Social Work in Context: Theory and Concepts


Lester Parrott & Noreen Maguinness

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright


    This book is dedicated to Minha Cariadinha

    About the Authors

    Lester Parrott is a Lecturer in Social Work at Keele University who will have retired when this book is published. He has taught social work and social policy at a number of universities across the UK. He is the author of Social Work and Poverty (2014) and is also the author of Values and Ethics in Social Work Practice, which is now in its third edition and is about to be completely revised for publication in 2018. His current research interests include the impact of social policy upon the lives of service users and social workers with particular reference to the consequences of austerity upon the development of and access to social care services and the restructuring of social work both organisationally and as a profession.

    Noreen Maguinness is a Lecturer in Social Work at Edge Hill University. She qualified as as social worker in 1987 and then went on to practice in children and family social work for nearly 20 years – a successful career in social work; working in the area of children and family social work. Prior to moving into social work education in 2004 Noreen was a Child Protection Multi-Agency Trainer. She is currently completing a Doctorate in Social Work.


    I would like to acknowledge those authors who willingly gave their permission to include material in this book. The administration staff at Keele University have provided invaluable support by allowing me the space for to teach and write. I would also like to thank my colleagues, past and present, for their patience and support and all of those students who have contributed to my understanding of social work since starting to teach social work in 1996 at Glyndwr University and at Keele University from 2007.

  • Bibliography

    Allen, G. ( 2011a ) Early Intervention: The Next Steps. London: Cabinet Office.
    Allen, G. ( 2011b ) Early Intervention: Smart Investment, Massive Savings. London: Cabinet Office.
    Ashforth, B.E. and Mael, F. ( 1989 ) ‘Social identity theory and the organisation’, The Academy of Management Review, 141(1): 2039.
    Audit Commission ( 2013 ) Tough Times 2013: Councils’ Responses to Financial Challenges from 2010/11 to 2013/14. Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    Bainham, A. ( 2005 ) Children and the Modern Law,
    ed. Bristol: Family Law.
    Bainham, A. and Gilmore, S. ( 2013 ) Children and the Modern Law,
    ed. Bristol: Family Law.
    Baldwin, C. ( 2013 ) Narrative Social Work Theory and Application. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Barlow, J. , Fisher, J.D. and Jones, D. ( 2012 ) Systematic Review of Models of Analysing Significant Harm, Department for Education, Research Report 199. Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    Barr, D. , Taylor-Robinson, D. , Stuckler, D. , Loopstra, R. , Reeves, A. and Whitehead, M. ( 2015 ) ‘“First, do no harm”: are disability assessments associated with adverse trends in mental health? A longitudinal ecological study’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 70(4): 17.
    Bate, A. and Foster, D. ( 2015 ) Sure Start (England), House of Commons Briefing Paper no. 7257, 15 July . London: Stationery Office.
    Beatty, C. and Fothergill, S. ( 2013 ) Hitting the Poorest Hardest: The Local and Regional Impact of Welfare Reform. Sheffield: Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University.
    Beck, U. ( 1992 ) Risk Society. Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage.
    Beck, U. , Bonss, W. and Lau, C. ( 2003 ) ‘The theory of reflexive modernization problematic, hypotheses and research programme’, Theory, Culture & Society, 20(2): 133.
    Beck, U. , Giddens, A. and Lash, S. ( 1994 ) Reflexive Modernization. Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Becker, S. ( 1997 ) Responding to Poverty Politics of Cash and Care. London: Longman.
    Beddoe, L. ( 2014 ) ‘“A profession of faith” or a profession: social work, knowledge and professional capital’, New Zealand Sociology, 28(2): 463.
    Bell, S. ( 1988 ) When Salem came to the Boro: The True Story of the Cleveland Child Abuse Crisis. London: Pan.
    Beresford, P. ( 2008 ) ‘Whose personalisation?’, Soundings, 40: 817.
    Beresford, P. , Green, D. , Lister, R. and Woodward, K. ( 1999 ) First Hand! Poor People Speak for Themselves. London: Child Poverty Action Group.
    Bilson, A. and Martin, K. ( 2016 ) ‘Referrals and child protection in England: one in five children referred to children’s services and one in nineteen investigated before the age of five’, British Journal of Social Work. Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    Blumer, H. ( 1969 ) Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Bonanno, A. and Constance, D. ( 2008 ) Stories of Globalization: Transnational Corporations, Resistance, and the State. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Bourdieu, P. ( 1970 ) La Maison Kabyle ou le monde renverse. English-language version The Kabyle House or the World Reversed, in P. Bourdieu , Logic of Practice ( 1990 ) Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bourdieu, P. ( 1984 ) Distinctions: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste (trans. R. Nice ). London: Routledge Classics.
    Bourdieu, P. ( 1986 ) ‘Habitus, code et codification’, Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, 64(1): 404.
    Bourdieu, P. ( 1989 ) ‘Social space and symbolic power’, Sociological Theory, 7(1): 1425.
    Bourdieu, P. ( 1990 ) The Logic of Practice. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bourdieu, P. ( 2004 ) In Other Words. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bourdieu, P. ( 2012 ) The Abdication of State in The Weight of the World: Social Suffering in Contemporary Society. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, pp.181202.
    Bourdieu, P. and Wacquant, L.J.D. ( 1992 ) An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Brain and Spine Foundation ( 2013 ) Motor Neurone Disease. Available at: (accessed 20 February 2017 ).
    Braverman, H. ( 1974 ) Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    British Association of Social Workers (BASW) ( 2016a ) Joint statement on the Children and Social Work Bill. Available at: (accessed 6 September 2016 ).
    British Association of Social Workers (BASW) ( 2016b ) The Code of Ethics for Social Work: Statement of Principles. Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    British Social Attitudes ( 2010 ) British Social Attitudes The 27th Report: Exploring Labour’s Legacy. London: Sage.
    Broadhurst, K. ( 2012 ) ‘Moral agency in everyday safeguarding work: reclaiming hope in the “small stories” of family support: some lessons from John Dewey’, Families, Relationships and Societies, 1(3): 293309.
