Social Work and Mental Health in Scotland


Steve Hothersall, Mike Maas-Lowit & Malcolm Golightley

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Transforming Social Work Practice – Titles in the Series

    Applied Psychology for Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 071 8
    Collaborative Social Work PracticeISBN 978 1 84445 014 5
    Communication and Interpersonal Skills in Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 019 0
    Courtroom Skills for Social WorkersISBN 978 1 84445 123 4
    Effective Practice Learning in Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 015 2
    Groupwork Practice in Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 086 2
    Loss and Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 088 6
    Management and Organisations in Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 044 2
    New Directions in Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 079 4
    Practical Computer Skills for Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 031 2
    Reflective Practice in Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 082 4
    Service User and Carer Participation in Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 074 9
    Sexuality and Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 085 5
    Social Work and Human Development (second edition)ISBN 978 1 84445 112 8
    Social Work and Mental Health (third edition)ISBN 978 1 84445 154 8
    Social Work in Education and Children's ServicesISBN 978 1 84445 045 9
    Social Work Practice: Assessment, Planning, Intervention and Review (second edition)ISBN 978 1 84445 113 5
    Social Work with Children and Families (secon edition)ISBN 978 1 84445 144 9
    Social Work with Children, Young People and their Families in Scotland (second edition)ISBN 978 1 84445 156 2
    Social Work with Drug and Substance MisusersISBN 978 1 84445 058 9
    Social Work with Looked After ChildrenISBN 978 1 84445 103 6
    Social Work with Older People (second edition)ISBN 978 1 84445 155 5
    Social Work with People with Learning DifficultiesISBN 978 1 84445 042 8
    Sociology and Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 087 9
    Studying for Your Social Work DegreeISBN 978 1 84445 174 6
    Thriving and Surviving in Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 080 0
    Using the Law in Social Work (third edition)ISBN 978 1 84445 114 2
    Values and Ethics in Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 067 1
    What is Social Work? Context and Perspectives (second edition)ISBN 978 1 84445 055 1
    Youth Justice and Social WorkISBN 978 1 84445 066 4

    To order, please contact our distributor: BEBC Distribution, Albion Close, Parkstone, Poole, BH12 3LL. Telephone: 0845 230 9000, email: You can also find more information on each of these titles and our other learning resources at


    View Copyright Page

    List of Abbreviations

    ACVOAberdeen Council of Voluntary Organisations
    AMPapproved medical practitioner
    BASWBritish Association of Social Workers
    BMABritish Medical Association
    BPSBritish Psychological Society
    CAMHSchild and adolescent mental health services
    CBTcognitive behavioural therapy
    CFICamberwell Family Interview
    CIPFAChartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy
    COROcompulsion order with a restriction order
    CPACare Programme Approach
    CPNcommunity psychiatric nurse
    CSIPCare Services Improvement Partnership
    CSWOChief Social Work Officer
    CTOcompulsory treatment order
    DESDissociative Experiences Scale
    DIDdissociative identity disorder
    DoHDepartment of Health
    ECEuropean Commission
    ECTelectroconvulsive therapy
    EEexpressed emotion
    EMCDDAEuropean Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
    EUEuropean Union
    EVOCEdinburgh Voluntary Organisations Council
    GDSGeriatric Depression Scale
    GHQGeneral Health Questionnaire
    GIRFEC‘Getting It Right for Every Child’
    GPgeneral practitioner
    GTCSGeneral Teaching Council for Scotland
    HMIeHer Majesty's Inspectorate of Education
    HMSOHer Majesty's Stationery Office
    HUGHighland Users Group
    IAFIntegrated Assessment Framework
    ICPindividual care pathway
    IPTinterpersonal therapy
    MAPPAmulti-agency public protection arrangements
    MDOmentally disordered offender
    MHOmental health officer
    MHTSMental Health Tribunal for Scotland
    MWCMental Welfare Commission
    NESNHS Scotland Education
    NHSNational Health Service
    NICENational Institute for Clinical Excellence
    NIMHENational Institute of Mental Health for England
    NMCNursing and Midwifery Council
    ONSOffice for National Statistics
    OPCSOffice of Population, Censuses and Surveys
    OPGOffice of the Public Guardian
    OPMOffice of Public Management
    OToccupational therapist
    PHCTprimary health care team
    PHISPublic Health Institute of Scotland
    QoLquality of life
    RMARisk Management Authority
    RMOresponsible medical officer
    SACAMScottish Advisory Committee on Alcohol Misuse
    SACDMScottish Advisory Committee on Drug Misuse
    SAMHScottish Association for Mental Health
    SCID-DStructured Clinical Interview
    ScotPHOScottish Public Health Observatory
    SiSWEStandards in Social Work Education
    SPDNScottish Personality Disorder Network
    SSRIselective seratonin reuptake inhibitor
    SSSCScottish Social Services Council
    SWSISocial Work Services Inspectorate
    TMStranscranial magnetic stimulation
    VNSvagus nerve stimulation
    WHOWorld Health Organisation


    This book is a text for students of mental health social work and for those in related professions. We know of no other such exclusively Scottish text at this level and, as such, it appears to be unique. It may be used as a beginner's guide to mental health law and policy in Scotland and it may, therefore, be of value to practitioners of greater experience who come anew to the mental health arena. For example, practitioners contemplating taking the step up to Mental Health Officer training will find it very useful as an introductory orientation before beginning their MHO studies.

    The book is a completely new edition of Social work and mental health (Golightley, 2006) which has been substantially revised to accommodate the Scottish mental health scene.

    The question a reader might ask at this point is exactly how much revision was needed to shift the perspective from England/Wales to Scotland!

    The answer is that since the inception of the Scottish Parliament in 1999, mental health law, policy, practice and ethos have changed so dramatically as to represent a quantum shift from what is happening south of the border. There were always some marked differences between Scottish and English/Welsh law and policy, but the advent of the Scottish Parliament in 1999 coincided with the movement for change in mental health service provision in Scotland gaining critical mass and it is possible that no other aspect of civil life in Scotland has been so dramatically overhauled since devolution.

    It was therefore not just a case of changing all the references to law and policy in this book, substantial though that exercise was in itself. The very tone of much of the text has had to be changed to take account of what is now a very Scottish perspective. Some of this is reflected in the policy drivers to include recovery in all aspects of a person's journey through mental health services, the notion that everybody is entitled to find an individual personal solution to their mental health problems and to walk a path towards their own recovery. Some of the difference is found in the relatively different ethnic mix of modern Scotland as well as the fact that Scotland, while not free of racism and ethnic tensions, has so far not felt the impact of some of the major incidents like Clunis (Ritchie et al., 1994) and Bennett, which indicate large-scale problems in how mental health services are delivered to the black community. Some of the difference is also found in the institutions of the Scottish Parliament and the Scottish Government which diverge widely from aspects of Westminster.

    Much of the crucial difference is, however, to be found in the rapidly changed law around mental health in Scotland which has necessitated making three new chapters out of the original one relating to the law in the original Golightley edition. Some of the tone of the original text has been altered because the close working relationship between health and social work partners in Scotland, while not devoid of tensions, make the old conflict between medical and social models of mental health and illness seem out of date.

    However, the most subtle and all-pervasive difference is in the shift in thinking about mental health which, early on in the book, causes the authors to have to explain the use of terms like mental health, mental disorder, mental illness and mental well-being.

    The reader might now ask the question what has been retained from the original book? This book has kept the original text where it has not had to be revised by the above. It has retained the original structure and the focus upon social work, mental disorder, the medical perspective, the orientation to service users’ perspectives and to ethics, values and anti-discriminatory practice but reoriented these towards the uniquely Scottish developments referred to above.

    It is hoped that this book conveys a flavour of the optimism surrounding mental health in Scotland despite the strange mix of prejudicial attitudes to people who struggle to maintain good mental health and the chronic and endemic poor mental health felt by vast numbers of the population (a strange mix because it is surely counter to self-interest for us to be prejudiced against something which is very likely to impact upon ourselves). Scotland is a relatively small place of about 5 million people. That means that much can be achieved on a manageable scale. However, this book is not merely an explanation of the wonderful steps towards improving the mental well-being of the population as it is also critical of the process and very open about discussing the huge problems faced.

