefore contextual character of the social world, rejects essentialism, and decouples and reverses the conventional relations between sex, gender and sexuality.
Philosophical perspective that asserts the existence of entities independent from human constructs; in contrast to constructionist (q.v.) approaches.
Approach that seeks explanations of complex events (such as social organization) in terms of more ‘basic’ processes (such as biology, biochemistry or genetics).
In Deleuzian theory, the components comprising assemblages, defined by their relational (rather than essential) capacities.
A technique of power that seeks to make an individual responsible for their own actions and conduct.
Metaphor used by Deleuze and Guattari to describe a branching, reversing, coalescing and rupturing flow, in contrast to linearity.
Deleuze and Guattari’s alternative to psychoanalysis, an approach that encourages complexity, de-territorialization (q.v.) and becoming-other.
Used in this book to describe an affect (q.v.) that acts uniquely upon a single relation, in contrast to aggregative (q.v.) affects that operate on multiple relations.
Use of research and theory to make sense of the social world.
Idea or concept that contributes to a shared understanding of the world. See also ‘constructionism’.
A term used widely in sociology to denote processes or systems of social relations that influence (often constraining or limiting) human actions and interactions.
The categorizations or aggregations (for instance into classes, races or genders) by a society, culture or by social scientists.[Page 201]
An approach that claims that much human social behaviour may be explained by evolutionary needs; in particular, the need to pass on genetic material through reproduction.
A term coined by C. Wright Mills to connote the insights that sociology can bring to the understanding of social processes.
sociology of associations
A term used by Bruno Latour to assert his monist (q.v.) view that sociology should attend solely to the material connections between entities (both ‘social’ and ‘natural’).
Used in this book as an equivalent to the Deleuzian term ‘territorialization’ (q.v), to describe how affects (q.v.) circumscribe capacities.
In Marxist dualist theory, describes the culture, structures and social relations between people; contrasted with the economic base (q.v.).
A term in Deleuze and Guattari’s work (related to the French concept of terroir, which recognizes the influence of environmental factors on the qualities of produce such as wine and honey) that addresses how an entity’s capacities are specified by its relationships in assemblages.
In post-structuralism used to describe any symbolic or representational system.
A breach or contravention of a code, law or ethics of behaviour.
Cutting across; used in this book to describe new materialist ontology’s relation to sociological dualisms.
turn to matter
Shorthand term for the move towards materialism in the social sciences, arts and humanities; contrasted with the ‘linguistic turn’ of post-structuralism (q.v.).
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