    Broadhurst, K. , Hall, C. , White, S. and Pithouse, A. ( 2010a ) ‘Risk, instrumentalism and the humane project in social work: identifying the informal logics of risk management in children’s statutory services’, British Journal of Social Work, 40(4): 104665.
    Broadhurst, K. , Wastell, D. , White, S. , Hall, C. , Peckover, S. , Thompson, K. , Pithouse, A. and Davey, D. ( 2010b ) ‘Performing “initial assessment”: identifying latent conditions for error at the front-door of local authority children’s services’, British Journal of Social Work, 40(2): 35270.
    Bryman, A. ( 2008 ) Social Research Methods,
    ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Buckingham, C. , Adams, A. , Vail, L.A. , Ahmed, A. , Whelan, A. and Karasouli, E. ( 2015 ) ‘Integrating service user and practitioner expertise within a web-based system for collaborative mental-health risk and safety management’, Patient Education & Counselling, 98(10): 118996.
    Burr, V. ( 1995 ) Social Constructionism,
    ed. Hove: Routledge.
    Bywaters, P. , Brady, G. , Sparks, T. and Bos, E. ( 2016 ) ‘Inequalities in child welfare intervention rates: the intersection of deprivation and identity’, Child & Family Social Work, 21(4): 45263.
    Cameron, D. ( 2011 ) ‘How we will release the grip of state control’, The Daily Telegraph, 11 February .
    Cameron, D. ( 2013 ) Speech to the Conservative Party Conference. Available at: (accessed 22 April 2016 ).
    Cameron, D. ( 2016a ) Speech delivered to Family Action on life chances, explaining how the government intends to transform the lives of the poorest in Britain, 11 January . Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    Cameron, D. ( 2016b ) ‘My promise to every child in care: I will help you build a better life’, 15 May , The Sunday Times.
    Campbell, C. and Deacon, H. ( 2006 ) ‘Unravelling the contexts of stigma: from internalization to resistance to change’, Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 16(6): 41117.
    Cardy, S. ( 2010 ) ‘“Care Matters” and the privatization of looked after children’s services in England and Wales: developing a critique of independent “social work practices”’, Critical Social Policy, 30(3): 43042.
    Carey, M. and Foster, V. ( 2013 ) ‘Social work, ideology, discourse and the limits of post-hegemony’, Journal of Social Work, 13(3): 24866.
    Cawson, P. , Wattam, C. , Brooker, S. and Kelly, G. ( 2000 ) Child Maltreatment in the United Kingdom. London: NSPCC.
    Chang, H.J. ( 2008 ) Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism. London: Bloomsbury.
    Chase, S. ( 2005 ) ‘Narrative inquiry: multiple lenses, approaches and voices’, in N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research,
    ed. London: Sage, pp. 65179.
    Children Act 1989. London: HMSO. Available at: (accessed 6 June 2016 ).
    Clarke, J. and Newman, J. ( 1997 ) The Managerial State: Power, Politics and Ideology in the Remaking Of Social Welfare. London: Sage.
    Clarke, J. , Gewirtz, S. and Mclaughlin, E. ( 2000 ) ‘Reinventing the welfare state’, in J. Clarke , S. Gewirtz and E. Mclaughlin (eds.), Reinventing the Welfare State in New Managerialism New Welfare? London: Open University/Sage.
    Clarkson, P. ( 2010 ) ‘Performance measurement in adult social care: looking backwards and forwards’, British Journal of Social Work, 40(7): 17087.
    Cole, I. , Batty, E. and Green, S. ( 2011 ) Low Income Neighbourhoods in Britain, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Coleman, N. and Harris, J. ( 2008 ) ‘Calling social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 38(3): 580599.
    Connelly, F.M. and Clandinin, D.J. ( 1990 ) ‘Stories of experience and narrative inquiry’, Educational Researcher, 19(5): 214.
    Coote, A. and Lyall, S. ( 2013 ) Strivers v. Skivers: The Workless are Worthless. London: The New Economics Foundation. Available at: (accessed 20 February 2017 ).
    Corby, B. ( 2006 ) Applying Research in Social Work Practice. New York: Open University.
    Corrigan, P. and Lam, C. ( 2007 ) ‘Challenging the structural discrimination of psychiatric disabilities: lessons learned from the American disability community’, Rehabilitation Education, 21: 538.
    Cozolino, L. ( 2006 ) The Neuroscience of Human Relationships: Attachment and the Developing Social Brain. New York: Norton.
    Crawford, E. and Read, C. ( 2015 ) The Care Collapse: The imminent crisis in residential care and its impact on the NHS, Interim report, Respublica. Available at: (accessed 4 June 2017 ).
    Cree, V. ( 2010 ) Sociology for Social Workers and Probation Officers. London: Routledge.
    Curran, D. ( 2013 ) ‘Risk society and the distribution of bads: theorizing class in the risk society’, British Journal of Sociology, 64(1): 4462.
    Dartington Research Unit ( 2015 ) Social Work Recruitment and Retention. Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    Davey, G. ( 2009 ) ‘Using Bourdieu’s concept of habitus to explore narratives of transition’, European Educational Research Journal, 8(2): 19.
    Department for Communities and Local Government ( 2016 ) National Evaluation of the Troubled Families Programme: Final Synthesis Report. Available at: (accessed 16 October 2016 ).
    Department for Education ( 2013 ) The Local Authority Children’s Social Care Services Workforce Report. Available at: (accessed 8 September 2016 ).
    Department for Work and Pensions ( 2012 ) Measuring Child Poverty: A Consultation on Better Measures of Child Poverty, November , Cm. 8483. Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    Department for Work and Pensions ( 2015 ) Households Below Average Income, An Analysis of the Income Distribution 1994/95–2013/14, Table 4.5db. Available at: (accessed 7 September 2016 ).
    Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) ( 1988 ) Working Together: A Guide to Inter-Agency Co-Operation for the Protection of Children from Abuse. London: HMSO.
