Social Welfare: Structure and Practice
Publication Year: 1995
Poverty, unemployment, limited access to health care: the litany of ills plaguing contemporary society seems endless, reflective of the pragmatic and philosophical battles waged to overcome what some perceive as insurmountable obstacles. What role has the state played in mitigating the effects of these harsh realities? Offering a comprehensive survey of past and present programs, Social Welfare considers the substance and results of government intervention. Shaped by the works of such distinguished figures as Martin Luther, Adam Smith, and Charles Darwin, this incisive text charts the progression of social welfare policy from inception to its current status. David Macarov links present policy to the convergence of five interacting motivations: mutual aid, religion, politics, economics, and ideology. In identifying these elements, Macarov assays the significance of ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: The Scope of Social Welfare
- Governmental Involvement
- Voluntary Social Welfare
- Conceptions of Social Welfare
- The Growth of Public Social Welfare
- The Structure of Public Social Welfare
- Social Welfare Programs
- Chapter 2: Human Needs
- Social Welfare as Meeting Human Needs
- On Needs and Wants
- Need Detection and Measurement
- Changing Needs
- Chapter 3: Mutual Aid
- The Roots of Mutual Aid
- Families as the Primary Locus of Mutual Aid
- Chapter 4: Social Welfare and the Family
- Family Policy
- Children's and Family Allowances
- Strengthening Families
- Selective Policies
- Chapter 5: The Use of Families and Other Institutions of Mutual Aid
- Relatives’ Responsibility Laws
- Guilds, Unions, and Mutual-Aid Societies
- Social Group Work
- Residency Requirements
- Volunteers and Voluntary Organizations
- The Institutionalization of Mutual Aid
- The Future of Mutual Aid
- Chapter 6: Religion as a Motivator of Social Welfare
- The History of Religious Welfare Activities
- Religious Manifestations of Social Welfare
- The Institutionalization of Charity
- Church and State
- The Professionalization of Social Work
- Ethnic Groups and Social Welfare
- Sectarian versus Secular Services
- Religion and Social Work Education
- The Future of Religiously Inspired Social Welfare
- Chapter 7: Politics as a Motivator of Social Welfare
- Acquiring and Maintaining Political Power
- Avoiding Social Unrest
- Social Welfare as a Political Side Effect
- The Future of Politically Motivated Social Welfare
- Chapter 8: Economics as a Motivator of Social Welfare
- The Cost of Social Problems
- Effects on the Economy: Production
- Effects on the Economy: Consumption
- Social Welfare as an Economic Side Effect
- Chapter 9: Ideology as a Motivator of Social Welfare
- Ideologies and Values
- Some Specific Ideologies
- Individualism and Collectivism
- Equality and Equity
- Mistrust as an Ideology
- Morality as an Ideology
- Chapter 10: Isms as Ideologies: Racism, Sexism, Ageism, and Xenophobia
- Welfarism as Ideology
- Competing Ideologies
- Institutionalization of Ideologies
- Chapter 11: The Influence of Martin Luther on Work and Welfare
- The Protestant Ethic
- Effects on Social Welfare
- Work and Welfare
- Chapter 12: The Influence of Charles Darwin and Adam Smith on the Development of Social Welfare
- Biological Darwinism
- Social Darwinism
- Effects on Social Welfare
- Laissez-faire Economics
- Chapter 13: Persisting Poverty
- Defining Poverty
- Who Are the Poor?
- The Politics of Conduct
- Chapter 14: Persisting Unemployment
- Unemployment in History
- Obscuring Unemployment
- The Job Shortage
- Productivity Growth
- Increasing Services
- A National Service Corps
- Chapter 15: From Welfare State to Welfare Society and Welfare Reform
- Defining the Welfare State
- The Modern Welfare State
- The Welfare Society
- Welfare Reform
- Chapter 16: Description, Prediction, and Prescription
- Four Probable Predictions
Dedicated to Charles I. Schottland and to the memory of Milton Wittman
Copyright © 1995 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Social welfare: structure and practice / David Macarov.