    Chapter Outline

    Chapter 1 introduces the concepts of mental health, mental illness and mental disorder. It discusses social work practice in relation to these concepts by way of introducing a discourse on values and an ethical base for practice. It gives illustration of this with recourse to race and ethnicity, disability and other attributes which amplify the problems experienced by service users. The chapter also introduces some different ways of understanding mental health and mental illness. Most notably it discusses the medical framework for understanding, diagnosing and treating mental disorder and the social orientation to understanding its impact upon individuals.

    Chapter 2 discusses civil law in Scotland as it relates to mental disorder, with a central focus on the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 and the sources of human rights law.

    Chapter 3 introduces the concepts of capacity and incapacity and relates them to the protective suite of legislation (Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000 and Adult Support and Protection (Scotland) Act 2007.

    Chapter 4 completes the introduction to what is often called ‘mental health law’. It focuses on criminal law aspects of the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 and the Criminal Procedures (Scotland) Act 1995. The chapter also focuses on risk assessment and management strategies and policy for mentally disordered offenders.

    Chapter 5 discusses the policy and practice relating to child and adolescent services in Scotland.

    Chapter 6 expands the discussion of practice-related issues by examining provision for people who receive short-term assistance. It centres on support for depression and prevention of suicide.

    Chapter 7 continues the theme of practice in relation to the provision of longer-term assistance and service users with longitudinal needs. It focuses upon the case study of a man with schizophrenia.

    Chapter 8 provides a focus on inter-professional working. It introduces wider issues relating to the dynamics of collaboration, examining some of the influences such as the legal and policy frameworks which facilitate effective partnerships.

  • Conclusion

    It would just not be possible to provide comprehensive coverage for all aspects of mental health social work in a book of this size, particularly at a time of such rapid growth. Indeed, if you take the message of recovery to heart you might say that it is hardly possible to provide such coverage in any book because it would mean telling the stories and getting the opinions of every individual in Scotland who has personal experience of the struggle to maintain good mental health. We have therefore had to make choices about which key issues to relate to and we have chosen to draw focus on values and ethics, the differentiation of mental health from mental illness and related terms, some of the key perspectives on what we call mental illness, diagnosis, treatment and assessment, mental health law (both civil and in relation to the criminal law), the law relating to incapacity and adult protection, issues of support for children and young people and people with short-term and long-term problems and, finally, commentary on the importance of understanding the organisational context and collaborative working.

    Throughout this we have threaded important themes for modern social work practice in Scotland: working alongside service users in a recovery oriented way; taking account of the service user's perspective and balancing it against the professional knowledge bases of doctors and social workers; and taking account of policy directives and shifts in emphasis.

    In this list of the core contents of the text, there are many tensions which have to be resolved in practice. For example, the biochemical treatment orientation of the medical perspective is nowadays to be viewed less and less as the antithesis of the social perspective on mental health. However, there are undeniable tensions in that a doctor will always have a strong view based upon systematic medical knowledge of what a patient ought to do for his or her own good, while a social perspective might suggest that self-determination is what is best for any marginalised person in order for them to work towards inclusion. Buried somewhere in this conundrum is the problem of how to uphold the individual rights of the service user while sometimes having to enforce protective measures upon him or her. These tensions are evident in the two wings of policy: the one which encourages social inclusion, self-determination, anti-oppression and mental well-being, and the other which expands the powers to restrict the liberty of mentally disordered people who are vulnerable and at risk of harm by the imposition of compulsion.

    We have highlighted these tensions and, in case studies and exercises, have encouraged you to think about how you might manage them in practice. What we cannot do in this or any book, is to resolve these tensions for you. You will need to do that yourself, by reference to your own knowledge and skills and to that of others around you. And we hope that this book will provide you with some assistance in that challenging but nonetheless rewarding task.


    Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000 (the 2000 Act) The 2000 Act gives powers to manage the finances, property and welfare of adults who lack capacity to determine their own choices in these matters because of mental disorder or physical disability which amounts to an inability to communicate. It contains major roles for the mental health officer (see below).

    Adult (the adult) The term used by the 2000 Act for a person over the age of 16 years who requires the use of powers of the Act.

    Approved medical practitioner (AMP) Under s 22(1) of the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 doctor is approved by Direction from the Scottish Ministers. Currently the Direction on Approval of Medical Practitioners states that they must have four years of experience working in psychiatric services and have undertaken special AMP training. They may then be subsequently approved by their employing health board as ‘having special experience in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorder’(s 22(1), 2003 Act).

    Behaviour modification Based on the idea of learning theory and conditioning. Intervention focuses on the relearning of behaviour.

    BNF Stands for the British National Formulary reference text, which is published twice a year and contains up-to-date information about the maximum dosage of medication for patients. Hospital wards should always have the latest copy available.

    Bolam test Where a health care professional is not considered to be negligent if s/he adopts the practice which a responsible body of professionals (e.g. psychiatrists, nurses or social workers) accept as appropriate.

    CAMHS Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services.

    CMHT Community Mental Health Team.

    Cognitive therapy A treatment intervention, available on the NHS, that focuses on maladaptive patterns of thinking that affect the person's behaviour.

    CPN Community psychiatric nurses are qualified and experienced psychiatric nurses who play a major role in the supervision and treatment of patients in the community. Along with MHOs, psychiatrists and others, they have a pivotal role in community mental health and outreach teams.

    Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 (the 1995 Act) The 1995 Act provides the framework in which criminal courts make their decisions in Scotland. As such, it interfaces with the 2003 Act to make decisions about the disposal of mentally disordered offenders who require care and treatment within the mental health services.

    CSIP NIMHE (National Institute of Mental Health for England) has now been absorbed into a successor body, the Care Services Improvement Partnership (CSIP). CSIP embraces eight programmes. They are the National Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) Support Service, Health in Criminal Justice, the Integrated Care Network, Integrating Community Equipment and Support, the National Institute for Mental Health in England, the Health and Social Care Change Agent Team, the Valuing People Support Team and Children for Change. It has an annual budget of more than £30 million. Website:

    Diagnosis Forms part of the assessment process and the identification of specific mental disorder in which reference is made to either the DSM-IV or to the ICD–10 reference texts both of which classify mental disorder.

    Direction of the Scottish Ministers Directions are written requirements which are allowed by law. The principle Directions for the purposes of mental health law are those for the appointment of MHOs (s 32, 2003 Art) and AMPs (s 22, 2003 Act). They allow the Ministers to change or add to the requirements for appointment without having to change the law itself.

    Expressed emotion This term is used usually in the sense that the family may have ‘high expressed emotion’ that is having an adverse effect on the service user. This includes over-involved parents and a highly critical atmosphere.

    Family therapy The focus is on working with the family to restore the family system to a more functioning unit.

    LA (local authority) Any one of the 32 Scottish local councils which provide a range of statutory local services including social work services

    Levels of security There are three levels of security designated by policy for the in-patient management of mentally disordered offenders (high, medium and low security). There is one high secure unit and three medium secure units, shared by all health boards.

    Mentally disordered offender (MDO) An MDO is a person who has committed or appears to have committed a criminal offence and suffers from a mental disorder.

    Mental health officer (MHO) A registered social worker who has undergone a Scottish Social Services Council approved additional training course and meets the other requirements set out by Directions of the Scottish Minister under s 32 of the 2003 Act. In order to comply with the 2003 Act and ensure independence of role, the MHO must be appointed and employed by the local authority.

    Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 (the 2003 Act) The primary legislation in this area. It is primarily about the compulsory measures of care and treatment of people who are diagnosed as having a mental disorder.

    Mental Welfare Commission for Scotland (MWC) An independent body the commissioners of which are appointed by Royal Appointment for a set period to undertake this statutory role. The MWC monitors the operation of the 2003 Act in respect of patients subject to compulsion. The MWC publishes an Annual Report and a list of Inquiries into Deficiencies of Care and Treatment. Commissioners and their officers regularly visit all hospitals in Scotland and meet with detained patients, those subject to compulsion or restriction in the community and adults subject to guardianship under the Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000.

    Mental Health Tribunal for Scotland (MHTS) The MHTS is an autonomous body the purpose of which is to hear applications for measures of compulsion and patients’ appeals against compulsory treatment orders, compulsion orders and other orders. It also reviews orders where there is no appeal. A Tribunal comprises three people: a legal member (chair), a lay member and a medical member.