    Dermott, E. and Pomati, M. ( 2016 ) ‘The parenting and economising practices of lone parents: Policy and evidence’, Critical Social Policy, 36(1): 6281.
    Dingwall, R. ( 1977 ) ‘Atrocity stories and professional relationships’, Sociology of Work and Occupations, 4(4): 37196.
    Dollar, D. and Kraay, A. ( 2001 ) Trade, Growth and Poverty. London: Routledge.
    Dominelli, L. ( 2016 ) ‘Globalization, contemporary challenges and social work practice’, International Social Work, 53(5): 599612.
    Douglas, M and Wildavsky, A. ( 1983 ) Risk and Culture. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Drew, J. ( 2016 ) Independent Review of South Yorkshire Police in Relation to its Response to Child Sexual Exploitation. Available at:’s-handling-of-child-sexual-exploitation-1997-%E2%80%93-2016.pdf (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    Duffy, S. ( 2010a ) ‘The citizenship theory of social justice: exploring the meaning of personalisation for social workers’, Journal of Social Work Practice: Psychotherapeutic Approaches in Health, Welfare and the Community, 24(3): 25367.
    Duffy, S. ( 2010b ) Personalisation in Mental Health. Sheffield: The Centre for Welfare Reform.
    Duffy, S. , Casey, J. , Poll, C. , Routledge, M. , Sanderson, H. and Stansfield, J. ( 2004 ) Introduction to Self-Directed Support. London: In Control Publications.
    Ellis, K. ( 2007 ) ‘Direct payments and social work practice: the significance of “street-level bureaucracy” in determining eligibility’, British Journal of Social Work, 37(3): 40522.
    Ellis, K. ( 2011 ) ‘“Street-level bureaucracy” revisited: the changing face of frontline discretion in adult social care in England’, Social Policy and Administration, 45(3): 22144.
    Emirbayer, M. and Williams, E.M. ( 2005 ) ‘Bourdieu and social work’, Social Services Review, 79(4): 659724.
    Equality and Human Rights Commission ( 2011 ) Close to Home: An Inquiry into Older People and Human Rights in Home Care. Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    Equality and Human Rights Commission ( 2016 ) Stop and Think: A Critical Review of the Use of Stop and Search Powers in England and Wales. Available at: (accessed 22 May 2016 ).
    Eriksson, B. and Hummelvoll, J. ( 2008 ) ‘People with mental disabilities negotiating life in the risk society: a theoretical approach’, Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 15(8): 61521.
    Evans, T. ( 2010 ) Professional Discretion in Welfare Services. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Evans, T. ( 2011 ) ‘Professionals, managers and discretion: critiquing street-level bureaucracy’, British Journal of Social Work, 41(2): 36886.
    Evans, T. ( 2013 ) ‘Organisational rules and discretion in adult social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 43(4): 73958.
    Evans, T. and Harris, J. ( 2004 ) ‘Street-level bureaucracy, social work and the (exaggerated) death of discretion’, British Journal of Social Work, 34(6): 87195.
    Ezzy, D. ( 2002 ) Qualitative Analysis: Practice and Innovation. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen and Unwin.
    Featherstone, B. , Morris, K. and White, S. ( 2014 ) ‘A marriage made in hell: early intervention meets child protection’, British Journal of Social Work, 44(7): 173549.
    Feldman, M.S. , Skoldberg, K. , Brown, R.N. and Horner, D. ( 2004 ) ‘Making sense of stories: a rhetorical approach to narrative analysis’, Journal of Public Administration, Research and Theory, 14(2): 14770.
    Ferguson, H. ( 1997 ) ‘Protecting children in new times: child protection and the risk society’, Child and Family Social Work, 2(4): 22134.
    Ferguson, I. ( 2007 ) ‘Increasing user choice or privatising risk? The antinomies of personalisation’, British Journal of Social Work, 37: 387403.
    Ferguson. H. ( 2010 ) ‘Walks, home visits and atmospheres: risk and the everyday practices and mobilities of social work and child protections’, British Journal of Social Work, 40(4): 110017.
    Ferguson, H. ( 2014a ) ‘Researching social work practice close up: ethnographic and mobile methods to understand encounters between social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 116.
    Ferguson, H. ( 2014b ) ‘What social workers do in performing child protection work: evidence from research into face-to-face practice’, Child and Family Social Work, 21(3): 283294.
    Ferguson, I. and Lavelatte, M. ( 2004 ) ‘Beyond power discourse: alienation and social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 4(3): 30918.
    Findlay, M. and McCormack, J. ( 2005 ) ‘Globalisation and social work: a snapshot of Australian practitioners’ views’, Australian Social Work, 58(3): 23143.
    Fleming, P. , Biggart, L. and Becket, C. ( 2015 ) ‘Effects of professional experience on child maltreatment risk assessments: a comparison of students and qualified social worker’, British Journal of Social Work, 45(8): 22982316.
    Forrester, D. , Westlake, D. , McCann, M. , Thurnham, A. , Shefer, G. , Glynn, G. and Killian, M. ( 2013 ) Reclaiming Social Work? An Evaluation of Systemic Units as an Approach to Delivering Children‘s Services: Final Report of a Comparative Study of Practice and the Factors Shaping it in Three Local Authorities. Bedford: Tilda Goldberg Centre for Social Work and Social Care, University of Bedford.
    Forsey A. ( 2014 ) An Evidence Review for the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Hunger in the United Kingdom. Available at: (accessed 6 July 2017 ).
    Fortin, J. ( 2003 ) Children’s Rights and the Developing Law,
    ed. London: Lexis Nexis Butterworths.
    Foucault, M. ( 1972 ) The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language. New York: Pantheon.
    Fox Piven, F. ( 2010 ) ‘A response to Wacquant’, Theoretical Criminology, 14(1): 11116.
    Fram, M.S. ( 2004 ) ‘Research for progressive change: Bourdieu and social work’, Social Service Review, 78(4): 55376.
