Social Welfare: Structure and Practice

Books

David Macarov

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: The Nature of Social Welfare

    Part II: Motivations for Social Welfare

    Part III: Influences on Social Welfare

    Part IV: Issues in Social Welfare

  • Dedication

    Dedicated to Charles I. Schottland and to the memory of Milton Wittman

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    Social welfare changes as society changes: Although certain aspects seem to remain constant, many others change, sometimes very rapidly. This book is an acknowledgment of both the constants and the changes in social welfare. It is a redesigned, rewritten, updated version of a textbook—The Design of Social Welfare—published in 1978 and now out of print. Permission to use some of the contents of that book has been graciously granted by the publishers, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

    As is true of every scholarly or scientific endeavor, “We may be pygmies, but we sit on the shoulders of giants.” Everyone who engages in writing owes an enormous debt to the writers, researchers, and teachers who have gone before. It is, truly, an irredeemable obligation, and one of which I am constantly mindful. Consequently, I have tried to recognize those persons or sources whom I have quoted directly; but I am unable to credit the myriads of people with whom I have spoken, whose lectures have informed me, and whose articles left deep impressions on me without my being aware of it at the time. I am also grateful to my students, who worked with me, challenged me, inspired me, and required me to put complex situations into understandable words. As the Ethics of the Fathers says: “Much have I learned from my teachers, but more have I learned from my students.”

    I nevertheless feel compelled to recognize the kindness of certain people in reading and commenting on what I have written, in helping me to locate sources, or in allowing me to quote from their published and unpublished works. These include Louise Skolnik, Mimi Abramovitz, Ralph Kramer, Leonard Schneiderman, Stuart Rees, and in particular, Armand Lauffer, whose extensive comments were extremely helpful.

    Because the proper role of educators is to clarify questions rather than to supply answers, I have tried to outline some of the complexities of social welfare without attempting to indicate in which directions my own preferences lie. I am aware that I have not always been successful in making this distinction, and I hope that readers will make allowances for this fallibility.

    David Macarov

    Introduction

    Social welfare is an enormous, varied, and complex institution. Changes in welfare policies, programs, and practices affect millions of people. Even experts have difficulty predicting the effects of what may at first seem to be relatively minor shifts in goals, methods, or activities. In the United States, social welfare has become so complex that entire fields of study are devoted exclusively to federal-state-local relationships and to each area of service, type of problem, and category of client. As needs constantly change, new agencies arise to deal with them. Here's just a sampling of the new volunteer agencies that have formed since the first edition of this book in 1978:

    MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving)

    OWL (Older Women's League)

    PWP (Parents Without Partners)

    PA (Parents Anonymous)

    SASG (Sexual Assault Support Group)

    ACOA (Adult Children of Alcoholics)

    GAIN (Greater Avenues to Independence)

    Mothers Without Custody

    Recovery

    Women for Sobriety

    New professional groups include ACORN (Association of Community Organizers for Reform Now), ACOSA (Association of Community Organizers and Social Administration), and AASWG (Association for Advancement of Social Work with Groups).

    As a result of its size and pervasiveness, today's social welfare system is often taken for granted. People don't think of the millions of fellow citizens who have been helped through a crisis or supported for long periods of inability to work. Neither do they usually consider those who collect social welfare payments not as a reward, but as a repayment. The media pay little attention to the health, education, or cultural attainments of social welfare programs, attainments that give legitimacy to welfare efforts.

    On the other hand, social welfare is constantly under fire from a number of directions. Those who design the programs and pay the bills invariably see social welfare as too costly. They may believe that it is destroying the moral fiber of recipients, including their incentive to work. Those who receive social welfare benefits criticize the low level of payments, the difficulty of working through the bureaucratic maze, and the stigma attached to accepting welfare payments. Most taxpayers, neither making the programs nor benefitting directly from them, see the system as clumsy, expensive, and inefficient—except when they, or a relative or friend, need to rely on welfare or Social Security payments.

    For social workers to practice within the existing welfare system, to use it properly to help their clients, to understand the reasons for criticisms, and—most important—to try to change it, they need insight into the deep-seated religious, moral, and ideological factors that created social welfare, as well as the political, economic, and social realities that shape it. Any change, no matter how small, must be reconciled with these forces if it is to succeed. Consequently, traditional methods of studying social welfare must be supplemented by an examination of the organizing concepts that inform the whole.

    This book deals with a number of those concepts. The intention is to illuminate (a) some of the major motivations resulting in social welfare policies, programs, and practices; (b) some important attitudes, values, and beliefs that influence the resulting structure; and (c) some contemporary problems.

    Structure of This Book

    This book is divided into four parts. To summarize briefly, Part I includes a thumbnail sketch of social welfare, both historically and in its modern U.S. incarnation. It also describes the human needs or problems social welfare is designed to solve.

    Part II consists of eight chapters examining the major motivations that gave rise to social welfare. These include the desire to engage in mutual aid, religious beliefs, political factors, economic reasons, and various ideologies that affect social welfare.

    Constantly acting on this congeries of motivations is a series of attitudes and beliefs that can be traced back to, or identified with, certain seminal philosophers. Part III includes two chapters that describe some of these important influences. The morality attached to work can be traced in large part to the influence of Martin Luther. Charles Darwin's “survival of the fittest” has been transmuted to apply to social institutions and to individuals, rather than to species, in the form of Social Darwinism. As a result of Adam Smith's laissez-faire economic theory, social welfare is often viewed as unwarranted interference by the government in the economic system.

    In Part IV, some of the salient contemporary challenges to social welfare are outlined: permanent poverty, ubiquitous unemployment, changes in the welfare state, and efforts at welfare reform.

    The future of social welfare is discussed in the final chapter.

    Definitions and Terminology

    Social welfare is not an easy concept to define. Like all definitions, it is beset with the problem of infinite regression—every word in the definition is itself subject to further definition, as is every word in that definition, and so on, ad infinitum.

    For example, one published definition of social welfare consists of only ten words—”Social welfare policy is collective strategy to address social problems”1—but this is followed by three pages defining collective, strategy, social, and problems. Indeed, the very words social and welfare are subject to many interpretations. The Encyclopedia of Social Work traces the term social welfare to the beginning of the twentieth century but notes that it was “never clearly defined.” For clarity, the following definition, derived from a definition in The Social Work Dictionary, will be used throughout this book:

    Social welfare is a nation's system of programs, benefits, and services that help meet those psychological, social, and economic needs that are fundamental to the well-being of individuals and society.

    Note that this definition speaks of people in general, not just the needy and disadvantaged, and that health and education are included. Also, the well-being of society, not just individuals, is social welfare's goal.

    This book deals with social welfare as an institution: an amalgam of money, manpower, and material providing a wide range of services, from public assistance for the poor, to care for the mentally retarded, to aid and support for the elderly. However, most of the chapters are involved with policies more than practice. Policies include both goals—the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) aims to sustain children growing up in poverty—and rules governing implementation—an AFDC policy requires that the assisted child must live in the home of a relative.

    Social welfare policies are implemented through social welfare programs carried out by social workers. Social workers usually hold a bachelor's or master's degree in social work, and they are certified by the state in which they practice. Most are members of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW). In 1991, NASW had more than 130,000 members. About 30,000 undergraduates were studying social work full time, and another 20,000 had proceeded to graduate work.2

    Style Used

    Finally, a word about style. Readers will find no parenthetical names and dates interspersed in the text to indicate sources of information, because these tend to distract from comfortable reading. A sprinkling of notes will provide the sources of direct quotations and statistical material, and a table, Read More About It, at the end of each chapter will direct readers to other works dealing more specifically with the chapter's topics. Both the notes and the tables are supplemented by a master reference list at the book's end. Newspaper articles are referenced by author or title when available.

    Notes

    1. The definition is from Jansson (1984).

    2. The statistics are from the following sources: on NASW members, from “Data Study” (1993); numbers of students, from Council on Social Work Education (1992).

    Read more about it …
    For more information on:See these sources:
    New social welfare organizationsPerlmutter, 1988
    Definitions of social welfareBarker, 1991; Leiby, 1987; Rescher, 1972; Titmuss, 1974
  • References