    Named person Clearly defined under s 250 to 254 of the 2003 Act. Named persons are nominated by people who are at risk of being subject to powers under the Act. They exercise protecting functions such as a right to be heard at Tribunal hearings.

    National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) Conducts research and evaluations of various treatments and publishes guidance and advice.

    Office of the Public Guardian (OPG) The independent agency which registers, regulates and monitors financial powers under the 2000 Act.

    NES NHS Education for Scotland

    NHS National Health Service.

    Patient The term used throughout the 2003 Act using the male pronoun. Social workers use the term ‘service user’, implying that more of a partnership exists between themselves and the user of the service, but ‘patient’ is still used as the term of reference in proximity to the Act.

    PHCT Primary health care team or GP surgery.

    Principles In the legal context, principles are those fundamental and overarching principles which must guide any action taken by those given powers and duties under that particular piece of legislation. They are statutory duties (see below) and, as such, any action performed by an agent of the legislation without regard to the principles will risk being unlawful.

    Prognosis The medical assessment of the future course of events and probable outcome of the patient's mental disorder.

    Psychoanalysis Based on Freudian thinking, the aim is that through the client/therapist relationship, people can resolve conflicted states of mind. Not (usually) available on the NHS.

    Recovery Recovery is the term of preference to acknowledge that everyone who has a mental illness may and should be assisted to recover from the experience.

    Responsible medical officer (RMO) The psychiatrist who has full clinical legal responsibility for a patient detained under the 2003 Act. They will usually be a consultant psychiatrist and approved under s 22 of the Act as having a special experience in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorder.

    Restricted patient The legal term used to describe a mentally disordered offender who has been placed under a restriction order with a compulsion order (a CORO) by the court. This means that the person cannot be discharged from the orders, nor can the measures of care and treatment be altered without consultation with the First Minister. Restricted patients will be mentally disordered offenders who have committed crimes of a serious violent or sexual nature.

    Second opinion appointed doctor (designated medical practitioner) A registered medical practitioner (experienced psychiatrist) appointed by the MWC to provide an independent opinion in respect of consent to treatment under s 233 of the 2003 Act.

    State Hospital The State Hospital is Scotland's only high security hospital for the care and treatment of mentally disordered offenders. It is located near to the village of Carstairs in South Lanarkshire and is sometimes referred to as Carstairs.

    Statutory A requirement dictated by Act of Parliament, e.g. the 2000 Act or the 2003 Act.

    Statutory duty A duty that must be complied with, if contained within an Act of Parliament.

    Statutory instrument Relates to delegated legislation drafted by the relevant department under powers attributed by an Act of Parliament. Statutory regulations are most commonly drafted as Statutory Instruments and laid before Parliament.