Updated ed. of: The design of social welfare. 1978.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8039-4939-1 (acid-free paper). — ISBN 0-8039-4940-5 (pbk.: acid-free paper).
1. Social service. 2. Public welfare. I. Macarov, David. Design of social welfare. II. Title
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
96 97 98 99 00 01 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Sage Production Editor: Diana E. Axelsen
Social welfare changes as society changes: Although certain aspects seem to remain constant, many others change, sometimes very rapidly. This book is an acknowledgment of both the constants and the changes in social welfare. It is a redesigned, rewritten, updated version of a textbook—The Design of Social Welfare—published in 1978 and now out of print. Permission to use some of the contents of that book has been graciously granted by the publishers, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
As is true of every scholarly or scientific endeavor, “We may be pygmies, but we sit on the shoulders of giants.” Everyone who engages in writing owes an enormous debt to the writers, researchers, and teachers who have gone before. It is, truly, an irredeemable obligation, and one of which I am constantly mindful. Consequently, I have tried to recognize those persons or sources whom I have quoted directly; but I am unable to credit the myriads of people with whom I have spoken, whose lectures have informed me, and whose articles left deep impressions on me without my being aware of it at the time. I am also grateful to my students, who worked with me, challenged me, inspired me, and required me to put complex situations into understandable words. As the Ethics of the Fathers says: “Much have I learned from my teachers, but more have I learned from my students.”
I nevertheless feel compelled to recognize the kindness of certain people in reading and commenting on what I have written, in helping me to locate sources, or in allowing me to quote from their published and unpublished works. These include Louise Skolnik, Mimi Abramovitz, Ralph Kramer, [Page xii]Leonard Schneiderman, Stuart Rees, and in particular, Armand Lauffer, whose extensive comments were extremely helpful.
Because the proper role of educators is to clarify questions rather than to supply answers, I have tried to outline some of the complexities of social welfare without attempting to indicate in which directions my own preferences lie. I am aware that I have not always been successful in making this distinction, and I hope that readers will make allowances for this fallibility.
Social welfare is an enormous, varied, and complex institution. Changes in welfare policies, programs, and practices affect millions of people. Even experts have difficulty predicting the effects of what may at first seem to be relatively minor shifts in goals, methods, or activities. In the United States, social welfare has become so complex that entire fields of study are devoted exclusively to federal-state-local relationships and to each area of service, type of problem, and category of client. As needs constantly change, new agencies arise to deal with them. Here's just a sampling of the new volunteer agencies that have formed since the first edition of this book in 1978:
MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving)
OWL (Older Women's League)
PWP (Parents Without Partners)
PA (Parents Anonymous)
SASG (Sexual Assault Support Group)
ACOA (Adult Children of Alcoholics)
GAIN (Greater Avenues to Independence)
Mothers Without Custody
Women for Sobriety
New professional groups include ACORN (Association of Community Organizers for Reform Now), ACOSA (Association of Community Organizers and Social Administration), and AASWG (Association for Advancement of Social Work with Groups).[Page xiv]
As a result of its size and pervasiveness, today's social welfare system is often taken for granted. People don't think of the millions of fellow citizens who have been helped through a crisis or supported for long periods of inability to work. Neither do they usually consider those who collect social welfare payments not as a reward, but as a repayment. The media pay little attention to the health, education, or cultural attainments of social welfare programs, attainments that give legitimacy to welfare efforts.
On the other hand, social welfare is constantly under fire from a number of directions. Those who design the programs and pay the bills invariably see social welfare as too costly. They may believe that it is destroying the moral fiber of recipients, including their incentive to work. Those who receive social welfare benefits criticize the low level of payments, the difficulty of working through the bureaucratic maze, and the stigma attached to accepting welfare payments. Most taxpayers, neither making the programs nor benefitting directly from them, see the system as clumsy, expensive, and inefficient—except when they, or a relative or friend, need to rely on welfare or Social Security payments.