    Frontline ( 2016 ) Frontline: Changing Lives. Available at: (accessed 7 March 2016 ).
    Furedi, F. ( 1996 ) The Culture of Fear: Risk Taking and the Morality of Low Expectation. London: Cassell.
    Furedi, F. ( 2005 ) The Politics of Fear: Beyond Left and Right. London: Continuum Press.
    Furlong, A. and Cartmel, F. ( 2007 ) Young People and Social Change: New Perspectives. Maidenhead: McGraw Hill/Open University Press.
    Gadamer, H-G. ( 1979 ) Truth and Method. London: Sheed and Ward.
    Gamble. A. ( 1996 ) Hayek: The Iron Cage of Liberty. London: Wiley.
    Garland, D. ( 2001 ) The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Garrett, P. ( 2013 ) Social Work and Social Theory. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Garthwaite K. , Collins P. and Bambra, C. ( 2015 ) ‘Food for thought: an ethnographic study of negotiating ill health and food insecurity in a UK foodbank’, Journal of Social Science and Medicine, 132: 3844.
    George, V. and Wilding, P. ( 2003 ) Globalization and Human Welfare. London: Palgrave.
    George, M. and Ellison, V. ( 2015 ) ‘Incorporating spirituality into social work practice with migrants’, British Journal of Social Work, 45(6): 171733.
    Giddens, A. ( 1995 ) Affluence, Poverty and the Idea of Post-Scarcity Society. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, DP 63. Available at:$file%2Fdp63.pdf (accessed 20 June 2016 ).
    Gillingham, P. and Humphreys, C. ( 2010 ) ‘Observing front line decision making in child protection’, British Journal of Social Work, 40(8): 2598616.
    Glasby, J. and Littlechild, R. ( 2009 ) Direct Payments and Personal Budgets: Putting Personalisation into Practice,
    ed. Bristol: The Policy Press.
    Goffman, E. ( 1968 ) Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Goleman, D. ( 2006 ) Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships. London: Bantam.
    Gove, M. ( 2013 ) Speech to the NSPCC: getting it right for children in need, 12 November . Department for Education.
    Graebner, D. ( 2015 ) The Utopia of Rules: On Technology, Stupidity and the Secret Joys of Bureaucracy. London: Melville House Publishing.
    Gray, D. ( 2010 ) London’s Shadows: The Dark Side of the Victorian City. London: Continuum.
    Green, E. ( 2002 ) Ideologies of Conservatism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Greenpeace ( 2006 ) The Chernobyl Catastrophe: Consequences for Human Health. Amsterdam: Greenpeace.
    Griffiths, S. ( 2014 ) Engaging Enemies: Hayek and the Left. London: Rowman and Littlefield International.
    Haringey Local Children Safeguarding Board ( 2010 ) Serious Case Review: Child A March 2009. London: Department for Education.
    Harris, J. ( 1998 ) ‘Scientific management, bureau-professionalism, new managerialism: the labour process of state social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 28(6): 83962.
    Harris, J. ( 2003 ) The Social Work Business. London: Routledge.
    Hatton, C. and Waters, J. ( 2011 ) The National Personal Budget Survey. Lancaster University and In Control, Think Local Act Personal. Available at (accessed 6 July 2017 ).
    Hatton, C. , Waters, J. and Routledge, M. ( 2013 ) The National Personal Budget Survey. Lancaster University and In Control, Think Local Act Personal. Available at: (accessed 6 July 2017 ).
    Hayek, F.A. ( 1944 ) The Road to Serfdom. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Hayek, F.A. ( 1948 ) Individualism and Economic Order. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Healey, K. ( 2005 ) Social Work Theories in Context: Creating Frameworks for Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave/Macmillan.
    Healey, K. ( 2014 ) Social Work Theories in Context: Creating Frameworks for Practice,
    ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Health and Care Professions Council ( 2016 ) Standards of Proficiency: Social Workers in England, HCPC. Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    Held, D. , McGrew, A. , Goldblatt, D. and Perraton, J. ( 1999 ) Global Transformations. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Henderson, R. , Corker, E. , Hamilton, S. , Williams, P. , Pinfold, V. , Rose, D. , Webber, M. , Evans-Lacko, S. and Thornicroft, G. ( 2014 ) ‘Viewpoint survey of mental health service users’ experiences of discrimination in England 2008–2012’, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(10): 15991608.
    HM Government ( 2015 ) Working Together to Safeguard Children: A Guide to Inter-Agency Working to Safeguard and Promote the Welfare of Children. London: DfE.
    Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary ( 2013 ) Stop and Search Powers: Are the Police using them Effectively and Fairly? Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    Hirst, P. and Thompson, G. ( 1996 ) Globalisation in Question. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Hobsbawm, E. ( 1994 ) The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914–1991. London: Michael Joseph.
    Horgan, G. ( 2007 ) The Impact of Poverty on Young Children’s Experience of School. York: Joseph Rowntree Trust.
    House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts ( 2013 ) Department for Communities and Local Government: Financial sustainability of local authorities, Third Report of Session 2013–14. Available at: (accessed 6 July 2017 ).
    House of Commons Public Accounts Committee ( 2016 ) Training New Teachers, Third Report of Session 2016–17. Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    House of Parliament ( 2015 ) Prisoner Population and Overcrowding: Key Issues for the 2015 Parliament, Key Issues Briefing Paper. Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    Høybye-Mortensen, M. ( 2015 ) ‘Decision-Making Tools and their Influence on caseworkers’ room for discretion’, British Journal of Social Work, 45(2): 60015.
    Ihlen, O. ( 2007 ) ‘Building on Bourdieu: a sociological grasp of public relations’, Public Relations Review, 33(92): 26974.
    Innes, D. and Tetlow, G. ( 2015 ) Central Cuts, Local Decision-Making: Changes in Local Government Spending and Revenues in England, 2009–10 to 2014–15, IFS Briefing Note BN166 IFS election analysis. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies and the Nuffield Foundation.