    Abela, JR Z and Hankin, BL (eds) (2008) Handbook of depression in children and adolescents. Hove: Guilford Press.
    Achenbach, TM and Rescola, LA (2006) Multicultural understanding of child and adolescent psychopathology. Hove: Guilford Press.
    Adams, JR and Drake, RE (2006) Shared decision-making and evidence-based practice. Community Mental Health Journal, 42 (1), 87–105.
    Agerbo, E, Sterne, J and Gunnell, D (2007) Combining individual and ecological data to determine compositional and contextual socio-economic risk factors for suicide. Social Science and Medicine, 64 (2), 451–61.
    Akhurst, S, Allnock, D, Garbers, C and Tunstill, J (2005) Sure-Start Local Programmes: implications of case study data from the national evaluation of Sure Start. Children & Society, 19 (2), 158–71.
    Aldridge, D (1998) Suicide: the tragedy of hopelessness. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Alvesson, M (2003) Understanding organisational culture. London: Sage.
    American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
    AngoldA and Egger, HL (2007) Pre-school psychopathology: lessons for the lifespan. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48 (10), 961–6.
    Banks, S (2006) Ethics and values in social work.
    edition. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Bannerjee, S, ClancyC and Crome, I (eds) (2002) Co-existing problems of mental disorder and substance misuse (‘dual diagnosis’): an information manual. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    Barkley, RA (2006) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a handbook for diagnosis and treatment.
    edition. Hove: Guilford Press.
    Barkley, RA and Murphy, KR (2006) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a clinical workbook.
    edition. Hove: Guilford Press.
    Barnes, C and Mercer, G (eds) (2005) Disability policy and practice: applying the social model of disability. London: Disability Press.
    Barnes, J (2003) Interventions addressing infant mental health problems. Children & Society, 17, 386–95.
    Barr, H (2003) Interprofessional education: today, yesterday and tomorrow: a review. Available at:
    Barrowclough, C, Haddock, G, FitzsimmonsM and Johnson, R (2006) Treatment development for psychosis and co-occuring substance misuse: a descriptive review. Journal of Mental Health, 15 (6), 619–32.
    Barry, AM and Yuill, C (2007) Understanding the sociology of health: an introduction. London: Sage.
    Barry, MM, Doherty, A, Hope, A, SixsmithJ and KelleherCC (2000) A community needs assessment for rural mental health promotion. Health Education Research, 15 (3), 293–304.
    Basset, T, Campbell, P and Anderson, J (2006) Service users survivors’ involvement in mental health training and education. Social Work Education, 25 (4), 393–402.
    Beck, A (2006) Users’ views of looked after children's mental health services. Adoption and Fostering, 30 (2), 53–63.
    Becker, H (1963) Outsiders: studies in the sociology of deviance. New York: Free Press.
    Bee, H and Boyd, D (2004) The developing child. Harlow: Pearson.
    Bellis, MD D (2005) The psychobiology of neglect. Child Maltreatment, 10 (2), 150–72.
    Bentall, RP, Fernyhough, C, MorrisonAP, LewisS and Corcoran, R (2007) Prospects for a cognitive-developmental account of psychotic experiences. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46 (2) 155–73.
    Bentley, KJ (2001) Social work practice in mental health: contemporary roles, tasks and techniques. New York: Wadsworth.
    Beresford, P (2000) Service users’ knowledge and social work theory: conflict or collaboration?British Journal of Social Work, 30, 489–503.
    Beresford, P (2002a) Thinking about ‘mental health’: towards a social model. Journal of Mental Health, 11(6), 581–4.
    Beresford, P (2002b) Making user involvement real. Professional Social Work, June, 16–17.
    Beresford, P and Croft, S (2004) Service users and practitioners reunited: the key component for social work reform. British Journal of Social Work, 34, 53–68.
    Biglan, A, Brennan, PA, Foster, SL and Holder, HD (eds) (2005) Helping adolescents at risk. Hove: Guilford Press.
    Bisman, C (2004) Social work values: the moral core of the profession. British Journal of Social Work, 34(1), 109–23.
    Blackburn, D and Golightley, M (2004) European Sociological Conference paper. University of Lincoln.
    Blackstock, K, Cox, S, MasonA and Smith, A (2005) Dementia care provision in rural Scotland: service users' and carers’ experiences. Health and Social Care in the Community, 13 (4), 354–65.
    Blenkiron, P, Cuzen, I, Hammill, AC and Kwai-Hong, M (2003) Involving service users in their mental health care: The CUES project. Psychiatric Bulletin, 27 (9), 334–38.
    Bonynge, ER, Lee, RG and Thurber, S (2005) A profile of mental health crisis response in a rural setting. Community Mental Health Journals (6), 675–85.
    Borges, G, Angst, J, NockMK, RuscioAM, Walters, EE and Kessler, RC (2006) A risk index for 12 month suicide attempts in the National Co-Morbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Psychological Medicine, 36 (12), 1747–57.
    Borsay, A (2004) Disability and social policy in Britain since 1750. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Bostik, KE and Everall, RD (2007) Healing from suicide: adolescent perceptions of attachment relationships, British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 35 (1), 79–96.
    Bostock, L, Bairstow, S, FishS and Macleod, F (2005) Managing risk and minimising mistakes in services to children and families. London: SCIE.
    Bowl, R (2007) The need for change in UK mental health services: South Asian service users’ views. Ethnicity and Health, 12(1), 1–19.
    Bradshaw, J (1972) The concept of social need. New Society, 19 (496), 640–3.
    Bradshaw, T, HarrisN and Lovell, K (2005) Healthy living interventions and schizophrenia: a systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49 (6), 634–54.
    Brady, J (2006) The association between alcohol misuse and suicidal behaviour. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 41 (5), 473–8.
    Briggs, S (2002) Working with the risk of suicide in young people. Journal of Social Work Practice, 16(2), 135–48.
    British Association of Social Workers (2002) The code of ethics for social work. Birmingham: BASW.
    British Medical Association (2004) Handbook of ethics and law.
    edition. London: BMA.
    British National Formulary (2007a) British national formulary for children. London: Pharmaceutical Press.
    British National Formulary (2007b) British national formulary vol. 54. London: Pharmaceutical Press.
    British Psychological Society (2000) Code of conduct, ethical principles and guidelines. London: BPS.
    Bromley, C and Curtice, J (2003) Attitudes to discrimination in Scotland. NatCen/Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Brandon, T, Carpenter, J, SchneiderJand Wooff, D (2003) Correlates of stress in carers. Journal of Mental Health, 12(1), 29–40.
    Bronfenbrenner, U (1979) The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Bronfenbrenner, U (1986) Ecology of the family as a context for human development: research perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22 (6), 723–42.
    BrownGW and HarrisTO (1978) The social origins of depression. London: Tavistock.
    BuckleyPF and BrownES (2006) Prevalence and consequences of dual diagnosis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67 (7), 5–9
    Büurk, F, KurzA and Möller, K-J (1985) Suicide risk scales: do they help predict suicidal behaviour?European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 235 (3), 153–7.
    Burroughs, H, Lovell, K, Morley, M, Baldwin, R, BurnsA and Chew-Graham, C (2006) ‘Justifiable depression’: how primary care professionals and patients view late-life depression: a qualitative study. Family Practice, 23(3), 369–77.
    ButcherJN, Mineka, S, HooleyJM and CarsonRC (2004) Abnormal psychology. 12th edition. Boston, MA: Pearson.
    ButlerAand Pritchard, C (1983) Social work and mental illness. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Butler, I (2002) A code of ethics for social work and social care research. British Journal of Social Work, 32, 239–48.
    Campbell, P (1999) Training for mental health 3: exploring key areas. Brighton: Pavilion Publishing.
    CampbellSP (2006) Behaviour problems in preschool children.
    edition. Hove: Guilford Press.
    CarpendaleJ and Lewis, C (2006) How children develop social understanding. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Carpenter, J, Schneider, J, BrandonTand Wooff, D (2003) Working in multidisciplinary mental health teams: the impact on social workers and health professionals of integrated mental health care. British Journal of Social Work, 33, 1081–103.
    Carpenter, J, Schneider, J, McNiven, F, Brandon, T, StevensR and Wooff, D (2004) integration and targeting of community care for people with severe and enduring mental health problems: users’ experiences of the care programme approach and care management. British Journal of Social Work, 34, 313–33.
    Carr, A (2006) The handbook of child and adolescent clinical psychology: a contextual approach.
    edition. Abingdon: Brunner-Routledge.
    Cartwright, R (2002) Mastering team leadership. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    CassidyJ and ShaverPR (eds) (1999) Handbook of attachment: theory, research, and clinical applications. New York: Guilford Press.
    CheersB and Pugh, R (2008) Rural social work: international perspectives. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Clark, C (2000) Social work ethics. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    ClarkTand Rowe, R (2006) Violence, Stigma and psychiatric diagnosis: the effects of a history of violence on psychiatric diagnosis. Psychiatric Bulletin, 30 (7), 254–6.
    CleaverHand Freeman, P (1995) Parental perspectives in cases of suspected child abuse. London: HMSO.
    Cochrane, R (1983) The social creation of mental illness. Harlow: Longman Applied Psychology.
    Cochrane-BrinkKA, LofchyJS and Sakinofsky, I (2000) Clinical rating scales in suicide risk assessment. General Hospital Psychiatry, 22 (6), 445–51.
    CogillSR, CaplanHL, Alexandra, H, RobsonKM and Kumar, R (1996) Impact of maternal depression on cognitive development of young children. British Medical Journal, 292, 1165–7.
    CoidJW (1996) Dangerous patients with mental illness: increased risks warrant new policies, dequate resources, and appropriate legislation. British Medical Journal, 312, 965–6.
    ConradPJ and StewartSH (2006) New advances in the treatment of co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders. Journal of Mental Health, 15 (6), 615–18.
    Coppock, V (2005) ‘Mad’, ‘bad’ or misunderstood? In Hendrick, H (ed), Child welfare and social policy. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Cratsley, K, Regan, J, McAllister, V, SimicMand AitchisonKJ (2007) Duration of untreated psychosis, referral route and age of onset in an early intervention in psychosis service and a local CAMHS. Child and Adolescent Mental Health (Online Early Access). DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-3588.2007.00467.x.