    Abramovitz, M. (1988). Regulating the lives of women: Social welfare policy from colonial times to the present. Boston: South End Press.
    Abramovitz, M. (1989) Everyone is on welfare: “The role of redistribution in social policy” revisited. In I.C.Colby (Ed.), Social welfare policy: Perspectives, patterns, insights (pp. 34–46). Chicago: Dorsey.
    Abramovitz, M. (1992). Spreading the word about low-income women's activism: Challenging the myths of welfare reform. New York: Hunter College.
    Abramovitz, M. (1993) Question: Is the social welfare system inherently sexist and racist? Answer: Yes. In H.J.Karger & J.Midgley (Eds.), Controversial issues in social policy. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
    Adler, P. (1970) The 1943 Zoot-Suit riots: Brief episode in a long conflict. In M.P.Servin (Ed.), The Mexican Americans: An awakening minority (pp. 124–142). Beverly Hills, CA: Glencoe.
    Allardt, E. (1973) A welfare model for selecting indicators of national development. Policy Sciences, 4(1), 63–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01404933
    Altmeyer, A.J. (1966). The formative years of social security. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Ambassade de France, (n.d.). Social security and national health insurance in France. New York: Author.
    American Association of Retired Persons. (1985). A profile of older Americans 1985. Washington, DC: Author.
    Anthony, P. (1978). The ideology of work. London: Social Science Paperback.
    Aponte, R., Neckerman, K.M., & Wilson, W.J. (1985). Race, family structure, and social policy (Working paper 7: Race and policy). Washington, DC: National Conference on Social Welfare.
    Aptekar, H.H. (1967) The values, functions, and methods of social work. In An intercultural exploration: Universals and differences in social work values, functions, and practice (pp. 3–59). New York: Council on Social Work Education.
    Aquilino, W.S. (1990). Unlaunched adult children and parental well-being. Madison: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology.
    Aquirre, B.E., & Marshall, M.G. (1988) Training family daycare providers using self-study written and video materials. Child and Youth Care Quarterly, 47, 115–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01261354
    Arab Information Center. (1965). The Arab world. New York: Author.
    Ardrey, R. (1966). The territorial imperative. New York: Delta.
    Ardrey, R. (1976). The hunting hypothesis. New York: Atheneum.
    Atherton, C.R. (1990) A pragmatic defense of the welfare state against the ideological challenge from the right. Social Work, 35(1), 41–45.
    Atherton, C.R. (1992) A pragmatic approach to the problem of poverty. Social Work, 37(3), 197–201.
    Attlee, D.R. (1920). The social worker. London: Bell.
    Away from politics. (1993, June 19). International Herald Tribune, p. 3.
    Axinn, J., & Levin, H. (1975). Social welfare: A history of the American response to need. New York: Dodd, Mead.
    Babuscio, J. (1988). We speak for ourselves: The experiences of gay men and lesbians. London: SPCK.
    Bachrach, P., & Baratz, M.S. (1970). Power and poverty: Theory and practice. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Back, K.W. (1989). Family planning and population control: The challenges of a successful movement. Boston: Twayne.
    Ball, R.M. (1978). Social security today and tomorrow. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Bane, M.J. (1980) Toward a description and evaluation of United States family policy. In J.Aldous & W.Dumon (Eds.), The politics and programs of family policy. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    Bankoff, E.A. (1983) Aged parents and their widowed daughters: A support relationship. Journal of Gerontology, 38, 226–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/38.2.226
    Barker, R.L. (1991). The social work dictionary. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Barnett, S.A. (1921). Canon Barnett: His life, work, and friends. London: Murray.
    Barretta-Herman, A. (1992). Biculturalism and monetarism: Restructuring New Zealand's social services. Paper presented at the 26th International Congress of Schools of Social Work, Washington, DC.
    Barringer, F. (1993, May 9). So who are we? Ethnic pride confounds the census. The New York Times, p. 2IE.
    Barton, L. (1991) A cross-cultural comparison of child care as an employer-provided benefit. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 11(5), 34–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb013141
    Bell, D. (1960). The end of ideology. New York: Free Press.
    Bell, W. (1987). Contemporary social welfare. New York: Macmillan.
    Belous, R.S. (1989) How human resource systems adjust to the shift toward contingency workers. Monthly Labor Review, 112, 7–12.
    Bendick, M. (1985). Privatizing the delivery of social welfare service (Working paper 6: Privatization). Washington, DC: National Council on Social Welfare.
    Benington, J. (1992) Local strategies to combat poverty and unemployment in the UK. INUSW Newsletter, 21, 2–6.
    Benson, R.S., & Wolman, H. (Eds.). (1971). A blueprint for changing national priorities. New York: Praeger.
    Berger, G. (1976) Strengths and limitations in present attempts at preparing workers for Jewish communal service. In G.Berger (Ed.), Innovation by tradition: Articles on Jewish communal life. New York: Federation of Jewish Philanthropies.
    Berger, J. (1989, June 18). Study of welfare clients says trade schools fail. The New York Times, p. A1.
    Berkowitz, E.D. (1989) Wilbur Cohen and American social reform. Social Work, 34, 293–299.
    Berrick, J.D. (1991) Welfare and child care: The intricacies of competing social values. Social Work, 36(4), 345–351.
    Bertman, S.L. (1991). Facing death: Images, insights, and interventions. New York: Hemisphere.
    Beveridge, W.H. (1930). Unemployment. New York: Longmans, Green.
    Beveridge, W.H. (1942). Social insurance and allied services. New York: Macmillan.
    Bird, C. (1966). The invisible scar. New York: Pocket Books.
    Birenbaum, A., & Sagarin, E. (1972). Social problems: Private troubles and public issues. New York: Scribners.
    Bixby, A.K. (1992) Public social welfare expenditures, fiscal year 1989. Social Security Bulletin, 55(2), 61–62.
    Black, B.J. (1965) Vocational rehabilitation. In Encyclopedia of social work. New York: National Association of Social Workers.
    Blau, J. (1992). A paralysis of social policy?Social Work, 37(6), 558–562.
    Bluhm, W.T. (1974). Ideologies and attitudes: Modern political culture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Boodman, S.G. (1992, July 28). The enduring legacy of deprivation. Washington Post (Health section), p. 16.
    Brenton, M. (1985) Privatisation and voluntary sector social services. In C.Jones & M.Brenton (Eds.), Yearbook of social policy research. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Brieland, D. (1975). Contemporary social work. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Briggs, A. (1965) The welfare state in historical perspective. In M.N.Zald (Ed.), Social welfare institutions (pp. 37–90). New York: John Wiley.
    British Information Services. (1975). Social services in Britain. New York: Author.
    Brocas, A-M., Cailloux, A-M., & Oget, V. (1990). Women and social security: Progress towards equality of treatment. Geneva: International Labour Office.
    Brody, E.M. (1981) Women in the middle and family help to older people. The Gerontologist, 21, 471–480. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/21.5.471
    Brody, J.A., Cornoni-Huntley, J., & Patrick, C.H. (1981) Research epidemiology as a growth industry at the National Institute on Aging. Public Health Reports, 96, 269–273.
    Brosse, T. (1950) Altruism and creativity as biological factors in human evolution. In P.A.Sorokin (Ed.), Exploration in altruistic love and behavior. Boston: Beacon.
    Brown, J.C. (1940). Public relief 1929–1939. New York: Holt.
    Browning, R.X. (1986). Politics and social welfare policy in the United States. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
    Buckingham, W. (1961). Automation. New York: Mentor.
    Burghardt, S., & Fabricant, M. (1987) Radical social work. In A.Minahan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Burkhauser, R.V. (1978). Are women treated fairly in today's social security system?Madison: University of Wisconsin, Institute for Research on Poverty.
    Callahan, D. (1991) Abortion in a pluralistic society. In B.S.Kogan (Ed.), A time to be born and a time to die. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    Callicutt, J.W. (1987) Mental health services. In A.Minahan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.
    Calloway, M.D. (1976) Men, machines, and social security. Black Aging, 1, 20–22.
    Campbell, J. (Ed.). (1971). The portable Jung. New York: Viking.
    Cannon, H.G. (1959). Lamarck and modern genetics. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Carabine, J. (1992) “Constructing women”: Women's sexuality and social policy. Critical Social Policy, 12(1), 23–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026101839201203402
    Carlton-LaNey, I. (1992) Elderly Black farm women: A population at risk. Social Work, 37(6), 517–523.
    Carrera, J. (1987) Aid to families with dependent children. In A.Minahan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Carroll, B.J., Conant, R.M., & Easton, T.A. (Eds.). (1987). Private means, public ends: Private business in social service delivery. New York: Praeger.
    Cates, J.R. (1983). Insuring inequality. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Census bureau ups 65+ population estimates. (1993). AARP Bulletin, 34(2), 3.
    Cetron, M., & Davies, O. (1991) Trends shaping the world. The Futurist, 25(5), 11–21.
    Cetron, M., & O’toole, T. (1982). Encounters with the future: A forecast of life into the 21st century. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Charles, S., & Webb, A. (1986). The economic approach to social policy. Brighton: Wheatsheaf.
    Charnow, J. (1943). Work relief experience in the United States. Washington, DC: Social Science Research Council.
    Chatterjee, Farkas investigate fiscoholism. (1992). In MSASS Action. Cleveland: Case Western Reserve University.
    Chen, Y-P. (1985) Economic status of the aging. In R.H.Binstock & E.Shanas (Eds.), The handbook of aging and the social sciences. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    Cherrington, D.J. (1980). The work ethic: Working values and values that work. New York: Amacom.
    Chesler, E. (1992). Woman of valor: Margaret Sanger and the birth control movement in America. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Chilman, C.S., Nunnally, E.W., & Cox, F.M. (Eds.). (1988). Variant family forms. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Clark, L.L. (1984). Social Darwinism in France. University: University of Alabama Press.
    Clarke, J., Cochrane, A., & Smart, C. (1987). Ideologies of welfare: From dreams to disillusion. London: Hutchinson.
    Cloward, R.A., & Piven, F.F. (1975) The acquiescence of social work. Social Science and Modern Society, 14, 55–63.
    Code of Federal Regulations, Public Welfare, Parts 200 to 499. (1974) Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register, General Services Administration.
    Colcord, J. (1936). Cash relief. New York: Russell Sage.
    Colborn, D. (1992a, July 28). Medicaid—a safety net with some holes. Washington Post (Health section), p. 19.
    Colborn, D. (1992b, July 28). A vicious cycle of risk. Washington Post (Health section), p. 10.
    Colborn, D. (1992c, July 28). Who is poor?Washington Post (Health section), p. 12.
    Coleman, J.S. (1959). Community conflict. New York: Free Press.
    Coll, B.D. (1969). Perspectives in public welfare. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
    Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs. (1975). Giving in America: Toward a stronger voluntary sector. Washington, DC: Author.
    Compendium of social statistics and indicators—1988. (1991) New York: United Nations.
    Conference Board. (1985). The working woman: A progress report. New York: Author.
    Congressional Budget Office. (1987). Workfare—introduction. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Connell, S. (1987) Homelessness. In A.Minahan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Constantelos, D. (1968). Byzantine philanthropy and social welfare. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Constantino, C. (1981) Intervention with battered women: The lawyer-social worker team. Social Work, 26(6), 456–460.
    Conze, E. (1959). Buddhism: Its essence and development. New York: Harper & Row.
    Cooke, K. (1988) The costs of unemployment. In R.Walker & G.Parker (Eds.), Money matters: Income, wealth and financial welfare (pp. 81–98). London: Sage.