    International Federation of Social Workers ( 2016 ) Definition of Social Work. Available at: (accessed 3 May 2016 ).
    Jackson, E. ( 2013 ) ‘Choosing a methodology: philosophical underpinning’, Research in Higher Education, 7(1): 4962.
    Jenkins, R. ( 2002 ) Pierre Bourdieu. London: Routledge.
    Jessop, B. ( 2003 ) Governance and Meta Governance: Reflexivity, Requisite Variety, and Requisite Irony. Lancaster: Department of Sociology, Lancaster University.
    Jones, C. ( 2001 ) ‘Voices from the front line: state social workers and New Labour’, British Journal of Social Work, 31(4): 54762.
    Jones, R. ( 2015 ) ‘The end game: the marketization and privatisation of children’s social work and child protection’, Critical Social Policy, 35(4): 44769.
    Jonsson, J. ( 2014 ) ‘Local reactions to global problems: undocumented immigrants and social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 44 (suppl_1): i35i52.
    Joseph Rowntree Trust ( 2014 ) Welfare Sanctions and Conditionality in the UK, Round Up Synthesis, from the ESRC funded ‘Welfare Conditionality: Sanctions, Support and Behaviour Change’. Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    Just Ageing? ( 2016 ) Socio-economic Inequalities in Older People’s Use and Access to Services. Available at: (accessed 10 May 2017 ).
    Kemshall, H. ( 2010 ) ‘Risk rationalities in contemporary social work policy and practice’, British Journal of Social Work, 40(4): 124762.
    Khanchel, H. and Kahla, K. ( 2013 ) ‘Mobilizing Bourdieu’s theory in organizational research’, Review of General Management, 17(1): 8694.
    Kinder, T. ( 2012 ) ‘Learning, innovating and performance in post-new public management of locally delivered public services’, Public Management Review, 14(3): 40328.
    King, A. ( 2000 ) ‘Thinking with Bourdieu against Bourdieu: a “practical critique of the habitus”’, Sociological Theory, 18(3): 41733.
    King, A. ( 2005 ) ‘The habitus process: a sociological conception’, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 35(4): 4648.
    Kirkpatrick, I. , Ackroyd, S. and Walker, R. ( 2005 ) The New Managerialism and Public Service: Change in Health, Social Services and Housing. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Kondrat, D. and Teater, B. ( 2009 ) ‘An anti-stigma approach to working with people with severe mental disability: seeking real change through narrative change’, Journal of Social Work Practice, 23(1): 3547.
    Kristeva, J. ( 1982 ) Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection (trans. L.S. Roudiez ). New York: Columbia University Press.
    Lansley, S. and Mack, J. ( 2015 ) Breadline Britain: The Rise of Mass Poverty. London: Oneworld.
    Laming, Lord ( 2003 ) The Victoria Climbie Inquiry, Cm. 5730. London: HMSO.
    Laming, Lord ( 2009 ) The Protection of Children in England: A Progress Report. Available at: (accessed 2 June 2016 ).
    Latour, B. ( 2004 ) La fabrique du droit: Une ethnographie du Conseil d’Etat. Paris: Mass Market Paperback.
    Leadbeater, C. ( 2004 ) Personalisation through Participation: A New Script for Public Services. London: Demos.
    Lewis, O. ( 1959 ) Five Families: Mexican Case Studies in the Culture of Poverty. New York: Basic Books.
    Lichtman, M. ( 2013 ) Qualitative Research in Education: A Users Guide,
    edn Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Lipsky, M. ( 1980 ) Street-Level Bureaucracy: The Dilemmas of Individuals in Public Service. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Lipsky, M. ( 2010 ) Street-Level Bureaucracy Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. New York: Russell Sage.
    Little, M. ( 1997 ) ‘The refocussing of children’s services: the contribution of research’, in N. Parton (ed.), Child Protection and Support Tensions, Contradictions and Possibilities. London and New York: Routledge.
    Littlechild, B. ( 2008 ) ‘Child protection social work: risks of fears and fears of risks –impossible tasks from impossible goals?’, Social Policy & Administration, 42(6): 66275.
    Littlechild, B. and Hawley, C. ( 2010 ) ‘Risk assessments for mental health service users ethical, valid and reliable?’, Journal of Social Work, 10(2): 21129.
    Llewellyn, A. , Agu, L. and Mercer, D. ( 2015 ) Sociology for Social Workers,
    ed. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Lloyd, C. ( 2010 ) Sinning and Sinned Against: The Stigmatisation of Problem Drug Users, University of York, Policy Report. London: The UK Drug Policy Commission.
    Local Government Association ( 2013 ) Adult Social Care Efficiency Programme Interim Report 2013. Available at: (accessed 9 February 2016 ).
    Local Government Association ( 2016 ) Adult Social Care Funding: 2016 State of the Nation Report. Available at: (accessed 12 December 2016 ).
    Local Government Association ( 2017 ) The Provisional 2017/18 Local Government Finance Settlement: Confirming the Offer to Councils. Available at: (accessed 7 February 2017 ).
    Lock, R. ( 2013 ) Serious Case Review Re Daniel Pelka. Coventry: Safeguarding Children Board.
    Loopstra, R. , Fledderjohann, J. , Reeves, A. and Stuckler, D. ( 2016 ) The Impact of Benefit Sanctioning on Food Insecurity: A Dynamic Cross-Area Study of Food Bank Usage in the UK, Sociology Working Papers. Paper Number 2016–03. Oxford: Oxford University.
    Low, J. ( 2011 ) The Riots: What are the Lessons from JRF’s Work in Communities? York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Lupton, D. ( 1999 ) Risk. London: Routledge.
    Lupton, D. and Tulloch, J. ( 2002 ) ‘Risk is part of your life’: risk epistemologies among a group of Australians’, Sociology, 36(2): 31734.
    Lyons, K. ( 2006 ) ‘Globalization and social work: international and local implications’, British Journal of Social Work, 36(3): 36580.