    CrawfordKand Walker, J (2007) Social work and human development.
    edition. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    Crittenden, P (1992) Children's strategies for coping with adverse home environments: an interpretation using attachment theory. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16 (3), 329–43.
    CrittendenPM (2006) A dynamic-maturational model of attachment. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 27, 105–15.
    CromeIB (1999) The trouble with training: substance misuse education in British medical schools revisited. What are the issues?Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 6, 111–23.
    Crone, D, SmithA and Gough, B (2005) ‘I feel totally alive and totally happy’. A psycho-social explanation of the physical activity and mental health relationship. Health Education Research, 20 (5), 600–11.
    Cunningham-Burley, S, Carty, A, MartinC and Birch, A (2006) Sure-Start mapping exercise. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at:
    CutliffeJR, Stevenson, C, JacksonSand Smith, P (2006) A modified grounded theory study of how psychiatric nurses work with suicidal people. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43 (7), 791–802.
    DanielBand Wassell, S (2002) Assessing and promoting resilience in vulnerable children: Vol. 1 - The early years; Vol. 2 - The school years; Vol. 3 - Adolescence. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Deb, S, Matthews, T, HoltG and Bouras, N (2001) Practice guidelines for the assessment and diagnosis of mental health problems in adults with intellectual disability. Brighton: Pavilion Press.
    Department for Constitutional Affairs (1998) The Human Rights Act 1998. London: DoCA.
    Department of Health (1999) The Disability Discrimination Act 1999. London: DoH.
    Department of Health (2001) Treatment choice in psychological therapies and counselling: evidence-based clinical practice guideline. London: DoH.
    Department of Health (2007) Promoting mental health for children held in secure settings. London: DoH.
    Dogra, N, Parkin, A, GaleF and Frake, C (2002) A multidisciplinary handbook of child and adolescent mental health for front-line professionals. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Double, D (2006) Critical psychiatry: limits of madness. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Durkheim, E (1897/2006) On suicide. London: Penguin Classics.
    EisenAR (ed) (2007) Treating childhood behavioural and emotional problems: a step-by-step evidence-based approach. Abingdon: Routledge.
    EMCDDA (2004) Selected issue 3: Co-morbidity. In European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Annual Report 2004: The state of the drugs problem in the European Union and Norway. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, pp94–102. Available at:
    Epstein, S (1983) Natural healing processes of the mind. In Newton, J (1988), Preventing mental illness. Abingdon: Routledge.
    European Commission (2005) Green Paper – Improving the mental health of the population: towards a strategy on mental health for the European Union.
    European Commission on Human Rights (1950) Convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms (as amended by Protocol No. 11, Rome, 4. XI). Brussels: European Commision Health and Consumer Protection Directorate. Available at:
    Fadden, G, HolsgroveG and Shooter, M (2005) Involving carers and service users in the training of psychiatrists. Psychiatric Bulletin, 29 (7), 270–74.
    Falkov, A (1996) Study of ‘Working Together’ Part 8 Reports. Fatal child abuse and parental psychiatric disorder. London: DoH.
    Farrell, M, Howes, S, Taylor, C, Lewis, G, Jenkins, R, Bebbington, P, Jarvis, M, Brugha, T, GillB and Meltzer, H (2003) Substance misuse and psychiatric comorbidity: an overview of the OPCS National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. International Review of Psychiatry, 15, 43–9.
    Fernado, S (1999) Ethnicity and mental health. In UlasM and Connor, A (eds), Mental health and social work. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Fernando, S (2003) Cultural diversity, mental health and psychiatry: the struggle against racism. Abingdon: Brunner-Routledge.
    FinchJ and Groves, D (1980) Community care and the family: a case for equal opportunities. Journal of Soda/Policy, 9 (4), 487–511.
    Fonagy, P, Steele, M, Steele, H, HiggittA and Target, M (1994) The theory and practice of resilience. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35 (2), 231–55.
    Foucault, M (1964) Madness and civilisation. New York: Random House.
    FrangouS and Bryne, P (2000) How to manage the first episode of schizophrenia. British Medical Journal, 321 (7260), 522.
    FrankenbergerW and Cannon, C (1999) Effects of Ritalin on academic achievement from first to fifth grade. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 46 (2), 199–221.
    Galilee, J (2005) Learning from failure: a review of major social care/health inquiry recommendations. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    GambleC and Brennan, G (eds) (2000) Working with serious mental illness: a manual for clinical practice. Oxford: BallièGre Tindall.
    GellerB and DelBelloMP (eds) (2006) Bipolar disorder in childhood and early adolescence. Hove: Guilford Press.
    General Teaching Council for Scotland (2002) General code of practice. Edinburgh: GTCS.
    Gilbert, P (2003) The value of everything: social work and its importance in the field of mental health. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Gilligan, R (1999) Working with social networks: key resources in helping children at risk. In Hill, M (ed.), Effective ways of working with children and families. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Gilligan, R (2000) Promoting resilience in children in foster care. In GilliganR and Kelly, G (eds), Issues in foster care. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Glaser, D (2001) Child abuse and neglect and the brain: a review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 41 (1), 97–116.
    Glover, K, in BassettT and Cuthbert, S (2000) Certificate in Community Mental Health. Student's workbook. Southampton: Ashford Press.
    Goffman, E (1961) Asylums. London: Penguin.
    GolightleyTM (1985) If only they would listen: the case for a community-orientated mental health service. Lincoln: University of Lincoln.
    Golightley, M (2006) Social work and mental health.
    edition. Exeter. Learning Matters.
    Göpfert, M, WebsterJ and SeemanMV (eds) (2004) Parental psychiatric disorder: distressed parents and their families.
    edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Green, H, McGinnity, A, Meltzer, H, FordT and Goodman, R(2005) Mental health of children and young people in Great Britain 2004. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Griffiths, R (1988) Community care: agenda for action. London: HMSO.
    Hammersley, P, Read, J, WoodallSand Dillon, J (2007). Childhood trauma and psychosis: The genie is out of the bottle. Journal of Psychological Trauma. 6 (2/3), 7–20.
    Hammond, H (2001) Child protection inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the death of Kennedy McFarlane (17/4/97). Dumfries and Galloway: Child Protection Committee.
    HankinBL and AbelaJR Z (eds) (2005) Development of psychopathology: a vulnerability-stress perspective. London: Sage.
    Häring, B (1972) Medical ethics. Slough: St Paul. Cited in Butler, I (2002) A code of ethics for social work and social care research. British Journal of Social Work, 32, 239–48
    HawtonK and van Heeringen, K (eds) (2000) The international handbook of suicide and attempted suicide. Chichester: Wiley.
    Heads Up Scotland (2007) Infant mental health: a guide for practitioners. Edinburgh: Heads Up Scotland.
    Healy, K (2005) Social work theories in context: creating frameworks for practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Helliwell, JF (2007) Well-being and social capital: does suicide pose a puzzle?Social Indicators Research, 81 (3), 455–96.
    Herzberg, F (1968) One more time: how do you motivate employees?Harvard Business Review, 46, 53–62.
    Hewitt, D (2005) An inconvenient mirror - do we already have the next Mental Health Act?Journal of Mental Health Law, November, 138–49.
    Hoghughi, M and Long, N (eds) (2004) Handbook of parenting: theory and research for practice. London: Sage.
    Homan, R (1991) The ethics of social research. Harlow: Longman.
    Horner, N (2006) What is social work? Context and perspectives.
    edition. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    HothersallSJ (2006) Social work with children, young people and their families in Scotland. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    HothersallSJ (2007) Parental psychiatric disorder: its impact upon children. Unpublished paper. Aberdeen: Robert Gordon University.
    Hudson, B (1987) Collaboration in social welfare: a framework for analysis. Policy and Politics, 15 (3), 175–82.
    Hudson, B (2002) Interprofessionality in health and social care. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 16 (1), 7–17.
    Huxley, P (2002) Evidence in social care. In PriebeS and Slade, M (eds), Evidence in mental health care. Abingdon: Brunner-Routledge.
    Innes, A, Cox, S, SmithA and Mason, A (2006) Service provision for people with dementia in rural Scotland. Dementia, 5 (2), 249–70.
    JamesA and Prout, A (eds) (2003) Constructing and reconstructing childhood.
    edition. Abingdon: Routledge Falmer.
    JamisonKR (2001) Night falls fast: understanding suicide. London: Vintage Books.
    JobesDA (2006) Managing suicidal risk: a collaborative approach. Hove: Guilford Press.
    JoinerTE (2005) Why people die by suicide. Cambridge, MA: President and Fellows of Harvard.
    Jones, K (1993) Asylums and after: a revised history of the mental health services from the early 18th century to the 1900s. London: Athlone Press.
    Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2004a) Mental health service users and their involvement in risk assessment and management. York: JRF.
    Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2004b) Understanding what children say about living with domestic violence, parental substance misuse or parental health problems. York: JRF.
    KalfiY and Torabi, M (1996) The role of parental ‘expressed emotion’ in relapse of schizophrenia. Iran Journal of Medicine, 21 (172), 46.
    Kant, I (1785/1964) Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten/Groundwork of the metaphysics of morals. London: Harper & Row.
    Karr-MorseR and WileyMS (2000) Ghosts from the nursery: tracing the roots of violence. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
    KeatingF and Robertson, D (2002) Breaking the circles of fear: a review of mental health services to African and Caribbean communities. Your Shout: Mental Health Promotion, 4, 18–19.
    KermodeF and Kermode, A (eds) (1995) Oxford book of letters. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    KillenM and SmetanaJG (eds) (2005) Handbook of moral development. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Kirk, S (2005) Mental disorders in the social environment: critical perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press.