    Coughlin, B.J. (1965). Church and state in social welfare. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Council on Social Work Education. (1992). Statistics on social work education in the United States, 1991. Alexandria, VA: Author.
    Cunningham, R.L. (1964). The philosophy of work. New York: National Association of Manufacturers.
    Current operating statistics. (1977, April). Social Security Bulletin, 40, 83–84.
    Cutler, D., Bigelow, D., & McFarland, B. (1992). The cost of fragmented health financing: Is it worth it?Community Mental Health Journal, 28(2), 121–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00754279
    Cutright, P. (1965) Political structure, economic development, and national social security programs. American Journal of Sociology, 70, 537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/223930
    Darwin, C.The orgin of the species. (1959) London: Murry.
    Darwin, F. (1888). The life and letters of Charles Darwin. New York: Appleton.
    Data study shows a “greening” of NASW. (1993). NASWNews, 38(2), 12.
    Davis, K. (1984) Wives and work: The sex role revolution and its consequences. Population and Development Review, 10, 397–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1973512
    Davis, M.F., & Abramovitz, M. (1992, May 21). The myth that welfare policies don't work. Christian Science Monitor, p. 19.
    Dear, R.B. (1989) What's right with welfare? The other face of AFDC. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 16(2), 5–44.
    Demographic yearbook, 1951. (1953) New York: United Nations.
    Demographic yearbook, 1987. (1989) New York: United Nations.
    Demographic yearbook, 1989. (1991) New York: United Nations.
    Demographic yearbook, 1990. (1991) New York: United Nations.
    Demographic yearbook, 1991. (1992) New York: United Nations.
    DeParle, J. (1992, July 8). When giving up welfare for a job doesn't pay. The New York Times, pp. 1, 15.
    DeParle, J. (1993, November 7). Debris of past failures impedes poverty policy. The New York Times, p. 2IE.
    DeParle, J. (1994, March 6). Gauging workfare's employability. The New York Times, p. 21E.
    Department of Health and Social Security. (1986). Client access to records: Current and future practice. London: Author.
    Department of Public Welfare. (1962). Social welfare in Thailand. Bangkok: Ministry of the Interior.
    deSchweinitz, K. (1943). England's road to social security. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    DiNitto, D.M., & Dye, T.R. (1987). Social welfare: Politics and public policy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Dixon, J. (1984). Prospectus. Canberra: International Fellowship for Economic and Social Development.
    Dixon, J. (Ed.). (1987a). Social welfare in Africa. London: Routledge.
    Dixon, J. (Ed.). (1987b). Social welfare in the Middle East. London: Routledge.
    Dixon, J. (1992) China. In J.Dixon & D.Macarov (Eds.), Social welfare in socialist countries. London: Routledge.
    Dixon, J., & Kim, H.S. (Eds.). (1985). Social welfare in Asia. London: Routledge.
    Dixon, J., & Macarov, D. (Eds.) (1992a). Social welfare in socialist countries. London; Routledge.
    Dixon, J., & Macarov, D. (1992b). Preface In J.Dixon & D.Macarov (Eds.), Social welfare in socialist countries. London: Routledge.
    Dixon, J., & Scheurell, R. (Eds.). (1990). Social welfare in developed market countries. London: Routledge.
    Dixon, J., & Scheurell, R. (Eds.). (1991). Social welfare in Latin America. London: Routledge.
    Dixon, S.L. (1987). Working with people in crisis. Toronto: Merrill.
    Doolittle, F.C. (1987) Social welfare financing. In A.Minahan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Doron, A. (1990) Definition and measurement of poverty. Social Security: Journal of Welfare and Social Security Studies, 2, 27–49.
    Douglas, E.T. (1970). Margaret Sanger: Pioneer of the future. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Doyal, L., & Gough, I. (1991). A theory of human need. London: Macmillan.
    Drachman, D., & Halberstadt, A. (1992) A stage migration framework applied to recent Soviet èmigrès. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 2(1), 63–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J285v02n01_05
    Drucker, H.M. (1974). The political uses of ideology. New York: Barnes & Noble.
    Drucker, P.F. (1973) Why service institutions do not perform. In P.F.Drucker (Ed.), Management: Tasks, responsibilities, practices. New York: Harper & Row.
    Dugdale, R.L. (1970). The Jukes: A study in crime, pauperism, disease, and heredity. New York: Arno.
    Eagle, E. (1960) Charges for care and maintenance in state institutions for the mentally retarded. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 65, 199.
    Eckardt, R.W Jr., (1974). Evangelical Christianity and professional social work: A study of the beliefs and practices of the social work majors of Philadelphia College of the Bible and Temple University. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
    Economic and Social Council. (1992). Social development questions: Social development. New York: United Nations.
    The economy—but many are left behind. (1993, January 31). The New York Times, p. IE5.
    Eddy, J.P., Lawson, D.M., Jr., & Stilson, D.C. (1983). Crisis intervention: A manual for education and action. New York: University Press.
    Eekelaar, J. (1978). Family law and social policy. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
    Eisenberg, R., Gwatkin, S., & Tracy, E. (1991) Exploring the Jewish roots of voluntarism: A seminar for Jewish big brothers and big sisters. Journal of Jewish Communal Service, 68(1), 24–30.
    Ellwood, D.T. (1989). Poor support: Poverty in the American family. New York: Basic Books.
    Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 5. (1971) Jerusalem: Keter.
    Encyclopedia of Social Work. (1987) Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Enkes, S. (1967, May/June). The economic case for birth control in underdeveloped nations. Challenge Magazine.
    Erikson, E.H. (1958). Young man Luther: A study in psychoanalysis and history. New York: Norton.
    Estes, R.J. (Ed.). (1992). Internationalizing social work education: A guide to resources for a new century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
    Etzioni, A. (1964). Modern organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Evaluation of family planning in health services. (1975) Geneva: World Health Organization.
    Experts consultation on planning the welfare mix. (1986) Vienna: European Centre for Social Welfare Training and Research.
    Faris, E. (1930). Intelligent philanthropy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Feder, L.H. (1936). Unemployment relief in periods of depression. New York: Russell Sage.
    Feine, Z. (1974). Interagency collaboration in drug rehabilitation. Richmond: Virginia Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation.
    Feingold, S.N. (1991) The Futurist quiz. The Futurist, 25(5), 54.
    Ferkiss, V.C. (1969). Technological man: The myth and the reality. New York: Mentor.
    Ferris, J.M., & Graddy, E. (1989) Fading distinctions among the nonprofit, government, and for-profit sectors. In V.A.Hodgkinson & R.W.Lyman (Eds.), The future of the nonprofit sector (pp. 123–139). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Field, F. (1977) Making sense of the unemployment figures. In F.Field (Ed.), The conscript army. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Field, M.G. (1953) Structured strain in the role of the Soviet physician. American Journal of Sociology, 63, 493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/221202
    Finch, J. (1989) Social policy, social engineering and the family in the 1990s. In M.Bulmer, J.Lewis, & R.Piachaud (Eds.), The goals of social policy. London: Unwin Hyman.
    Fink, A.E. (1974). The field of social work. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    First, R.J., & Toomey, B.G. (1989) Homeless men and the work ethic. Social Service Review, 63(1), 113–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/603681
    Fisher, G.M. (1992) Poverty guidelines for 1992. Social Security Bulletin, 55(1), 43–46.
    Fitzpatrick, J.P. (1971). Puerto Rican Americans: The meaning of migration to the mainland. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Fogarty, J.P. (1962). Hearings. Subcommittee of the committee on appropriations, House of Representatives, 87th Congress, 2nd session. Washington, DC: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
    Folsom, M.B. (1965) Measures to reduce poverty. In M.S.Gordon (Ed.), Poverty in America. San Francisco: Chandler.
    Fowles, D. (1983) The changing older population. Aging, 339, 6–11.
    Francome, C. (1986). Abortion practice in Britain and the United States. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Frank, J. (1992, September 7). Reports: Poverty spreads in US. Jerusalem Post, p. 8.
    Frederico, R.C. (1973). The social welfare institution: An introduction. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.
    Freud, S. (1958). Civilization and its discontents. New York: Paperback.
    Friedman, M. (1962). Capitalism and freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Friedman, P.R. (1974) The mentally handicapped citizen and institutional labor. Harvard Law Review, 87, 567–587. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1339954
    Furstenberg, F.F., Jr., & Spanier, G.B. (1984). Recycling the family: Remarriage after divorce. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    The future of work: Consultation report. (1989) Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development. Futurist, The. (1989). 23(6).
    Gabor, D. (1971). Inventing the future. New York: Knopf.
    Galper, J.H. (1975). The politics of social services. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Galper, J.H. (1980). Social work practice: A radical perspective. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Gans, H.J. (1995). The war against the poor: The underclass and antipoverty policy. New York. Basic Books.
    Garraty, J.A. (1978). Unemployment in history: Economic thought and public policy. New York: Harper & Row.
    Garrison, K.C., & Jones, R.F. (1969). The psychology of human development. Scranton, PA: International Textbook.
    Gauthier, M. (1992) Follow the dirt road. Bulletin of the International Communal Studies Association, 11, 25.
    Gelb, J., & Palley, M.L. (1982). Women and public policies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    General Services Administration. (1974). Code of federal regulations: Public welfare, parts 200 to 499. Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register.
    Gilbert, D. (1973) The changing work ethic and rehabilitation. Journal of Rehabilitation, 39, 14–17.
    Gilbert, N., & Gilbert, B. (1989). The enabling state. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Gilbert, N., & Specht, H. (1974). Dimensions of social welfare policy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Ginzberg, E., Williams, T., & Dutka, A. (1989). Does job training work? The client speaks out. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Ginzberg, L.D. (1990). Women and the work of benevolence: Morality, politics, and class in the nineteenth-century United States. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Glassman, U., & Kates, L. (1990). Group work: A humanistic approach. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Glennerster, H. (1992). Paying for welfare in the 1990s. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Glennerster, H., & Midgley, J. (Eds.). (1991). The radical right and the welfare state. Savage, MD: Barnes & Noble.
    Glick, P.C. (1984) Marriage, divorce, and living arrangements. Journal of Family Issues, 5, 7–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251384005001002
    Goddard, H.H. (1973). The Kallikak family: A study in the heredity offeeble-mindedness. New York: Arno. (Original work published 1912)
    Goldman, E.F. (n.d.). Rendezvous with destiny: A history of modern American reform. New York: Vintage.
    Goldsen, R.K. (1950). Puerto Rican journey. New York: Harper & Row.
    Goldston, R. (1968). The Great Depression: The United States in the thirties. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett.
    Goodin, R.E. (1985) The priority of needs. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 45, 615–625. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2107570
    Goodin, R.E. (1988). Reasons for welfare: The political theory of the welfare state. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Goodwin, L. (1972). Do the poor want to work? A social-psychological study of work orientations. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
    Gormley, W.T., Jr. (1991) The privatization controversy. In W.T.Gormley, Jr. (Ed.), Privatization and its alternatives (pp. 3–16). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Gottlieb, N. (1987) Sex discrimination and inequality. In A.Minahan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Gouldner, A.W. (1969). The Hellenic world: A sociological analysis. New York: Harper & Row.