    Lyons, P. and Doucek, H.J. ( 2010 ) The Dissertation From Beginning to End. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    MacInnes, T. , Tinson, A. , Hughes, C. , Barry Born, T. and Aldridge, M. ( 2015 ) Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion. York: Joseph Rowntree Trust.
    Macvarish, J. , Lee, E. and Lowe, P. ( 2015 ) ‘Neuroscience and family policy: what becomes of the parent?’, Critical Social Policy, 35(2): 24869.
    Maiter, S. and Stalker, C. ( 2011 ) ‘South Asian immigrants’ experience of child protection services’, Child and Family Social Work, 16(2): 13848.
    Malpass, J. and Wickham, G. ( 1995 ) ‘Governance and failure: on the limits of sociology’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 31(3): 3750.
    Manthorpe, J. , Hussein, S. , Stevens, M. and Moriarty, J. ( 2012 ) ‘User and carer experiences of international social care workers in England: listening to their accounts of choice and control’, Australian Social Work, 65(4): 44256.
    Martell, L. ( 2007 ) ‘The third wave in globalisation theory’, International Studies Review, 9(2): 17396.
    Martell, L. ( 2017 ) The Sociology of Globalization. Cambridge: Polity.
    McGuigan, K. , McDermott, L. , Magowan, C. , McCorkell, G. Witherow, A. and Coates, V. ( 2016 ) ‘The impact of direct payments on service users requiring care and support at home’, Practice, 28(1): 3754.
    McLaughlin, K. ( 2008 ) Social Work, Politics and Society: From Radicalism to Orthodoxy. Bristol: Policy Press.
    McNay, L. ( 1999 ) ‘Gender, habitus and the field: Pierre Bourdieu and the limits of reflexivity’, Theory Culture Society, 16(10): 95117.
    Montgomery, A. ( 2013 ) ‘Toward the integration of neuroscience and clinical social work’, Journal of Social Work Practice, 27(3): 3339.
    Morris, L. ( 1994 ) Dangerous Classes: The Underclass and Social Citizenship. London: Routledge.
    Moynihan, D. ( 1965 ) The Negro Family: The Case for National Action. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Policy Planning and Research.
    Mudge, S. ( 2008 ) ‘The state of the art: what is neo-liberalism?’, Socio-Economic Review, 6: 70331.
    Munro, E. ( 2011 ) The Munro Review of Child Protection: Final Report A Child-centred System. Department for Education. Available at: (accessed 6 April 2016 ).
    Murray, C. ( 2006 ) In Our Hands: A Plan To Replace The Welfare State. New York: AEI Press.
    Nairey, M. ( 2014 ) Making the Education of Social Workers Consistently Effective. London: Department for Education.
    Nash, R. ( 1999 ) ‘Bourdieu, “Habitus”, and educational research: is it all worth a candle?’, British Journal of Education, 20(2): 17687.
    National Children’s Bureau ( 2012 ) Beyond the Cuts: Children’s Charities Adapting to Austerity. National Children’s Bureau. Available at: (accessed 14 June 2016 ).
    National Childrens Bureau ( 2017 ) All Parliamentary Group for Children: No Good Options Report of the Inquiry into Children’s Social Care in England. Available at: (accessed 6 July 2017 ).
    National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) ( 2015 ) Should I Stay or Should I Go? NFER Analysis of Teachers Joining and Leaving the Profession. Available at: (accessed 17 February 2017 ).
    One Nation Group ( 1959 ) The Responsible Society. London: Conservative Political Centre.
    Parrott, L. ( 2001 ) Social Work and Social Care. London: Routledge/Gildredge Press.
    Parrott, L. ( 2014 ) Social Work and Poverty: A Critical Approach. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Parton, N. ( 2006 ) Safeguarding Childhood – Early Intervention and Surveillance in a Late Modern Society. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Perry, J. , Williams, M. , Sefton, T. and Haddad, M. ( 2014 ) Emergency Use Only Understanding and Reducing the Use of Food Banks in the UK. London: The Child Poverty Action Group, Church of England, Oxfam GB and The Trussel Trust. Available at: (accessed 20 February 2017 ).
    Pierson, J. ( 2011 ) Understanding Social Work: History and Context. Maidenhead: McGraw Hill/Open University.
    Pritchard, C. and Williams, R. ( 2010 ) ‘Violent deaths of children are going down’, Every Child Journal, 1(5): 249.
    Public Accounts Committee ( 2016 ) House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts, Personal Budgets in Social Care, Second Report of Session 2016–17. Available at: (accessed 3 September 2016 ).
    Radford, L. , Corral, S. , Bradley, C. , Fisher, H. , Bassett, C. , Howat, N. and Collishaw, S. ( 2010 ) Child Abuse and Neglect in the UK Today. Available at: (accessed 7 July 2016 ).
    Reay, D. ( 2010 ) ‘“It’s all becoming a habitus”: beyond the habitual use of habitus in educational research’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 25(4): 43144.
    Reder, P. and Duncan. S. ( 2004 ) ‘Making the most of the Victoria Climbie Inquiry Report’, Child Abuse Review, 13(2): 95104.
    Riessman, C.K. ( 2008 ) Narrative Methods for the Human Sciences. London: Sage.
    Riessman, C.K. and Quinney, L. ( 2005 ) ‘Narrative in social work: a critical review’, Qualitative Social Work, 4(3): 391412.
    Robinson, W. I. ( 2007 ) ‘Theories of globalization’, in G. Ritzer (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Globalization. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Robinson, W. and Harris, J. ( 2000 ) ‘Towards a global ruling class: globalization and the transnational capitalist class’, Science & Society, 64(1): 1154.
    Rogowski, S. ( 2015 ) ‘From child welfare to child protection/safeguarding: a critical practitioner’s view of changing conceptions’, Policies and Practice, 27(2): 97112.
    Rubery, J. , Grimshaw, D. , Hebson, G. and Ugarte, S. ( 2015 ) ‘“It’s all about time”: time as contested terrain in the management and experience of domiciliary care work in England’, Human Resource Management, 54(5): 75372.