    KohliRK S (2007) Social work with unaccompanied asylum seeking children. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Koprowska, J (2005) Communication and interpersonal skills in social work. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    KutcherS and Chehil, S (2007) Suicide risk management: a manual for health professionals. Oxford: Blackwell.
    LaingRD (1985) Wisdom, madness and folly. The making of a psychiatrist. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Laker, C (2006) How successful is the dual-diagnosis good practice guide?British Journal of Nursing, 15 (14), 787–90.
    LanganJ and Lindow, V (2004) Living with risk: mental health service user involvement in risk assessment and management. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Leason, K (2003) Ritalin nation. Community Care. 4–10 December, 26–8.
    Le GrangeD and Lock, J (2007) Treating bulimia in adolescents: a family-based approach. Hove: Guilford Press.
    Left, J, KuipersK and Lam, D (2002) Family work for schizophrenia.
    edition. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    Lehmann, J (2005) Human services management in rural contexts. British Journal of Social Work, 35, 355–71.
    LernerRM (2002) Adolescence: development, diversity, context and application. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    LernerRM and SpanierGB (1980) A dymanic interactional view of child and family development. In LernerRM and SpanierGB, (eds), Child influences on marital and family interaction: a lifespan perspective. New York: Academic Press, ppl–20
    LesterH and Glasby, J (2006) Mental health policy and practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Lewin, K (1997) Behaviour and development as a function of the total situation. In LewinG and Cartwright, D (eds), Resolving social conflicts and field theory in social science. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    LittlewoodR and Lipsedge, M (1997) Aliens and alienists: ethnic minorities and psychiatry.
    edition. Abingdon: Routledge.
    LockJ and Le Grange, D (2004) Help your teenager beat an eating disorder. Hove: Guilford Press.
    LohmannN and LohmannRA (eds) (2005) Rural social work practice. New York: Columbia University Press.
    LongoS and Scior, K (2004) In-patient psychiatric care for individuals with intellectual disabilities: The service user and carer perspectives. Journal of Mental Health. 13 (2), 211–21.
    Low, J (2004) Lay acquiescence to medical dominance in assessing the efficacy of alternative and complementary therapies: reflections on the active citizenship thesis. Paper presented to the European Sociological Association Symposium on Professions, Social Inclusion and Citizenship. Lincoln: University of Lincoln.
    Maas-Lowit, M (2002a) Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000. Pack 1: Workbook and guidance for social and health care staff. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Maas-Lowit, M (2002b) Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000. Pack 2: Workbook and guidance for assessment and care management staff. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Macdonald, E, Hermann, H, HindsRCRoweJ and McDonald, P(2002) Beyond interdisciplinary boundaries: Views of consumers, carers and NGOs on teamwork. Australasion Psychiatry, 10 (2), 125–29.
    McBeathG and Webb, S (2002) Virtue, ethics and social work: being lucky, realistic and not doing one's duty. British Journal of Social Work, 32, 1015–36.
    McNorrie, K (1998) The Children (Scotland) Act 1995: Green' annotated acts. Edinburgh: W Green & Son.
    McKinney, C, DonnellyR and Renk, K (2007) Perceived parenting, positive and negative perceptions and late adolescent emotional adjustment. Child and Adolescent Mental Health (Online Early Articles). DOI:10.1111/j.1475–3588.2007.00452.x.
    Malacrida, C (2002) Alternative therapies and attention deficit disorder: Discourses of maternal responsibility and risk. Gender and Society, 16 (3), 366–85.
    Manley, D (2005) Dual diagnosis: co-existence of drug, alcohol and mental health problems. British Journal of Nursing, 14 (2), 100–6.
    Martin, A, VolkmarFR and Lewis, M (2007) Lewis's child and adolescent psychiatry: a comprehensive textbook.
    edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
    MartinJK, PescosolidoBA and TuchSA (2000) Of fear and loathing: the role of ‘disturbing behaviour’, labels and causal attributions in shaping public attitudes towards people with mental illness. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 41 (2), 208–23.
    MashEJ and BarkleyRA (eds) (2007) Assessment of childhood disorders.
    edition. Hove: Guilford Press.
    Maslow, A (1987) Motivation and personality.
    edition. New York: Addison-Wesley.
    May, R (2006) Resisting the diagnostic gaze. Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy, 6 (3), 155–8.
    Meltzer, H, Gatward, R, GoodmanR and Ford, T (2000) Mental health of children and adolescents in Great Britain. London: TSO.
    Meltzer, H, Lader, D, Corbin, T, GoodmanR and Ford, T (2004) The mental health of young people looked after by local authorities in Scotland: summary report. Norwich: HMSO.
    Menninger, K (1963) The vital balance: the life process in mental health and illness. London: Viking Press.
    Mental Health Foundation (1999) The big picture: promoting children and young people's mental health. London: Mental Health Foundation.
    Mental Welfare Commission (2003) Investigations into the Scottish Borders Council and NHS Borders Services for people with learning disability. Edinburgh: Mental Welfare Commission for Scotland.
    Mental Welfare Commission (2006) Report of the inquiry into the care and treatment of Mr L and Mr M. Edinburgh: Mental Welfare Commission for Scotland.
    MiklowitzDJ (2002) The bipolar disorder survival guide. Hove: Guilford Press.
    Miller, C, FreemanM and Ross, N (2001) Interprofessional practice in health and social care. London: Arnold.
    Mischon, J (200) Report of the independent inquiry team into the care and treatment of Daniel Joseph. London: Sutton and Wandsworth Health Authority and Southwark and Lewisham Health Authority.
    Morago, P (2006) Evidence-based practice: from medicine to social work. European Journal of Social Work, 9 (4), 461–77.
    Moss, S, Emerson, E, Kiernan, C, Turner, C, HattonC and Alborz, A (2000) Psychiatric symptoms in adults with learning disability and challenging behaviour. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 452–6.
    Mulvany, J (2000) Disability, impairment or illness? The relevance of the social model of disability to the study of mental disorder. Sociology of Health and Illness, 11 (5), 582–601.
    Myatt, H, RostillH and Wheeldon, S (2004) Alternatives to Ritalin for looked after children: A culture shift. Clinical Psychology, 40, 34–7.
    MyersF and MacDonald, C (1996) ‘I was given options not choices’: involving older users and carers in assessment and care planning. In Bland, R (ed.), Developing services for older people and their families. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    NelsonTD, SteeleRG and MizeJA (2006) Practitioner attitudes toward evidence-based practice: themes and challenges. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 33 (3), 398–409.
    NewmanBM and NewmanPR (2007) Theories of human development. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    NewmanT and Blackburn, S (2002) Transitions in the lives of children and young people: resilience factors. Barnardo's Policy, Research and Influencing Unit, Scottish Executive Education Department.
    Newton, J (1988) Preventing mental illness. Abingdon: Routledge.
    NockMK and KesslerRC (2006) Prevalence of and risk factors for suicide attempts versus suicide gestures: analysis of the National Co-Morbidity Survey. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115 (3), 616–23.
    Nursing and Midwifery Council (2002) Code of professional conduct. London: NMC.
    O'Brien, S, HammondH and McKinnon, M (2003) Report of the Caleb Ness inquiry. Edinburgh and Lothians Child Protection Committee.
    O'ConnorTG and ByrneJG (2007) Attachment measures for research and practice. Child and Adolescent Mental Health (Advanced Access: DOI: 10.1111/j.1475–3588.2007.00444.x).
    O'Sullivan, T (1999) Decision making in social work. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Oakley, A (1976) Housewife. London: Penquin.
    Office of Public Management/Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy (2004) The good governance standard for public services. London: OPM/CIPFA.
    Oliver, M (1996) Understanding disability: from theory to practice. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Onyett, S (1992) Case management in mental health. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.
    Øvretveit, J (1997) How to describe interprofessional working. In Øvretveit, J, MathiasP and Thompson, T (eds), Interprofessional working for health and social care. Basingstoke: Macmillan, pp9–33.
    Øvretveit, J, MathiasP and Thompson, T (eds) (1997) Interprofessional working for health and social care. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    ParkerJ and Bradley, G (2006) Social work practice: assessment, planning, intervention and review.
    edition. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    Patel, B, WintersM and Bashford, J (2003) Engaging and changing: developing effective policy for the care and treatment of black and minority ethnic detained patients. London: DoH.
    Patrick, H (2006) Mental health, incapacity and the law in Scotland. Edinburgh: Tottel Publishing.
    Patrick, H (2007) Adult Support and Protection Bill: an update, MHO Newsletter14. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Paudras, F (1998) Dance of the infidels - a portrait of Bud Powell. New York: Da Capo.
    Payne, J (2006a) Adult Support and Protection (Scotland) Bill: Part 1 - Protection of Adults at Risk of Abuse, SPiCE Briefing 06/31. Edinburgh: Scottish Parliament. Available at: http://www.scottish.parliamentuk/business/research/briefings-06/SB06-31.pdf
    Payne, J (2006b) Adult Support and Protection (Scotland) Bill: Adults with Incapacity and Other Measures, SPiCE Briefing 06/32. Edinburgh: Scottish Parliament. Available at: http://www.scottish.parliamentuk/business/research/briefings-06/SB06-32.pdf.
    Payne, M (2000) Teamwork in multiprofessional care. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Payne, M (2005) Modern Social Work Theory.
    edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    PetersenAC (1988) Adolescent development. In MRRosenzweig (ed.), Annual review of psychology, Vol 39. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews, pp583–607.
    PharoahFM, MariJJ and Steiner, D (2000) American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 607–17, in the Cochrane Library, issue 3, 2002, Oxford update software.
    Philo, G (ed.) (1996) Media and mental distress. London: Glasgow Media Group and Longman.
    PilgrimD and Rogers, A (1999) A sociology of mental health and illness.