    Graham, J.J. (1970). The enemies of the poor. New York: Random House.
    Greenberg, D., & Wiseman, M. (1992) What did the OBRA demonstrations do? In C.F.Manski & I.Garfinkel (Eds.), Evaluating welfare and training programs (pp. 25–75). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Greenstreet, R.L. (1988). Cost-effective alternatives in alcoholism treatment. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Greif, G.L. (1990). The daddy track and the single father: Coping with kids, housework, a job, an ex-wife, a social life, and the courts. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Greve, R.M., & Gladstone, A. (1983) Framework paper. In D.Gaudart, R.M.Greve, & A.Gladstone (Eds.), Changing perceptions of work in industrialized countries: Their effect on and implications for industrial relations. Geneva: International Institute of Labour Studies.
    Griffiths, D. (1974). The waiting poor: An argument for abolition of the waiting period on unemployment and sickness benefits. Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia: Brotherhood of Saint Laurence.
    Griswold v. Connecticut. 381 U.S. 479 (1965).
    Gronjberg, K.A. (1990) Poverty and nonprofit organizational behavior. Social Service Review, 64, 208–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/603760
    Gross, A.M. (1978). The use of cost effectiveness analysis in calculating the cost of providing alternative living environments for the elderly and mentally retarded. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA.
    Gueron, J.M., & Long, D.A. (1990) Welfare employment policies in the 1980s. In L.A.Ferman, M.Hoyman, J.Cutcher-Gershenfield, & E.J.Savoie (Eds.), New developments in worker training: A legacy for the 1990s (pp. 191–223). Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association.
    Guest, G. (1989) The boarding of the dependent poor in colonial America. Social Service Review, 63(1), 92–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/603680
    Gun control vs. jobs. (1992, July 7). The New York Times, p. B5.
    Gurin, C., & Gurin, P. (1976) Personal efficacy and the ideology of individual responsibility. In B.Strumpel (Ed.), Economic means for human needs: Social indicators of well-being and discontent. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Gustafsson, B., & Lindblom, M. (1993) Poverty lines and poverty in seven European countries, Australia, Canada, and the USA. Journal of European Social Policy, 3(1), 21–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095892879300300102
    Gutman, H.G. (1976). Work, culture, and society in industrializing America. New York: Knopf.
    Guttmacher, A.F. (1968) Family planning: Humanism and science. In F.Haselkorn (Ed.), Family planning and the role of social work. Garden City, NY: Adelphi University School of Social Work.
    Habib, J. (1985) The economy and the aged. In R.H.Binstock & E.Shanas (Eds.), The handbook of aging and social sciences. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    Habib, J., & Lerman, R. (1976). Alternative benefit formulas in support programs for the aged. Jerusalem: Brookdale Institute.
    Hagen, J.L. (1992). Women, work, and welfare: Is there a role for social work?Social Work, 37(1), 9–14.
    Hall, K. (1984). How shall we ever get them back to work?International Journal of Manpower, 5, 24–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb044954
    Hampden-Turner, C. (1975). From poverty to dignity. Garden City, NY: Anchor.
    Handler, J.E. & Hollingsworth, E.J. (1971). The “deserving poor”: A study in welfare administration. New York: Academic Press.
    Hansen, M.L. (1964). The immigrant in American history. New York: Harper & Row.
    Hardcastle, D.A. (1978) Aging now and in the future. Journal of Social Welfare, 5, 41–49.
    Hardy, T. (1869). Far from the madding crowd. New York: H.A. Winston.
    Hareven, T.K. (1974) Societal problems. In C.A.Chambers (Ed.), A century of concern: 1873–1973. Columbus, OH: National Conference on Social Welfare.
    Harper, R.F. (1955) The code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon. In J.Bartlett (Ed.), Familiar quotations. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Harrington, M. (1963). The other America. New York: Macmillan.
    Hartman, A. (1990) Aging as a feminist issue. Social Work, 35(5), 387–388.
    Hasebroek, J. (1933). Trade and politics in ancient Greece. London: Bell.
    Hatch, S. (Ed.). (1980). Mutual aid and social and health care. London: Bedford Square.
    Hatch, S., & Hinton, T. (1986). Self-help in practice: A study of Contact a Family, community work, and family support. Sheffield, UK: Joint Unit for Social Services Research.
    Heap, K. (1966) The scapegoat role in youth groups. Case Conference, 12, 215.
    Heaton, T.B. (1984) Religious homogamy and marital satisfaction reconsidered. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 46, 729–733. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352615
    Heilbroner, R.L. (1953). The worldly philosophers. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Herbert, B. (1993, August 8). The 6.8% illusion. The New York Times, p. IE7.
    Herman, A.S. (1989) Productivity continued to rise in many industries in 1987. Monthly Labor Review, 112, 13–20.
    Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and the nature of man. Cleveland: World.
    Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B.B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley.
    Herzberg, W. (1955). Protestant, Catholic, and Jew: An essay in American religious sociology. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Hill, D. (1992) The American philosophy of welfare: Citizenship and the “politics of conduct.” Social Policy and Administration, 26(2), 117–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.1992.tb00370.x
    Hoffer, E. (1969). Working and thinking on the waterfront. New York: Harper & Row.
    Hoffman, I.L. (1958). The concept of need in social work. St. Paul, MN: Wilder Foundation.
    Hofstadter, R. (1944). Social Darwinism in American thought. Boston: Beacon Press.
    Hokenstad, M.D. (1992) Cross-national trends and issues in social service provision and social work practice for the elderly. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 12(1/2), 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J083V12N01_01
    Holgersson, L., & Lundstrom, S. (1975). The evolution of Swedish social security. Stockholm: The Swedish Institute.
    Hollingsworth, J.R., & Hollingsworth, E.J. (1986). A comparison of non-profit, for-profit, and public hospitals in the United States: 1935 to the present (Working paper #113, Program on Nonprofit Organizations). New Haven, CT: Yale University, Institution for Social and Policy Studies.
    Holmes, T.R., & Hokenstad, M.C. (1991) Mental health services: An international perspective. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 18(2), 5–24.
    Holtzman, A. (1963). The Townsend movement. New York: Bookman.
    Homans, G.C. (1951). The human group. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Horowitz, D., & Kolodny, D. (1969) The foundations: Charity begins at home. Ramparts, 7, 39–48.
    House of Lords. (1981). Report of the House of Lords Select Committee on Unemployment. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Howard, D.S. (1943). The WPA and federal relief policy. New York: Russell Sage.
    Huff, D.D. (1992) Upside-down welfare. Public Welfare, 50(1), 36–40.
    Hugo, V. (1965). The hunchback of Notre Dame. London: Dent.
    Hunger amid the plenty. (1993, March 7). The New York Times, p. IE5.
    Hunnicutt, B.K. (1990, January 4). Are we all workaholics?Wall Street Journal.
    Hurwitz, D.S. (1987) Retirement and pension plans. In A.Minahan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (pp. 507–512). Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    International Labour Office. (1970). Introduction to social security: A workers’ education manual. Geneva: Author.
    International Labour Office. (1991). Yearbook of labour statistics. Geneva: Author.
    Jackson, J.E. (1989) Choosing institutions. Institute for Social Research Newsletter, 16, 7–9.
    Jacobsen, T. (1965) Babylonia and Assyria. In W.E.Preece (Ed.), Encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 2, pp. 951–979). London: Benton.
    Jacobson, T. (1992). The oppression of benevolence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jaffe, A.J., & Froomkin, J. (1968). Technology and jobs: Automation in perspective. New York: Praeger.
    James, E. (1975) Income and employment effects of women's liberation. In C.B.Lloyd (Ed.), Sex, discrimination, and the division of labor. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Jansson, B.S. (1984). Theory and practice of social welfare policy: Analysis, processes, and current issues. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Jehle, F.F. (1991). The complete & easy guide to social security and medicare, with sections on disability and SSI programs. Madison, CT: Fraser.
    Johnson, A.B. (1990). Bedlam: The truth about deinstitutionalization. New York: Basic Books.
    Johnson, L.C, & Schwartz, C.L. (1991). Social welfare: A response to human need. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Johnson, N. (1989) The privatization of welfare. Social Policy and Administration, 23, 17–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.1989.tb00493.x
    Joint Economic Committee. (1980). The cost of racial discrimination. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Jolly, D., & Gerbaud, I. (1992). The hospital of tomorrow. Geneva: World Health Organization.
    Jones, E.F., Farina, A., Hastorf, A.H., Markus, H., Miller, D.T., & Scott, R.A. (1984). Social stigma: The psychology of marked relationships. New York: Freeman.
    Jones, L. (1992) The full employment myth: Alternative solutions to unemployment. Social Work, 37, 359–364.
    Jonzon, B. (1991) Labour market policy and manpower provision in the Swedish model. In C.de Neubourg (Ed.), The art of full employment (pp. 439–451). North-Holland, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers.
    Joravsky, D. (1970). The Lysenko affair. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Jorns, A. (1969). The Quakers as pioneers in social work. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith.
    Joseph, J.A. (Ed.). (1989). The charitable impulse: Wealth and social conscience in communities and culture outside the United States. New York: The Foundation Center.
    Judge, K., & Knapp, M. (1985) Efficiency in the production of welfare: The public and private sectors compared. In R.Klein & M. O'Higgins (Eds.), The future of welfare. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.
    Kagan, S.L., Powell, D.R., Weissbourd, S., & Zigler, E.F. (1987). American's family support programs: Perspectives and prospects. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Kahn, A.J. (1973). Social policy and social services. New York: Random House.
    Kahn, S. (1991). Organizing: A guide for grass-roots leaders. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Kamerman, J.B. (1988). Death in the midst of life: Social and cultural influences on death, grief, and mourning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Kamerman, S.K., & Kahn, A.J. (1978). Family policy: Government and families in fourteen countries. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Kamm, P.S. (1991). Remarriage in the middle years and beyond. San Leandro, CA: Bristol.
    Kane, R.A., & Kane, R.L. (1991, August 28). Time to rethink the nursing home. The New York Times, p. 6IE.
    Kaplan, J. (1975). Leisure: Theory and policy. New York: John Wiley.
    Kaplan, M. (1960). Leisure in America: A social inquiry. New York: John Wiley.
    Karger, H.J., & Stoesz, D. (1989). The future of American social welfare. New York: Longmans.
    Kasarda, J.D. (1989, January). Urban industrial transition and the underclass. The Annals (AAPSS), 501, 26–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716289501001002
    Kateb, G. (1963). Utopia and its enemies. New York: Schocken.
    Kates, R.W., & Millman, S. (1990) On ending hunger: The lessons of history. In L.F.Newman, W.Crossgrove, R.W.Kates, R.Matthews, & S.Millman. (Eds.), Hunger in history: Food shortage, poverty, and deprivation (pp. 389–407). Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.
    Katz, A.H., & Bender, E.I. (1990). Helping one another: Self-help groups in a changing world. Oakland, CA: Third Party Publishing.
    Katz, M.B. (1986). In the shadow of the poorhouse: The social history of welfare in America. New York: Basic Books.
    Kelly, P. (1992) The application of family systems theory to mental health services for southeast Asian refugees. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 2(1), 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J285v02n01_01