For social workers to practice within the existing welfare system, to use it properly to help their clients, to understand the reasons for criticisms, and—most important—to try to change it, they need insight into the deep-seated religious, moral, and ideological factors that created social welfare, as well as the political, economic, and social realities that shape it. Any change, no matter how small, must be reconciled with these forces if it is to succeed. Consequently, traditional methods of studying social welfare must be supplemented by an examination of the organizing concepts that inform the whole.
This book deals with a number of those concepts. The intention is to illuminate (a) some of the major motivations resulting in social welfare policies, programs, and practices; (b) some important attitudes, values, and beliefs that influence the resulting structure; and (c) some contemporary problems.Structure of This Book
This book is divided into four parts. To summarize briefly, Part I includes a thumbnail sketch of social welfare, both historically and in its modern U.S. incarnation. It also describes the human needs or problems social welfare is designed to solve.[Page xv]
Part II consists of eight chapters examining the major motivations that gave rise to social welfare. These include the desire to engage in mutual aid, religious beliefs, political factors, economic reasons, and various ideologies that affect social welfare.
Constantly acting on this congeries of motivations is a series of attitudes and beliefs that can be traced back to, or identified with, certain seminal philosophers. Part III includes two chapters that describe some of these important influences. The morality attached to work can be traced in large part to the influence of Martin Luther. Charles Darwin's “survival of the fittest” has been transmuted to apply to social institutions and to individuals, rather than to species, in the form of Social Darwinism. As a result of Adam Smith's laissez-faire economic theory, social welfare is often viewed as unwarranted interference by the government in the economic system.
In Part IV, some of the salient contemporary challenges to social welfare are outlined: permanent poverty, ubiquitous unemployment, changes in the welfare state, and efforts at welfare reform.
The future of social welfare is discussed in the final chapter.Definitions and Terminology
Social welfare is not an easy concept to define. Like all definitions, it is beset with the problem of infinite regression—every word in the definition is itself subject to further definition, as is every word in that definition, and so on, ad infinitum.
For example, one published definition of social welfare consists of only ten words—”Social welfare policy is collective strategy to address social problems”1—but this is followed by three pages defining collective, strategy, social, and problems. Indeed, the very words social and welfare are subject to many interpretations. The Encyclopedia of Social Work traces the term social welfare to the beginning of the twentieth century but notes that it was “never clearly defined.” For clarity, the following definition, derived from a definition in The Social Work Dictionary, will be used throughout this book:[Page xvi]
Social welfare is a nation's system of programs, benefits, and services that help meet those psychological, social, and economic needs that are fundamental to the well-being of individuals and society.
Note that this definition speaks of people in general, not just the needy and disadvantaged, and that health and education are included. Also, the well-being of society, not just individuals, is social welfare's goal.
This book deals with social welfare as an institution: an amalgam of money, manpower, and material providing a wide range of services, from public assistance for the poor, to care for the mentally retarded, to aid and support for the elderly. However, most of the chapters are involved with policies more than practice. Policies include both goals—the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) aims to sustain children growing up in poverty—and rules governing implementation—an AFDC policy requires that the assisted child must live in the home of a relative.
Social welfare policies are implemented through social welfare programs carried out by social workers. Social workers usually hold a bachelor's or master's degree in social work, and they are certified by the state in which they practice. Most are members of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW). In 1991, NASW had more than 130,000 members. About 30,000 undergraduates were studying social work full time, and another 20,000 had proceeded to graduate work.2Style Used
Finally, a word about style. Readers will find no parenthetical names and dates interspersed in the text to indicate sources of information, because these tend to distract from comfortable reading. A sprinkling of notes will provide the sources of direct quotations and statistical material, and a table, Read More About It, at the end of each chapter will direct readers to other works dealing more specifically with the chapter's topics. Both the notes and the tables are supplemented by a master reference list at the book's end. Newspaper articles are referenced by author or title when available.Notes
1. The definition is from Jansson (1984).
2. The statistics are from the following sources: on NASW members, from “Data Study” (1993); numbers of students, from Council on Social Work Education (1992).[Page xvii]Read more about it …
For more information on: See these sources: New social welfare organizations Perlmutter, 1988 Definitions of social welfare Barker, 1991; Leiby, 1987; Rescher, 1972; Titmuss, 1974
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