    edition. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Platt, L (2007) Poverty and ethnicity in the UK. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Pollack, W (1999) Real boys. New York: Henry Holt.
    Pollard, K, SellmanD and Senior, B (2005) The need for interprofessional working. In Barrett, G, SellmanD and Thomas, J (eds), Interprofessional working in health and social care: professional perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp7–17.
    PriebeS and Slade, M (2002) Evidence in mental health care. Abingdon: Brunner-Routledge.
    PriorV and Glaser, D (2006) Understanding attachment and attachment disorders: theory, evidence and practice. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Pritchard, C (1995) Suicide - the ultimate rejection. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Pritchard, C (2006) Mental health social work: evidence-based practice. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Public Health Institute of Scotland (2003) Needs assessment report on child and adolescent mental health. Glasgow: PHIS. Available at:
    Pugh, R (2000) Rural social work. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Pugh, R (2003) Considering the countryside: is there a case for rural social work?British Journal of Social Work, 33, 67–85.
    Quinney, A (2006) Collaborative social work practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    Ramon, S (2001) Opinions and dilemmas facing British mental health social work Cited, in Tew, J, (2001) Going social: championing a holistic model of mental distress within professional education. Social Work Education, 21 (2), 43–55.
    ReamerFG (1998) The evolution of social work ethics. Social Work, 43 (6), 488–500.
    RederP and Duncan, S (1999) Lost innocents: a follow-up study of fatal child abuse. Abingdon: Routledge.
    RederP and Duncan, S (2003) Understanding communication in child protection networks. Child Abuse Review, 12, 82–100.
    RederP and Lucey, C (eds) (1995) Assessment of parenting: psychiatric and psychological contributions. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Reder, P, DuncanS and Gray, M (1993) Beyond blame: child abuse tragedies revisited. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Reder, P, McClureM and Jolley, A (eds) (2000) Family matters: interfaces between child and adult mental health. Abingdon: Routledge.
    RepperJ and Breeze, J (2007) User and carer involvement in the training and education of health professionals: A review of the literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44 (3), 511–19.
    RidgewaySM (1997) Deaf people and psychological health - some preliminary findings. Deaf Worlds, 1 (13): 9–17.
    Risk Management Authority (2006) Annual report and accounts. Edinburgh: RMA.
    RitchieEC, WatsonPJ and FriedmanMJ (eds) (2006) Interventions following mass violence and disaster. New York: Guilford Press.
    RitchieJH, DickD and Lingham, R (1994) The report of the inquiry into the care and treatment of Christopher Clunis. London: HMSO.
    RutherfordRB, QuinnMM and MathurSR (eds) (2007) Handbook of research in emotional and behavioural disorders. Hove: Guilford Press.
    Rutter, M (1966) Children of sick parents: an environmental and psychiatric study, Institute of Psychiatry, audsley Monographs 16. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Rutter, M (1985) Resilience in the face of adversity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 598–611.
    Rutter, M (1990) Commentary: some focus and process considerations regarding the effects of parental depression on children. Developmental Psychology, 26, 60–7.
    Rutter, M (1995) Psychosocial adversity: risk, resilience and recovery. Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1 (2), 75–88.
    RutterM and Quinton, D (1984) Parental psychiatric disorder: effects on children. Psychological medicine, 14, 853–80.
    RutterM and Taylor, E (eds) (2005) Child and adolescent psychiatry.
    edition. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Saxena, S, Van Ommeren, M, TangKC and ArmstrongTP (2005) Mental health benefits of physical activity. Journal of Mental Health, 14 (5), 445–51.
    Scheyett, A, McCarthyE and Rausch, C (2006) Consumer and family views on evidence-based practices and adult mental health services. Community Mental Health Journal, 42 (3), 243–57.
    SchneidmanES (1996) The suicidal mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    ScoginF and Shah, A (2006) Screening older adults for depression in primary care settings. Health Psychology, 25 (6), 665–74.
    Scottish Executive (2000a) Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2000b) Serious violent and sexual offenders (The McLean Report). Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2000c) Our national health. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2001a) The same as you? A review of services for people with learning disability in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2001b) For Scotland's children: better integrated children's services. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2001c) New Directions: report on the review of the Mental Health (Scotland) Act 1984 (Millan Report). Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2002a) Choose Life: a national strategy and action plan to prevent suicide in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at
    Scottish Executive (2002b) It's everyone's job to make sure I'm alright‘: report of the Child Protection Audit and Review. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2003a) The framework for social work education in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2003b) ‘Mind the Gaps’: meeting the needs of people with co-occurring substance misuse and mental health problems. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2003c) Getting our priorities right: good practice guidance for working with children and families affected by substance misuse. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2003d) National programme for improving mental health and well-being. action plan 2003–2006. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2003e) Integrated care pathways: Guide 1 - Definitions and concepts. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2003f) Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2003g) Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2003. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2004a) Sharing information about children at risk: a brief guide to good practice. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at:
    Scottish Executive (2004b) Getting it right for every child: report on the responses to the phase one consultation on the review of the children's hearing system. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2005a) The new Mental Health Act - what's it all about? A short introduction. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive
    Scottish Executive (2005b) Reserved functions of the social worker. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2005c) The need for social work intervention. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2005d) The role of the social worker in the 21st century: a literature review. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2005e) The statutory social worker's role in prevention and early intervention with children. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2005f) Equal minds: addressing mental health inequalities in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2005g) The mental health of children and young people: a framework for promotion, prevention and care. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at:
    Scottish Executive (2005h) Getting it right for every child: Supporting paper 1: The process and content of an integrated framework and the implications for implementation. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2005i) Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003: Code of Practice (Vols 1–3). Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2005j) The Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 (Modification of Enactments Order) 2005. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2005k) Building a health service fit for the future (The Kerr Report). Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2005I) Child Health Support Group: inpatient working group-psychiatric inpatient services. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2005m) National strategy for the development of the social service workforce in Scotland: a plan for action 2005–2010. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2005n) Delivering for health. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2006a) Changing Lives: report of the 21st century social work review. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2006b) Co-morbid mental health and substance misuse in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2006c) Delivering for mental health. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2006d) Evaluation of the first phase of ‘Choose Life’: the national strategy and action plan to prevent suicide in Scotland: research findings (52/2006). Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2006e) Hidden Harm: Next Steps: supporting children - working with parents. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2006f) National quality standards for substance misuse services. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2006g) Key capabilities in child care and protection. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2006h) Getting it right for every child: draft Children's Services (Scotland) Bill Consultation. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2006i) Emergency care framework for children and young people in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2006j) Delivering for mental health: National mental health delivery plan, National standards for crisis services. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2006k) Joint response by the Scottish Executive, NHS Greater Glasgow and Glasgow City Council Social Work Department to the report of the inquiry into the care and treatment of Mr L and Mr M by the Mental Welfare Commission. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (20061) Rights, relationships and recovery: the National Review of Mental Health Nursing in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2006m) Memorandum of procedure on restricted patients. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2007a) The epidemiology of suicide in Scotland 1989–2004: an examination of temporal trends and risk factors at national and local levels. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2007b) Delivering for mental health: mental health and substance misuse: consultation draft. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executive (2007c) Delivering a healthy future: an action framework for children and young people's health in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at:
    Scottish Executive (2007d) Child and adolescent mental health services: primary mental health work. Guidance Note for NHS Boards/Community Health (and Social Care) Partnerships and other partners. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at:
    Scottish Executive (2007e) Increasing the availability of evidence-based psychological therapies in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at:
    Scottish Executive (2007f) Effective approaches to risk assessment in social work: an international literature review. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at: Summary report at:
    Scottish Executive (2007g) National evaluation of ‘Doing Well by People with Depression’ Programme. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Scottish Executiver (2007h) Multi-agency public protection arrangement.
    Scottish Executive (2007i) Revised care programme approach for restricted patients.
    Scottish Executive (2007J) Adult Support and Protection (Scotland) Act 2007.
    Scottish Executive (2007k) Circular No. JD/15/2006 (updated March 2007). Implementation of the multi-agency public protection arrangements in Scotland.
    Scottish Executive Education Department (2002) National evaluation of the New Community Schools Pilot Programme in Scotland Phase 1 (1999–2002). Edinburgh: SEED.
    Scottish Executive/HMIe (2006) Improving outcomes for children and young people: the role of schools in delivering integrated children's services. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive/HMIe. Available at:
    Scottish Office (1995) Criminal Procedures (Scotland) Act 1995. Edinburgh: HMSO.
    Scottish Office (1996) Scottish Office Circular SWSG16/9. Edinburgh: Scottish Office
    Scottish Office (1997a) Scotland's children: the Children (Scotland) Act 1995 Regulations and Guidance (Vols 1–4). Edinburgh: Scottish Office.
    Scottish Office (1997b) Framework for mental health services in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Office.
    Scottish Office (1998a) New community schools: the prospectus. Edinburgh: Scottish Office.
    Scottish Office (1998b) Implementing the care programme approach. Edinburgh: Scottish Office.
    Scottish Recovery Network (2007a) National conference report 2007. Glasgow: Scottish Recovery Network.
    Scottish Recovery Network (2007b) Realising Recovery: a national framework for learning and training in recovery focused practice. Edinburgh: NHS Education for Scotland.
    Scottish Social Services Council (2005) Code of practice for social services workers and employers. Dundee: SSSC.
    SearleJR (1995) The construction of social reality. London: Penguin.
    SempleM and Cable, S (2003) The new code of professional conduct. Nursing Standard, 17 (23), 40–8.
    ShawP and RapoportJL (2006) Decision making about children with psychotic symptoms: Using the best evidence in choosing a treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45 (11), 1381–86.
    SheaSC (2002) The practical art of suicide assessment: a guide for mental health professionals and substance abuse counsellors. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
    SheppardM and Kelly, N (2001) Social work practice with depressed mothers in child and family care. London: TSO.
    ShillingtonAM, ReedMB, LangeJE, ClappJD and Henry, S (2006) College undergraduate Ritalin abusers in south western California: Protective and risk factors. Journal of Drug Issues, 36 (4), 999–1014.
    SinclairR and Bullock, R (2002) Learning from past experience: a review of serious case reviews. London: DoH.
    Singh, I (2004) Doing their jobs: Mothering with Ritalin in a culture of mother-blame. Social Science and Medicine, 59 (6), 1193–1205.
    Smale, G, TusonG and Statham, D (2000) Social work and social problems. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Smalley, N, ScourfieldJ and Greenland, K (2005) Young people, gender and suicide. Journal of Social Work, 5 (2), 133–54.
    SmithPK, CowieH and Blades, M (2003) Understanding children's development.
    edition. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Social Work Services Inspectorate (2004) Investigations into Scottish Borders Council and NHS Borders services for people with learning disabilities: joint statement from the Mental Welfare Commission and the Social Work Services Inspectorate. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
    Somers, V (2006) Schizophrenia: the impact of parental illness on children. British Journal of Social Work. Advanced Access DOI:10.1093/bjsw/bc1083.
    SroufeLA, Egeland, B, CarlsonEA and CollinsWA (2005) The development of the person: the Minnesota Study of Risk and Adaptation from Birth to Adulthood. Hove: Guilford Press.
    Statham, D (ed) (2004) Managing front-line practice in social care. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    StyerDM (2006) An understanding of self-injury and suicide. Prevention Researcher, 13, 10–12.
    Swain, J, FrenchS and Cameron, C (2003) Controversial issues in a disabling society. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Swinton, J (2001) Spirituality and mental health care. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    SzaszTS (1972) The myth of mental illness. London: Paladin.
    SzaszTS (2003) Psychiatry and the control of dangerousness: on the apotropaic function of the term ‘mental illness’. Journal of Social Work Education, 39 (3), 375–81.
    Tew, J (2002) Going social: championing a holistic model of mental distress within professional education. Social Work Education, 21 (2), 143–55.
    Thompson, M, CooperM and HooperCM (2005) Child and adolescent mental health: theory and practice. London: Hodder Arnold.
    Thompson, N (2002) People skills.
    edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Thompson, N (2003) Communication and language. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Thompson, N (2005) Understanding social work: preparing for practice.
    edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    ThyerBA and WodarskiJS (eds) (2007) Social work in mental health: an evidence based approach. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
    Tietze, S, CohenL and Musson, G (2003) Understanding organisations through language. London: Sage.
    TiffinPA (2006) Managing psychotic illness in young people: a practical overview. Child and Adolescent Mental Health (Online Early Articles DOI: 10.1111/j.1475–3588.2006.00418.x).
    Ting, L, Sanders, S, JacobsonJM and PowerJR (2006) Dealing with the aftermath: a qualitative analysis of mental health social workers' reactions after a client suicide. Social Work, 51 (4), 329–41.
    Titterton, M (2004) Risk and risk taking in health and social welfare. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    TolmanAO (2005) Depression in adults: the latest treatment and assessment strategies. New York: Compact Clinicals.
    Trotter, C (1999) Working with involuntary clients. London: Sage.
    Tse FongLeung, T (2006) Accountability to welfare service users: challenges and responses of service providers. British Journal of Social Work (Advanced Access DOI:10.1093/bjsw/bcl351).
    TuckmanBW and JensenMC (1977) Stages of small group development revisited. Group and Organisational Studies, 2, 419–27.
    Tudor, K (1996) Mental health: paradigms and practice. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Tunnard, J (2004) Parental mental health problems: key messages from research, policy and practice. Dartington: Research in Practice.
    Turner, B (2002) Mad, bad or dangerous to know?New Scientist, 173, 30 March, 46–7.
    UlasM and Connor, A (1999) Mental health and social work: research highlights in social work 28. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    UsedaJD, DubersteinPR, ConnorKR, Beckman, A, Franus, N, TuX and Conwell, Y (2007) Personality differences in attempted suicide versus suicide in adults 50 years of age or older. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75 (1), 126–33.
    Vonnegut, M (1998) The Eden express: a memoir of insanity. London: Random House.
    Vostanis, P (ed) (2007) Mental health interventions and services for vulnerable children and young people. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Vygotsky, L (1978) Mind and society. The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Walker, S (2003a) Social work and child mental health: psychosocial principles in community practice. British Journal of Social Work, 33, 673–87.
    Walker, S (2003b) Working together for healthy young minds. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Walker, S (2003c) Social work and child and adolescent mental health. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    WalkerS and Beckett, C (2003) Social work assessment and intervention. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Wallwork, A (2007) Attention deficit discourse: Social and individual constructions. Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy, 7 (2), 69–84.
    WalshBW (2005) Treating self-injury: a practical guide. Hove: Guilford Press.
    Wanigaratne, S, Davis, P, PryceK and Brotchie, J (2005) The effectiveness of psychological therapies on drug misusing clients. London: National Treatment Agency.
    Warnock, M (1998) An intelligent person's guide to ethics. London: Gerald Duckworth.
    Webb, S (2006) Social work in a risk society. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    WebsterCD, DouglasKS, EavesD and HartSD (1997) HCR-20: Assessing risk for violence (Version 2). Burnaby, British Columbia: Mental Health, Law, & Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University.
    WeirA and Douglas, A (1999) Child protection and adult mental health: conflict of interest?Oxford: Reed.
    Westwood, S (2007) Suicide junkie. London: Chipmuna Publishing.
    Whittington, C (2003) Learning for collaborative practice with other professions and agencies. London: DoH.
    WolfeDA and MashEJ (eds) (2006) Behavioural and emotional disorders in adolescents. Hove: Guilford Press.
    Wolfensberger, W (1972) The principle of normalisation in human services. New York: NIMR.
    WoodhouseD and Pengelly, P (1991) Anxiety and the dynamics of collaboration. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.
    WoodsP and Kettles, A (eds) (2008) Risk assessment and management in mental health nursing. Oxford. Blackwell.
    Woolf, V (1925) Mrs Dalloway. London: Hogarth.
    WoolfsonRC, MooneyL and Bryce, D (2007) Young people's views on mental health education provided in schools, National Programme for Improving Mental Health and Well-Being. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. Available at:
    World Health Organisation (1992) The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Geneva: WHO.
    World Health Organisation (1998) 1997/1998 health behaviour in school-aged children: collaborative cross-national survey. Available at:
    World Health Organisation (2001) World health report, p11. Available at:
    World Health Organisation (2004) Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms. Geneva: WHO. Available at:
    YoungMinds (2003) Mental health services for adolescents and young adults. London: YoungMinds.
    YoungMinds (2004) Mental health in infancy. London: YoungMinds.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website