    Kendrick, J.W. (1979) Productivity trends and the recent slowdown. In W.E.Fellner (Ed.), Contemporary economic problems. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.
    Kennedy, D.M. (1970). Birth control in America: The career of Margaret Sanger. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Kerbo, H.R., & Shaffer, R.A. (1992) Lower class insurgency and the political process: The response of the U.S. unemployed, 1890–1940. Social Problems, 39(2), 139–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3097034
    Kershaw, J.A. (1965) The attack on poverty. In M.S.Gordon (Ed.), Poverty in America. San Francisco: Chandler.
    Kilpatrick, A.C., & Holland, T.P. (1990) Spiritual dimensions of practice. The Clinical Supervisor, 8(2), 125–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J001v08n02_10
    King, S.S. (1979, May 1). Doctors say federal food plans have slashed gross malnutrition. The New York Times, p. B9.
    Kivisto, P., & Blanck, D. (Eds.). (1990). American immigrants and their generations: Studies and commentaries on the Hansen thesis after fifty years. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
    Kluegel, J.R., & Smith, E.R. (1986). Beliefs about inequality: Americans'views of what is and what ought to be. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    Kogut, A., & Aron, S. (1980) Toward full employment policy: An overview. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 7, 85–99.
    Kohler, K. (1903) Charity. In I.B.Singer (Ed.), The Jewish encyclopedia (Vol. 3). New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
    Kohs, S.C. (1966). The roots of social work. New York: Association Press.
    Kotz, N. (1971). Let them eat promises. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Kraft, L., & Bernheimer, C.J. (1954). Aspects of the Jewish Community Center. New York: National Association of Jewish Center Workers.
    Kramer, R. (1981). Voluntary agencies in the welfare state. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Kramer, R. (1993). Reflections on the voluntary nonprofit sector in Israel: An international perspective. Paper delivered as the Arnulf M. Pins Memorial Lecture, Paul Baerwald School of Social Work, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem.
    Kropotkin, P. (1925). Mutual aid: A factor in evolution. New York: Knopf.
    Kumpke, T. (1986). Works organization in the post-industrial company. Paper delivered at the conference on New Technologies and the Future of Work, European Centre for Work and Society, Maastricht.
    Kurland, P.B. (1974) The judicial road to social welfare. Social Service Review, 48, 481–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/643178
    Kurtz, L.F. (1990) The self-help movement: Review of the past decade of research. Social Work with Groups, 13(3), 101–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J009v13n03_11
    Kus, R.J. (Ed.). (1990). Keys to caring: Assisting your gay and lesbian clients. Boston: Alyson.
    Kuttner, R. (1994, June 19). The welfare perplex. The New York Times, p. IE7.
    Lader, L. (1955). The Margaret Sanger story and the fight for birth control. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Lamm, R.D. (1982) Why the U.S. closed its border. The Futurist, 16, 4–8.
    LaPiere, R.T. (1934) Attitudes versus actions. Social Forces, 13, 230–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2570339
    Law and population, (n.d.). New York: United Fund for Population Activities.
    Leahy, W.H. (1976) An economic perspective of public employment programs. Review of Social Economics, 34, 198.
    Leary, D.T. (1970) Race and regeneration. In M.P.Servin (Ed.), The Mexican-Americans: An awakening minority (pp. 13–27). Beverly Hills, CA: Glencoe.
    Lee, J.A.B., & Swenson, C.R. (1986) The concept of mutual aid. In A.Gitterman & L.Shulman (Eds.), Mutual aid groups and the life cycle. Itasca, IL: Peacock.
    Lee, P., & Raban, C. (1983) Welfare and ideology. In M.Loney, D.Boswell, & J.Clarke (Eds.), Social policy and social welfare. London: Open University Press.
    Leiby, J. (1987) History of social welfare. In A.Minahan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (pp. 755–777). Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Leichter, H., & Mitchell, W. (1967). Kinship and casework. New York: Russell Sage.
    Leisure company opens. (1991, June 25). Jerusalem Post, p. 6.
    Lens, S. (1969). Poverty: America's enduring paradox. New York: Crowell.
    Lerner, M. (1971) Respectable bigotry. In M.Friedman (Ed.), Overcoming middle-class rage. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.
    Leuchtenberg, W.E. (1963). Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal. New York: Harper & Row.
    Levinson, A. (1980). The full employment alternative. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghehan.
    Levitan, S.A. (1985). Programs in aid of the poor. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Levitas, R. (1990). The concept of Utopia. New York: Philip Allan.
    Lewis, O. (1966) The culture of poverty. Scientific American, 2/5(19).
    Lieberman, S., & Black, D. (1987) Loss, mourning and grief. In A.Bentovim, G.G.Barnes, & A.Cooklin (Eds.), Family therapy: Complementary frameworks of theory and practice (pp. 251–266). London: Academic Press.
    Lingg, B.A. (1990) Women beneficiaries aged 62 or older, 1960–1988. Social Security Bulletin, 53, 2–12.
    Lipsey, M.W. (1984). Is delinquent prevention a cost-effective strategy?Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 21(4), 279–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427884021004002
    Loewenberg, F.M. (1992) Ideology or pragmatism? Further reflections on voluntary and public sector relations in the nineteenth century. Nonprofit and Voluntary Section Quarterly, 21, 119–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089976409202100203
    Loewenberg, F.M., & Dolgoff, R. (Eds.). (1972) Preface. In The practice of social intervention: Goals, roles, and strategies. Itasca, IL: Peacock.
    Longman, P.J. (1990) Financing the future: Is social security the problem or the solution? In H.J.Aaron (Ed.), Social security and the budget. New York: University Press.
    Lorenz, K. (1971). On aggression. New York: Bantam.
    Lubove, R. (1973). The professional altruist: The emergence of social work as a career—1880–1930. New York: Atheneum.
    Ludington, N. (1993, May 12). World population growing at record rate. Jerusalem Post, p. 5.
    Macarov, D. (1968). Report of an evaluative study of the statewide information and consultation service. New York: State Communities Aid Association.
    Macarov, D. (1970a). The concept of empathy and the educational process. Applied Social Studies, 2, 107.
    Macarov, D. (1970b). Incentives to work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Macarov, D. (1975) The Israeli community center during the Yom Kippur war. Journal of Jewish Communal Service, 51, 340.
    Macarov, D. (1977a). Ambiguities and misconceptions in public attitudes toward the poor: An Israeli example. Unpublished manuscript, Paul Baerwald School of Social Work, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem.
    Macarov, D. (1977b). Political ideologies and social welfare. International Social Work, 20, 44–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002087287702000208
    Macarov, D. (1977c). Social welfare as a by-product: The effect of neo-mercantilism. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 4, 1135–1144.
    Macarov, D. (1978a). The design of social welfare. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Macarov, D. (1978b). Empathy: The charismatic chimera. Journal of Education for Social Work, 14, 86–92.
    Macarov, D. (1980). Work and welfare: The unholy alliance. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Macarov, D. (1982). Worker productivity: Myths and reality. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Macarov, D. (1985) Planning for a probability: The almost workless world. International Labour Review, 123, 629–642.
    Macarov, D. (1987a). Caution, confidentiality and concealment: Thoughts on clients’ access to personal records. Paper delivered at International Expert Meeting on Client Access to Personal Social Services Records, European Centre for Social Welfare Training and Research, Anugraha, Egham/Surrey, United Kingdom.
    Macarov, D. (1987b). Israel. In J.Dixon (Ed.), Social welfare in the Middle East (pp. 32–70). London: Routledge.
    Macarov, D. (1987c). Social workers’ attitudes toward work with the aged. Paper delivered at the European Regional Group Meeting, International Association of Schools of Social Work, Sitges, Spain.
    Macarov, D. (1988a). Quitting time: The end of work. Patrington, Hull, UK: MCB University Press.
    Macarov, D. (1988b). Reevaluation of unemployment. Social Work, 33, 23–28.
    Macarov, D. (1988c). The work personality: A neglected element in research. International Journal of Manpower, 3, 2–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb044910
    Macarov, D. (1989). The service society: Knowledge, ignorance, hopes and fears. Paper delivered at the Fourth World Congress, International Society for Social Economics, Toronto.
    Macarov, D. (1991a). Certain change: Social work practice in the future. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Macarov, D. (1991b). Full employment is neither feasible nor desirable. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 11(1/2/3), 171–191.
    Macarov, D. (1993). Self-reliance versus entitlement programs: Or, where should we put the deck-chairs on the Titanic!International Social Work, 36, 133–141.
    Macarov, D., Akbar, A., Kulkarni, D.V., & Wertheimer, M. (1967) Consultants and consultees: The view from within. Social Service Review, 41(3), 283–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/642121
    Macarov, D., & Fradkin, G. (1973). The short course in development training. Ramat-Gan, Israel: Massada.
    Macarov, D., & Meller, J. (1985) Studying satisfactions in human service organizations: An exploration. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 5, 1–15.
    Macarov, D., & Meller, J. (1986a). Research in progress: Studying social workers’ satisfactions. Social Work Education, 5, 26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02615478611220331
    Macarov, D., & Meller, J. (1986b). Social workers’ satisfactions: Methodological notes and substantive findings. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 13, 740–760.
    Macarov, D., & Rothman, B. (1977). Confidentiality: A constraint on research?Social Work Research and Abstracts, 13, 16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/swra/13.3.11
    Macarov, D., & Yanay, U. (1974). A study of centers for discharged reservists. Jerusalem: Ministry of Labour.
    Macaulay, J., & Berkowitz, L. (Eds.). (1970). Altruism and helping behavior: Social psychological studies of some antecedents and consequences. New York: Academic Press.
    MacDonald, D. (1963, January 16). Our invisible poor. New Yorker.
    Machlowitz, M.M. (1981). Workaholics: Living with them, working with them. New York: Mentor.
    Maclver, R.M. (1948) Introduction. In F.Gross (Ed.), European ideologies. New York: Philosophical Library.
    MacKay, R.C., Hughes, J.R., & Carver, E.J. (Eds.). (1990). Empathy in the helping relationship. New York: Springer.
    Manchester, W. (1973). The glory and the dream: A narrative history of America, 1932–1972. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Mandelbaum, A. (1977) Mental health and retardation. In J.B.Turner (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.
    Manser, G. (1987) Volunteers. In A.Minahan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (pp. 842–851). Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    March, M.S., & Newman, E. (1971) Financing social welfare: Governmental allocation procedures. In Encyclopedia of social work. New York: National Association of Social Workers.
    Marcus, S. (1965) Hunger and ideology. In M.N.Zald (Ed.), Social welfare institutions. New York: John Wiley.
    Marland, S.P., Jr., (1974). Career education: A proposal for reform. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Marmor, T.D., Mashaw, J.L., & Harvey, P.L. (1990). America's misunderstood welfare state: Persistent myths, enduring realities. New York: Basic Books.
    Marshall, T.H. (1965). Social policy. London: Hutchinson.
    Martin, J.M. (1966). Lower-class delinquency and work programs. New York: New York University Press.
    Maslow, A.H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.
    Maton, K.I., & Pargament, K.I. (1991) Towards the promised land: Prospects for religion, prevention, and promotion. Prevention in Human Services, 70(1), 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J293v10n01_01
    Matthews, A. (Ed.). (1989). Privatizing criminal justice. London: Sage.