    Satel, S. ( 2007 ) ‘In praise of stigma’, in J.E. Henningfield , P.B. Santora and W.K. Bickel (eds), Addiction Treatment: Science and Policy for the Twenty-First Century. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
    Schön, D. ( 1983 ) The Reflective Practitioner. London: Temple Smith.
    Schwartz J. ( 1999 ) Cassandra’s Daughter: A History of Psychoanalysis. New York: Viking/Allen Lane.
    Scourfield, J. and Welsh, I. ( 2003 ) ‘Risk, reflexivity and social control in child protection: new times or same old story?’, Critical Social Policy, 23(3): 398415.
    Scourfield, P. ( 2007 ) ‘Helping older people in residential care remain full citizens’, British Journal of Social Work, 37(7): 11351152.
    Seabrook, J. ( 2013 ) Pauperland: Poverty and the Poor in Britain. London: Hurst.
    Seale, C. ( 1999 ) ‘Quality in qualitative research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 5(4): 46578.
    SCOPE ( 2014 ) Priced Out: Ending the Financial Penalty of Disability by 2020. Available at: (accessed 10 May 2016 ).
    Sibeon, R. ( 1990 ) ‘Comments on the structure and forms of social work’, Social Work and Social Science Review, 1(1): 2944.
    Siegel, D. ( 2007 ) The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of WellBeing. New York: Norton.
    Sikes, P. ( 2004 ) ‘Methodology procedures and ethical concerns’, in C. Opie (ed.), Doing Educational Research. London: Sage, pp. 2538.
    Silman, J. ( 2015 ) ‘“I’ve seen the reclaiming social work model cause service implosion”, Professor Ray Jones reflects on the various models of social work practice and organisation and the need for constant reflection and refinement’, Community Care Magazine, April 9 .
    Skills for Care ( 2015 ) Adult Social Care Sector and Workforce in the London Region. Available at:,-worksforce-intelligence-and-innovation/NMDS-SC/Regional-reports-2015/SFC-LONDONREGION-WEB.pdf (accessed 17 May 2016 ).
    Skills for Care ( 2016 ) The State of the Adult Social Care Sector and Workforce in England. Available at: (accessed 16 September 2016 ).
    Sklair, L. ( 2000 ) ‘The transnational capitalist class and the discourse of globalization’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 14(1): 6785.
    Sklair, L. ( 2002 ) Globalization. Capitalism and its Alternatives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Smith, A. ( 1982 ) The Wealth of Nations: Books I-III. London: Penguin.
    Smith, J.K. ( 1993 ) After the Demise of Empiricism. New York: Ablex.
    Smith, J.K. ( 2002 ) Speech Given to Community Care Live. Available at: community (accessed 11 March 2017 ).
    Social Justice Policy Group ( 2007 ) Breakthrough Britain: Ending the Costs of Social Breakdown, Policy Recommendations to the Conservative Party. London: Centre for Social Justice.
    Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission ( 2015 ) State of the Nation 2015: Social Mobility and Child Poverty in Great Britain. London: The Stationery Office.
    Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission ( 2016 ) The Social Mobility Index. Available at: (accessed 23 May 2016 ).
    Spandler, H. and Vick, N. ( 2006 ) ‘Opportunities for independent living using direct payments in mental health’, Health and Social Care in the Community, 14(2):107115.
    Stanford, S. ( 2011 ) ‘Constructing Moral Responses to Risk: A Framework for Hopeful Social Work Practice’, British Journal of Social Work, 41(8): 15141530.
    Steadman-Jones, D. ( 2012 ) Masters of the Universe: Hayek, Friedman and the Birth of Neoliberal Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Stevens, A. ( 2011 ) ‘Telling policy stories: an ethnographic study in the use of evidence in policy making in the UK’, International Social Policy, 40(2): 23755.
    Stevens, M. , Hussein, S. and Manthorpe, J. ( 2012 ) ‘Experiences of racism and discrimination among migrant care workers in England: findings from a mixed-methods research project’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 35(2): 25980.
    Stocks, T. ( 2015 ) ‘To what extent have the rights of transgender people been underrealized in comparison to the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning people in the United Kingdom?’, International Journal of Transgenderism, 16(1): 135.
    Stone, D. ( 1998 ) Policy Paradox and Political Reason. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
    Sullivan, A. ( 2002 ) ‘Bourdieu and education: how useful is Bourdieu’s theory for researchers?’, Netherlands Journal of Social Services, 38(2): 14466.
    Taleb, N. ( 2007 ) The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable. London: Penguin.
    Taylor-Gooby, P. ( 2001 ) ‘Risk, contingency and the third way: evidence from the BHPS and qualitative studies’, Social Policy and Administration, 35(2): 195211.
    Terdiman. R. ( 1987 ) ‘Translators introduction to the force of law: toward a sociology of the juridical field by Pierre Bourdieu’, Hastings Law Journal, 38: 80552.
    Time to Change ( 2008 ) Stigma Shout: Service User and Carer Experiences of Stigma and Discrimination. Available at: (accessed 23 April 2016 ).
    Timmins, N. ( 2001 ) The Five Giants: A Biography of the Welfare State, revised ed. London: Harper Collins.
    Tinson, A. ( 2015 ) The Rise of Sanctioning in Great Britain. London: New Policy Institute. Available at: (accessed 26 April 2016 ).
    Trussell Trust, The ( 2015 ) Foodbank use tops one million for first time says Trussell Trust. London: The Trussell Trust.
    Tsui, M.S. and Cheung, F. ( 2004 ) ‘Gone with the wind: the impacts of managerialism on human services’, British Journal of Social Work, 34(3): 43742.
    Turn2us ( 2015 ) Read Between the Lines: Confronting the myths about the benefits system. Available at: (accessed 12 May 2017 ).
    Tyler, I. ( 2013 ) Revolting Subjects: Social Abjection and Resistance in Neoliberal Britain. London: Zed Books.