    Maududi, A.A. (1974). Birth control: Its social, political, economic, moral and religious aspects. Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications.
    Mayadas, N.S., & Elliott, D. (1992) Integration and xenophobia: An inherent conflict in international migration. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 2(1), 47–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J285v02n01_04
    Mayo, E. (1933). The human problems of an industrial civilization. New York: Macmillan.
    McAll, C. (1990). Class, ethnicity, and social inequality. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.
    McFarland, K. (1957) Why men and women get fired. Personnel Journal, 25, 307.
    McKillip, J. (1987). Need analysis; Tools for the human services and education. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    McKinlay, J.B. (1978) The limits of human service. Social Policy, 8, 29–34.
    McMillan, A., & Bixby, A.K. (1980) Social welfare expenditures, fiscal year 1978. Social Security Bulletin, 43, 3–17.
    McWilliams, C. (1970) The borderlands are invaded. In M.P.Servin (Ed.), The Mexican-Americans: An awakening minority (pp. 30–54). Beverly Hills, CA: Glencoe.
    Measuring poverty. (1985) Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office.
    Meier, E.L., Dittman, C.C., & Toyle, B.B. (1980). Retirement income goals. Washington, DC: President's Commission on Pension Policy.
    Meiss, K.A. (1991). Work, welfare, and social workpractice. Stockholm: School of Social Work, Stockholm University.
    Mendelssohn, K. (1977). The riddle of the pyramids. London: Sphere.
    Menzies, K. (1992). The enabling state: Welfare and the creation of the possibility of participation. Ontario, Canada: University of Guelph.
    Methods of adjusting to automation and technological change, (n.d.). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.
    Michielse, H.C.M., & vanKrieken, R. (1990) Policing the poor: J.L. Vives and the sixteenth century origins of modern social administration. Social Service Review, 64(1), 1–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/603739
    Middleman, R.R., & Goldberg, G. (1974). Social service delivery: A structural approach to social work practice. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Miles, I. (1985). Social indicators for human development. London: Pinter.
    Miller, B.C., Card, J.J., Paikoff, R.L., & Peterson, J.L. (Eds.). (1992). Preventing adolescent pregnancies. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Miller, H. (1961) Government's role in social welfare. In B.J.Coughlin (Ed.), Church and state in social welfare. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Minahan, A. (Ed.). (1987). Encyclopedia of social work. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Ministry of Health. (1988). How to avoid heart disease. Jerusalem: Author.
    Mishra, R. (1990). The welfare state in capitalist society: Policies of retrenchment and maintenance in Europe, North America, and Australia. New York: Harvester Wheatleaf.
    Mitchell, D. (1992) Welfare states and welfare outcomes in the 1980s. International Social Security Review, 45(1/2), 73–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-246X.1992.tb00904.x
    Mollison, A. (1991, September 18). Report paints depressing picture of widespread poverty in America. Atlanta Journal and Constitution, p. Bl.
    Morgan, L.A. (1984) Changes in family interaction following widowhood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 46, 323–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352464
    Morner, M. (1970) First meeting of the races in America. In M.P.Servin (Ed.), The Mexican-Americans: An awakening minority (pp. 2–27). Beverly Hills, CA: Glencoe.
    Moroney, R.M. (1991). Social policy and social work: Critical essays on the welfare state. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    Morris, R. (1986). Rethinking social welfare: Why care for the stranger?New York: Longman.
    Morris, R. (1987) Re-thinking welfare in the United States: The welfare state in transition. In R.R.Friedmann, N.Gilbert, & M.Sherer (Eds.), Modern welfare states: A comparative view of trends and prospects. New York: New York University Press.
    Moskowitz, J. (1989) Increasing government support for nonprofits: Is it worth the cost? In V.A.Hodgkinson & R.W.Lyman (Eds.), The future of the nonprofit sector: Challenges, changes, and policy considerations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Moss, P., & Fonda, N. (1980). Work and the family. London: Temple Smith.
    Moynihan, D.P. (1967, February 5). The case for a family allowance. The New York Times Magazine, pp. 13, 68–73.
    Moynihan, D.P. (1973). The politics of a guaranteed income: The Nixon administration and the family assistance plan. New York: Vintage.
    Munday, B. (1987). Client access to personal social services records (Eurosocial reports No. 30). Vienna: European Centre for Social Welfare Training and Research.
    Murphy, R (1993, June 21). When saving the family only makes matters worse. International Herald Tribune, p. 6.
    Murray, C. (1984). Losing ground: American socialpolicy—1950–1980. New York: Basic Books.
    Murray, C. (1988). In pursuit of happiness and good government. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Myles, J. (1989). Old age in the welfare state: The political economy of public pensions. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
    Nanavatty, S.M.C. (1992) Reflections on ICSW [Special issue]. ICSWInformation, 12, 14.
    Near, H. (1992). The kibbutz movement: A history, origins and growth, 1909–1939. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Netting, F.E., McMurty, S.L., Kettner, P.M., & Jones-McClintic, S. (1990) Privatization and its impact on nonprofit service providers. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 19(1), 33–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089976409001900105
    New York State Department of Social Services. (1976). How I found a way to eat better for less money. Albany: Author.
    Nichols-Casebolt, A.M., & McClure, J. (1989) Social work support for welfare reform: The latest surrender in the war on poverty. Social Work, 34(1), 77–80.
    Niebuhr, R. (1932). The contribution of religion to social work. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Nisbet, R. (1973). The social philosophers: Community and conflict in Western thought. New York: Crowell.
    Norman, A. (1982). Mental illness in old age: Meeting the challenge. London: Centre for Policy on Aging.
    Norman, C. (1981) The new industrial revolution: How microelectronics may change the workplace. In J.O'toole, J.L.Schreiber, & L.C.Woods (Eds.), Working: Changes and choices. New York: Human Sciences Press.
    Norris, D.F., & Thompson, L. (1995). The politics of welfare reform. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
    Norton, A.J., & Glick, P.G. (1986) One-parent families: A social and economic profile. Family Relations, 35(1), 177–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584277
    Norton, M. (1989). Raising money from trusts. London: Directory of Social Change.
    O'Donnell, E.J., & Reid, O.M. (1971) The multiservice neighborhood center: Preliminary findings from a national survey. Welfare in Review, 9, 1.
    Oettinger, K.B., & Stansbury, J.D. (1972). Population and family planning: Analytical abstracts for social work educators and related disciplines. New York: International Association of Schools of Social Work.
    Offner, P. (1992). JOBS: How are we doing? Where are we going?Public Welfare, 50(3), 8–12.
    Oliner, S.P., & Oliner, P.M. (1988). The altruistic personality: Rescuers of Jews in Nazi Europe. New York: Free Press.
    Olsson, S. (1987) Towards a transformation of the Swedish welfare state. In R.R.Friedmann, N.Gilbert, & M.Sherer (Eds.), Modern welfare states: A comparative view of trends and prospects. New York: New York University Press.
    Orfield, G. (1985). Race and the federal agenda: The loss of the integrationist dream, 1965–1974 (Working paper No. 7: Race and policy, pp. 1–43). Washington, DC: National Conference on Social Welfare.
    Orshansky, M. (1965a). Counting the poor: Another look at the poverty profile. In L.A.Ferman, J.L.Kornbluh, & A.Haber (Eds.), Poverty in America. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Orshansky, M. (1965b). Who's who among the poor. Social Security Bulletin, 28(3).
    Ostrander, S.A. (1989) The problem of poverty and why philanthropy neglects it. In V.A.Hodgkinson & R.W.Lyman (Eds.), The future of the nonprofit sector: Challenges, changes, and policy considerations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Ozawa, M.E. (1989) Conclusions. In M.E.Ozawa (Ed.), Women's life cycle and economic insecurity: Problems and proposals. New York: Praeger.
    Pack, J.R. (1991) The opportunities and constraints of privatization. In W.T.Gormley, Jr. (Ed.), Privatization and its alternatives (pp. 281–306). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Packard, M.D. (1990) The earnings test and the short run work response to its elimination. Social Security Bulletin, 53, 2–16.
    Page, R.M. (1984). Stigma. London: Routledge.
    Palfrey, C., Phillips, C., & Thomas, P. (1991). Efficiency, economy, and the quality of care. Norwich, CT: Social Work Monographs.
    Palmer, G.H. (1970). Altruism: Its nature and varieties. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Palmer, S., & Humphrey, J.A. (1990). Deviant behavior: Patterns, sources, and control. New York: Plenum.
    Pampel, F.C., & Williamson, J.B. (1989). Age, class, poltics and the welfare state. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511557781
    Papadakis, E., & Taylor-Gooby, P. (1987). The private provision of public welfare. New York: St. Martin's.
    Parmar, S.L. (1970). What good is economic betterment?CERES, 3, 21.
    Patterson, J.T. (1986). America's struggle against poverty—1900–1985. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Paul, N.L., & Miller, S.J. (1986) Death and dying and the multigenerational impact. In M.A.Karpel (Ed.), Family resources: The hidden partner in family therapy. New York: Guilford.
    Payne, S. (1991). Women, health, and poverty: An introduction. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Pear, R. (1993, October 10). Poverty 1993: Bigger, deeper, younger, getting worse. The New York Times, p. IE4.
    Pearson, K. (1912). Darwinism, medical progress and eugenics. London: University College.
    Pechman, J.A., & Timpane, P.M. (Eds.). (1975). Work incentives and income guarantees: The New Jersey negative income tax experiment. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
    Peck, E., & Senderowitz, J. (1974). Pronatalism: The myth of Mom and apple pie. New York: Crowell.
    Pelletier, K.R. (1983, September 8). The hidden hazards of the modern office. The New York Times.
    Perlmutter, F.M. (Ed.). (1988) Alternative social agencies: Administrative strategies [Special issue]. Administration in Social Work, 12(2).
    Persons, S. (1959) Darwinism and American culture. In S.Persons, The impact of Darwininan thought on American life and culture. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Persson, I. (Ed.). (1990). Generating equality in the welfare state: The Swedish experience. Oslo, Norway: Universitetsforlaget.
    Peterson, D.A. (1990) Personnel to serve the aging in the field of social work: Implications for educating professionals. Social Work, 35(5), 412–415.
    Petrovich, J. (1989) The future of Hispanics and philanthropy. In V.A.Hodgkinson & R.W.Lyman, (Eds.), The future of the nonprofit sector: Challenges, changes, and policy considerations (pp. 237–247). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Pierson, C. (1991). Beyond the welfare state?Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
    Pimlott, J.A.R. (1935). Toynbee Hall. London: Dent.
    Piven, F.F. (1971) Federal interventions in the cities: The new urban programs as a political strategy. In E.O.Smigel (Ed.), Handbook on the study of social problems. Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Plunkert, L.M. (1990) The 1980s: A decade of job growth and industry shifts. Monthly Labor Review, 113, 3–16.
    Powell, T.J. (1987). Self-help organizations and professional practice. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Prabhupada, A.C.B. (1972). The perfection of Yoga. Los Angeles: International Center for Krishna Consciousness.
    Price, C. (1969) The study of assimilation. In J.A.Jackson (Ed.), Migration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Quinney, R. (1975) The future of crime. In A.Inciardi & H.A.Siegel (Eds.), Emerging social issues: A sociological perspective. New York: Praeger.
    Rada, J. (1980). The impact of micro-electronics. Geneva: International Labour Office.
    Rafter, N.H. (1992) Claims-making and socio-cultural context in the first U.S. eugenics campaign. Social Problems, 39(1), 17–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3096909
    Raichele, D.R. (1980) The future of the family. In F.Feather (Ed.), Through the ‘80s: Thinking globally, acting locally. Bethesda, MD: World Future Society.
    Raiklin, E. (1990) The colours and dresses of racism in America [Special issue]. International Journal of Social Economics, 17(7/8). http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000000453
    Rankin, M. (1983). Strategies for mutual support among unemployed people. Paper delivered at Third World Congress, International Society for Social Economics, Fresno, CA.
    Ranks of poor, uninsured are continuing to grow. (1992). AARP Bulletin, 33(9), 13.
    Raskin, A.H. (1976, October 8). Shorter workweek: A new breakthrough. The New York Times, p. 14.
    Reasoner, S.H., & Mercer, S.O. (1991) Catastrophic health care bill: A postmortem. Gerontological Social Work, 18(1/2), 39–53.
    Rees, S. (1992, July 18–22). Responding to economic rationalism by developing social justice: The priority issue in enhancing empowerment. Paper delivered at the 12th International Symposium of the International Federation of Social Workers, Washington, DC.
    Regan, P. (1989) Unemployment in Lancaster and Morecambe. International Journal of Manpower, 10, 20–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000000853
    Reich, R.B. (1983) An industrial policy for the right. The Public Interest, 7, 3–17.
    Rein, M. (1982) Work in welfare: Past failures and future strategies. Social Service Review, 56, 211–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/644015
    Reingold, J., Wolk, R.L., & Schwartz, S. (1972) Attitudes of adult children whose aging parents are members of a sheltered workshop. Aging and Human Development, 3, 331–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/JCX5-0Y3D-TC0A-YTK8
    Reischauer, R.D. (1989) The welfare reform legislation: Directions for the future. In P.H.Cottingham & D.T.Ellwood (Eds.), Welfare policy for the 1990s. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Reports on elder abuse, effectiveness of reporting laws, and other factors. (1991) Washington, DC: General Accounting Office.
    Rescher, N. (1972). Welfare: The social issues in philosophical perspective. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh.
    Reuben, S.C. (1987). But how will you raise the children?New York: Pocket Books.
    Reubens, B.G. (1989) Unemployment insurance in the United States and Europe, 1973–1983. Monthly Labor Review, 112, 22–31.
    Riccio, J., & Friedlander, D. (1992) GAIN and the prospect of JOB's success. Public Welfare, 50(3), 22–32.
    Rich, D.Z. (1989). The economics of welfare: A contemporary analysis. New York: Praeger.
    Richan, W.C. (1987). Beyond altruism: Social welfare policy in American society. New York: Haworth.
    Richardson, J. (1976). Food stamp program reform: 94th Congress. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.
    Ringer, B.B. (1983). We the people and others: Duality and America's treatment of its racial minorities. London: Tavistock.
    Ringer, B.B., & Lawless, E.R. (1989). Race, ethnicity, and society. London: Routledge.
    Roach, S.S. (1993, March 14). The new majority: White-collar jobless. The New York Times, p. IE7.
    Roberts, P., & Schulzinger, R. (1988). Family support policy: A state advocacy guide for combatting poverty. Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.
    Robinson, J.P. (1991) How Americans use time. The Futurist, 25(5), 23–25.
    Rodman, H. (1950) On understanding lower class behavior. Social and Economic Studies, 8, 441.
    Roe v. Wade. 410 U.S. 113 (1973).
    Roethlisberger, F.A., & Dickson, W.J. (1939). Management and the worker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Rogers, G. (1980). Pension coverage and vesting among private wage and salary workers in 1979. Washington, DC: Office of Research and Statistics, Social Security Administration.
    Rose, N.E. (1989) Work relief in the 1930s and the origins of the Social Security Act. Social Service Review, 63(1), 83–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/603679
    Rosenheim, M.K. (1969). Shapiro v. Thompson: “The beggars are coming to town.”Supreme Court Review, vol. 303.
    Ross-Sheriff, F. (1990) Displaced populations. In L.Ginsberg, S.Khinduka, J.A.Hall, F.Ross-Sheriff, & A.Hartman (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social work (18th ed., 1990 Supplement, pp. 78–93). Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Rothman, D.J. (1971). The discovery of the asylum: Social order and disorder in the new republic. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Rothman, S.M. (1977, January-February). Sterilizing the poor. Social Science and Modem Society, 514, 36–40.
    Roueche, B. (1965). Eleven blue men. New York: Berkley.
    Rubin, G.E. (1992) The multicultural curriculum: Why Jews are concerned. Journal of Jewish Communal Service, 68(3), 210–218.
    Rubinow, I.M. (1966) What do we owe to Peter Stuyvesant? In R.Morris & M.Freund (Eds.), Trends and issues in Jewish social welfare in the United States, 1899–1952. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America.
    Rue, V.M. (1973) A U.S. Department of Marriage and the Family. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 35, 89–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/350882
    Ryan, W. (1974) Blaming the victim: Ideology serves the establishment. In P.Roby (Ed.), The poverty establishment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Sadan, S. (1993, March 18). Shetreet blasts Namir's “immediate jobs” program. Jerusalem Post, p. 2.
    Saha, A. (1990) Traditional Indian concept of time and its economic consequences. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 10(7), 58–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb013118
    Saha, A. (1992) Basic human nature in Indian tradition and its economic consequences. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 72(1/2), 1–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb013156
    Saint George (Szent Gyorgy), A. (1970). The crazy ape. New York: Philosophical Library.
    Salaman, L. (1987). Of market failure, voluntary failure, and third party government. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
    Salmond, J.A. (1967). The CCC, 1933–1942: A NewDeal case study. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Saltzman, A., & Proch, K. (1990). Law in social work practice. Chicago: NelsonHall.
    Sands, R.G., & Nuccio, K. (1992) Postmodern feminist theory and social work. Social Work, 37(6), 489–494.
    Sanger, M. (1938). Margaret Sanger: An autobiography. New York: Norton.
    Savas, E.S. (1987). Privatization: The key to better government. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Press.
    Savin-Williams, R.C. (1990). Gay and lesbian youth: Expressions of identity. New York: Hemisphere.
    Scheler, M.F. (1954). The nature of sympathy. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Schermerhorn, R.A. (1970). Comparative ethnic relations. New York: Random House.
    Schindler, R. (1980) Mutual aid as mutual exclusion in the development of welfare services—the case of Israel. International Social Work, 23(3), 48–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002087288002300306
    Schindler-Rainman, E. (1992, Spring). Values in a changing world: Challenges and choices. The Journal of Volunteer Administration, pp. 6–9.
    Schlesinger, A., Jr. (1967) The welfare state. In C.I.Schottland (Ed.), The welfare state. New York: Harper & Row.
    Schneiderman, L. (1992). The American welfare state: A family perspective. Paper delivered at the International Conference on Social Welfare, Seoul, Korea.
    Schorr, A.L. (1960). Filial responsibility in the modern American family. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Schorr, A.L. (1965a). Income maintenance and the birth rate. Social Security Bulletin, 28, 2.
    Schorr, A.L. (1965b). Social security and social services in France. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Schottland, C.I. (1963). The social security program in the United States. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Schottland, C.I. (1974) The changing roles of government and family. In P.E.Weinberger (Ed.), Perspectives on social welfare: An introductory anthology. New York: Macmillan.
    Schulz, J.H. (1992) “Poverty level”—Worn-out words to hide the truth. AARP Bulletin, 33(3), 18.
    Schwartz, E.E. (1963) A way to end the means test. Social Work, 4(3).
    Schwartz, G.G., & Neikirk, W. (1983). The work revolution. New York: Rawson.
    Scott, R.F. (1970) The Zoot-Suit riots. In M.P.Servin (Ed.), The MexicanAmericans: An awakening minority (pp. 116–124). Beverly Hills, CA: Glencoe.
    Secretaries of State for Health, Social Security, Wales and Scotland. (1989). Caring for people: Community care in the next decade and beyond. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Security for America's children: A report from the annual conference of the National Academy of Social Insurance. (1992). Social Security Bulletin, 55(1), 57–62.
    Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Need, U.S. Senate. (1975). Who gets food stamps?Washington, DC: Goverment Printing Office.
    Service Directory of National Voluntary Health and Social Welfare Organizations. (1974) New York: National Assembly of National Voluntary Health and Social Welfare Organizations.
    SESI: Procedures and Objectives, (n.d.). Rio de Janeiro: Cediv Coordenacao de Eventos e Divulgacao.
    Sethuraman, S.V. (1985) Basic needs and the informal sector: The case of low-income housing in developing countries. Habitat International, 9, 299–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0197-3975(85)90065-7
    Shapiro v. Thompson. 394 U.S. 618 (1969).
    Shapiro, T.M. (1985). Population control politics: Women, sterilization, and reproductive choice. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Sharp, A.M., Register, C.A., & Leftwich, R.H. 1992). Economics of social issues. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
    Sheldon, S. (1978). Bloodline. London: Fontana.
    Shemmings, D. (1991). Client access to records: Participation in social work. Aldershot, UK: Avebury.
    Sheridan, M.J., Bullis, R.K., Adcock, C.R., Berlin, S.D., & Miller, P.C. (1992) Practitioners’ personal and professional attitudes and behaviors toward religion and spirituality: Issues for education and practice. Journal of Education for Social Work, 28(2), 190–203.
    Sherraden, M. (1988) Rethinking social welfare: Toward assets. Social Policy, 18(3).
    Sherraden, M. (1991a). Assets and the poor: A new American welfare policyNew York: Sharpe.
    Sherraden, M. (1991b). Full employment and social welfare policy. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 77(1/2/3), 192–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb013133
    Sherraden, M., & Sherraden, M.S. (1991) One type of youth employment service: Non-military service in Canada and Mexico. In D.Macarov (Ed.), Persisting unemployment: Can it be overcome?Patrington, Hull, UK: MCB University Press.
    Sicron, M. (1986). How many unemployed are there in Israel?Paper delivered at the annual meeting of Israel Industrial Relations Association, Barilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.
    Silverstone, B., & Burack-Weiss, A. (1983). Social work practice with the frail elderly and their families. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Simon, B.L. (1992) U.S. immigration policies, 1798–1992: Invaluable texts for exploring continuity and change in racism and xenophobia. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 2(2), 53–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J285v02n02_05
    Smith, A. (1937). The wealth of nations. New York: Modern Library.
    Smith, A.D. (1955). The right to life. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    Smith, H.W. (1989) Corporate contributions to the year 2000: Growth or decline? In V.A.Hodgkinson & R.W.Lyman (Eds.), The future of the nonprofit sector. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Social Security at a glance. (1992). Social Security Bulletin, 55(2), 129.
    Social Security Bulletin. (1991) 54(6), 10.
    Specht, H.B. (1992) A less complex statement of social work's mission. Social Security Review, 66(1), 152–159.
    Spencer, H. (1852) A theory of population, deduced from the general law of animal fertility. Westminster Review, 57, 468–501.
    Spickard, P.R. (1989). Mixed blood: Intermarriage and ethnic identity in twentieth-century America. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Spindler, A. (1979). Public welfare. New York: Human Sciences Press.
    Squires, P. (1990). Anti-social policy: Welfare, ideology, and the disciplinary state. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Stack, C.B. (1974). All our kin: Strategies for survival in a black community. New York: Harper & Row.