    Tyler, I. and Bennett, B. ( 2015 ) ‘Against aspiration: aspiration is a rhetorical device that seeks to whitewash a neoliberal economic and political project and the staggering inequalities it produces’, in What is Aspiration: How Should Progressives Respond? Centre for Labour and Social Studies. Available at: (accessed 1 May 2016 ).
    University of Manchester ( 2015 ) The National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness Annual Report 2015: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Available at: (accessed 16 June 2016 ).
    Van Dijken, A. ( 1998 ) John Bowlby: His Early Life – A Biographical Journey into the Roots of Attachment Theory. London: Free Association Books.
    Van Hooren, F. ( 2015 ) ‘Varieties of migrant care work: comparing patterns of migrant labour in social care’, Journal of European Social Policy, 22(2): 13347.
    Wacquant, L. ( 2004 ) Body & Soul, Notebooks of an Apprentice Boxer. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Wacquant, L. ( 2008a ) Pierre Bourdieu in Key Sociological Thinkers (ed. R. Stone ). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Wacquant, L. ( 2008b ) Urban Outcasts: A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality. Cambridge: Polity.
    Wacquant, L. ( 2010 ) ‘Crafting the neoliberal state: workfare, prisonfare, and social insecurity’, Sociological Forum, 25(2):19720.
    Wainwright, H. ( 2015 ) The New Jerusalem At Our Feet? London: Compass.
    Wainwright, H. and Little, M. ( 2009 ) Public Service Reform: But Not as We Know It. Hove: Compass and Unison.
    Walker, R. , Bantebya Kyomuhendo, G. , Chase, E. , Choudry, S. , Gubrium, E. , Yongmie, N.J. , Ivar, N. , Lodemel, I. , Mathew, L. , Mwiine, A. , Pellissery, S. and Ming, Y. ( 2013 ) ‘Poverty in global perspective: is shame a common denominator?’, Journal of Social Policy, 42(2): 21533.
    Wallcraft, J. ( 2012 ) ‘Involvement of service users in adult safeguarding’, The Journal of Adult Protection, 14(3): 14250.
    Wardell, M. , Steiger, T. and Meiksins, P. ( 1999 ) Rethinking the Labour Process. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
    Warner, J. ( 2013 ) ‘Social work, class politics and risk in the moral panic over Baby P’, Health, Risk & Society, 15(3): 21733.
    Warner, J. and Sharland, E. ( 2010 ) ‘Editorial: risk and social work: critical perspectives’, British Journal of Social Work, 40(4): 103545.
    Wastell, D. and White, S. ( 2012 ) ‘Blinded by neuroscience: social policy, the family and the infant brain’, Families, Relationships and Societies, 1(3): 397414.
    Wastell, D. , White, S. , Broadhurst, S. , Peckover, S. and Pithouse, A. ( 2010 ) ‘Children’s services in the iron cage of performance management: street-level bureaucracy and the spectre of Švejkism’, International Journal of Social Welfare, 19(3): 31020.
    Webb, S. ( 2006 ) Social Work in a Risk Society: Social and Political Perspectives. London: Macmillan.
    Webb, J. , Schirato, T. and Danaher, G. ( 2008 ) Understanding Bourdieu. London: Sage.
    White, S. and Featherstone, B. ( 2005 ) ‘Communicating misunderstandings: multi- agency work as social practice’, Child and Family Social Work, 10(3): 20716.
    White, S. , Hall, C. and Peckover, S. ( 2009 ) ‘The descriptive tyranny of the common assessment framework: technologies of categorization and professional practice in child welfare’, British Journal of Social Work, 39(7): 11971217.
    White, S. , Wastell, D. , Broadhurst, K. , Hall, C. ( 2010 ) ‘When policy o’er leaps itself: the tragic tale of the integrated children’s system’, Critical Social Policy, 30(3): 40529.
    Whitfield, D. ( 2012 ) The Mutation of Privatisation A Critical Assessment of New Community and Individual Rights, Research Report No.5. European Services Strategy Unit.
    Whittington, C. ( 2016 ) ‘The promised liberation of adult social work under England’s 2014 Care Act: genuine prospect or false prospectus?’, British Journal of Social Work, 46(7): 194261.
    Wilberforce, M. , Jacobs, S. , Challis, D. , Manthorpe, J. , Stevens, M. , Jasper, R. , Fernandez, J. L. , Glendinning, C. , Jones, K. , Knapp, M. , Moran, N. and Netten, A. ( 2014 ) ‘Revisiting the causes of stress in social work: sources of job demands, control and support in personalised adult social care’, British Journal of Social Work, 44(4): 812830.
    Williams, F. ( 2011 ) ‘Markets and migrants in the care economy’, Soundings, 47: 2233.
    Williams, Z. ( 2012 ) The Shadow State: A Report about Outsourcing of Public Services. Social Enterprise UK. Available at: (accessed 4 April 2016 ).
    Wilkinson, R. and Pickett, K. ( 2010 ) The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Wood, M. , Hales, J. , Purdon, S. Sejersen, T. and Hayllar, O. ( 2009 ) A Test of Racial Discrimination in Recruitment Practice in British Cities. Department for Work and Pensions Research Report No. 607. Available at: (accessed 10 May 2017 ).
    World Health Organization ( 2006 ) WHO Expert Group Report: Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident and Special Health Care Programmes: Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Health Expert Group (eds B. Bennett , M. Repacholi and Z. Carr ). Geneva: World Health Organization.
    Yanow, D. ( 1996 ) How Does a Policy Mean? Interpreting Policy and Organizational Actions. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
    Yeates, N. ( 1999 ) ‘Social politics and policy in the era of globalization: cultural reflection’, Social Policy and Administration, 33(4): 37293.
    Zinn, J. ( 2004 ) Social Contexts and Responses to Risk Network (SCARR), Working Paper 2004/1, Literature Review: Sociology and Risk. Available at: (accessed 8 March 2016 ).

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website