    Stallings, R.A. (1973) The community context of crisis management. American Behavioral Scientist, 16, 312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000276427301600303
    Starr, P. (1985). The meaning of privatization (Working paper No. 6: Privatization). Washington, DC: National Council on Social Welfare.
    Stein, J. (Ed.). (1966). The Random House dictionary of the English language. New York: Random House.
    Steiner, G.Y. (1966). Social insecurity: The politics of welfare. Chicago:Rand McNally.
    Stellman, J. (1982). Human and public health aspects of elecommunication. Paper delivered at Fourth General Assembly, World Future Society, Washington, DC.
    Stoesz, D., & Karger, H.J. (1990). The corporatization of the welfare state. Unpublished manuscript.
    Stoesz, D., & Karger, H. (1992) The decline of the American welfare state. Social Policy and Administration, 26(1), 3–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.1992.tb00525.x
    Stoner, M.R. (1989). Inventing a non-homeless future: A public policy agenda for preventing homelessness. New York: Peter Lang.
    Story, D.C. (1992) Volunteerism: The “selfregarding” and “other regarding” aspects of the human spirit. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 21(1), 3–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089976409202100102
    Stotland, E., Mathews, K.E., Jr., Sherman, S.E., Hansson, R.O., & Richardson, B.Z. (1978). Empathy, fantasy, and helping. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Strauss, A. (1956). George Herbert Mead on social psychology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Strauss, A. (1962) Transformations of identity. In A.M.Rose (Ed.), Human behavior and social processes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Striner, H.E. (1975) Recurrent educational and manpower training in Great Britain. Monthly Labor Review, 98, 30–34.
    Strumpel, B. (1976) Introduction and model. In B.Strumpel (Ed.), Economic means for human needs: Social indicators of well-being and discontent (pp. 1–12). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
    Suffolk County Department of Social Services. (1974). Guidelines on reporting child abuse and maltreatmentHauppage, NY: Author.
    Sullivan, M. (1987). Sociology and social welfare. Boston: Allen & Unwin.
    Summaries of elder abuse. (1990) Washington, DC: National AgingResource Center.
    Sumner, W.G. (1963). Social Darwinism. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Swisher, K. (1994, April 21). Dreaming on the job. Jerusalem Post, p. 7.
    Taggart, R. (Ed.). (1977). Job creation: What works?Salt Lake City, UT: Olympus.
    Tannen, D. (1991). You just don't understand. London: Virago.
    Tatara, T. (1990) Federal social welfare: Recent trends. In S.Ginsberg, S.Khinduka, J.A.Hall, F.Ross-Sheriff, & A.Hartman (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social work (18th ed., 1990 supplement). Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.
    Tawney, R.H. (1948). The acquisitive society. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
    Tawney, R.H. (1958) Economic virtues and prescriptions for poverty. In H.D.Stein & R.A.Cloward (Eds.), Social perspectives on behaviorNew York: Free Press.
    Taylor, F.W. (1911). The principles of scientific management. New York: Harper.
    Taylor, R.J., Chatters, L.M., Tucker, M.B., & Lewis, E. (1991) Developments in research on black families: A decade review. In A.Booth (Ed.), Contemporary families: Looking forward, looking back (pp. 275–296). Minneapolis, MN: National Council on Family Relations.
    Teegardin, C. (1992, September 4). U.S. poor increase by 2 million. Atlanta Journal and Constitution, p. Al.
    Temple, W. (1967) The state. In C.I.Schottland (Ed.), The welfare state. New York: Harper & Row.
    Terrell, K. (1992) Female-male earnings differentials and occupational structure. International Labour Review, 131, 387–404.
    Thayer, F.C. (1987) Privatization: Carnage, chaos, and corruption. In B.J.Carroll, R.M.Conant, & T.A.Easton (Eds.), Private means, public ends: Private business in social security delivery. New York: Praeger.
    Theisen, W.M. (n.d.). The right to work: Wage labor in a market economy. Des Moines: School of Social Work, Univerity of Iowa.
    Thoenes, P. (1966). The elite in the welfare state. New York: Free Press.
    Thompson, K. (1986). Beliefs and ideology. London: Tavistock.
    Tietze, C., & Murstein, M.J. (1975) Induced abortion: 1975 factbook. Reports on Population/Family Planning, 14, 1–76.
    Titmuss, R.M. (1959). Essays on “the welfare state.”New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Titmuss, R.M. (1967) The welfare state: Images and reality. In C.I.Schottland (Ed.), The welfare state. New York: Harper & Row.
    Titmuss, R.M. (1971). The gift relationship. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Titmuss, R.M. (1974). Social policy: An introduction. New York: Pantheon.
    Tutvedt, O., & Young, L. (Eds.). (1991). Social work and the Norwegian welfare state. Oslo: Norwegian State College of Local Government Administration and Social Work.
    Uchitelle, L. (1992, September 6). America isn't creating enough jobs and no one seems to know why. The New York Times, p. 1–2.
    Uchitelle, L. (1993, November 7). How the job count is off. The New York Times, p. 2IE.
    United Nations. (1965). Social reconstruction in the newly independent countries of North Africa. New York: Author.
    United Nations. (1976). World population growth and response: 1965–1975—A decade of global action. New York: Author.
    United Nations. (1992a). Abortion policies: A global review. New York: Author.
    United Nations. (1992b). Population and vital statistics report: Data available as of 1 April 1992. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Development.
    United Nations. (1992c). Statistical yearbook, 37th issue. New York: Author.
    United Nations. (1992d). Trends in Social Security, 2, 11–12.
    United Nations. (1992e). World population monitoring, 1991. New York: Author.
    United Nations Technical Assistance Program. (1963). Local government In selected countries. New York: Author.
    U.S. Department of Commerce. (1987). Statistical abstract of the United States 1988. Washington, DC: Bureau of the Census.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (n.d.). Answers about aging: New pieces to an old puzzle. Washington, DC: Author.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1987a). Research advances in aging, 19841986. Washington, DC: Author.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1987b). Social security programs throughout the world—1987. Washington, DC: Author.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1989). Social security programs throughout the world, 1988. Washington, DC: Author.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1991). Social security bulletin annual statistical supplement 1991. Washington, DC: Author.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1992). Social security programs throughout the world—1991. Washington, DC: Author.
    U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. (1977). Social security programs throughout the world—1977. Washington, DC: Author.
    US productivity keeps climbing. (1993, March 11). Jerusalem Post, p. 6.
    Van Horn, C.E. (1991) Myths and realities of privatization. In W.T.Gormley, Jr. (Ed.), Privatization and its alternatives (pp. 261–280). Madison: University of Wisconsin.
    Van Praag, B.M.S., & Van Beek, K.W.H. (1991) Unemployment and the social security trap. In C.de Neubourg (Ed.), The art of full employment (pp. 283–303). New York: Elsevier North-Holland Science Publishers.
    Veit-Wilson, J.H. (1992) Muddle or mendacity? The Beveridge committee and the poverty line. Journal of Social Policy, 21, 269–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047279400019954
    Verba, S. (1961). Small groups and political behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Vianello, M., Siemienska, R., Damian, N., Lupri, E., Coppi, R., D'Arcangelo, E., & Bolasco, S. (1990). Gender inequality: A comparative study Of discrimination and participation. London: Sage.
    Vigilante, J.L. (1976) Back to the old neighborhood. Social Service Review, 50(2), 194–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/643364
    Visher, E.B., & Visher, J.S. (1988). Old loyalties, new ties: Therapeutic strategies with stepfamilies. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Wagner, D. (1989) Radical movements in the social services: A theoretical framework. Social Service Review, 63(2), 264–284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/603697
    Wagner, D. (1990). The quest for a radical profession. New York: University Press of America.
    Walbank, M. (1980) Effort in motivated work behaviour. In K.D.Duncan, M.M.Gruneberg, & D.Wallis (Eds.), Changes in working life. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Watson, D. (1980). Caring for strangers. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Weber, M. (1952). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. New York: Scribners.
    Weber, N. (Ed.). (1988). Giving USA: The annual report on philanthropy for the year 1987. New York: American Association for Fund-Raising Counsel Trust for Philanthropy.
    Weinberg, D.H. (1985) Measuring poverty. Family Economics Review, 2, 9.
    Wellness Newsletter. (1994) 5(1).
    Whyte, W.F. (1955). Money and motivation. New York: Harper.
    Wilding, P. (Ed.). (1986). In defense of the welfare state. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
    Wilensky, H.L. (1975). The welfare state and equality: Structural and idological roots of public expenditures. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Wilensky, H.L., & Lebeaux, C.N. (1958). Industrial society and social welfare. New York: Free Press.
    Wineberg, R.J. (1991) A community study of the ways religious congregations support individuals and the local human services network. Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 15(1), 51–72.
    Wineberg, R.J. (1992) Local human services provision by religous congregations: A community analysis. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector uarterly, 21(2), 107–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089976409202100202
    Wingen, M. (1992) Theoretical and practical issues in family policy. In G.Kiely (Ed.), In and out of arriage: Irish and European experiences. Dublin: Family Studies Centre.
    Winston, E. (1969) A national policy on the family. Public Welfare, 27, 54.
    Wirtz, W., & Goldstein, H. (1975) Measurement and analysis of work training. Monthly Labor Review, 98(9), 19–34.
    Witte, E.W. (1962). The development of the Social Security Act. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Wolch, J.R. (1990). The shadow state: Government and voluntary sector in transition. New York: The Foundation Center.
    Woodroofe, K. (1962). From charity to social work in England and the United States. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    World of Work Report. (1979) 4(29). (1980) 5(52).
    Wuthnow, R., & Hodgkinson, V.A. (Eds.). (1990). Faith and philanthropy in America: Exploring the role of religion in America's voluntary sector. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Yakabe, K. (1974). Labor relations in Japan: Fundamental characteristics. Tokyo: International Society for Educational Information.
    Yankelovich, D., & Immerwahr, J. (1983). Putting the work ethic to work. New York: Public Agenda Foundation.
    Yankelovich, D., Zettenberg, H., Strumpel, B., & Shanks, M. (1983). Work and human values: An international report on jobs in the 1980s and 1990s. New York: Aspen Institute.
    Yans-McLaughlin, V. (1990) Introduction. In V.Yans-McLaughlin (Ed.), Immigration reconsidered: History, sociology, and politics. New York: Oxford Press.
    Zald, M.N. (Ed.). (1965). Social welfare institutions. New York: John Wiley.
    Zastrow, C. (1992). Social problems: Issues and solutions. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
    Zimmerman, S.L. (1988). Understanding family policy: Theoretical approaches. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243658

    About the Author

    David Macarov is Emeritus Professor at the Paul Baerwald School of Social Work, Hebrew University, Jerusalem. He has been Visiting Professor at Adelphi University, University of Melbourne, and University of Pennsylvania, among others. He is the founder of the Society for the Reduction of Human Labor and the Israel Chapter of the World Future Society and a Life Fellow of the International Society for Social and Economic Development. His two previous books published by Sage are Work and Welfare: The Unholy Alliance (1980) and Worker Productivity: Myths and Reality (1982). Other books include Quitting Time: The End of Work and Certain Change: Social Work Practice in the Future.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website