Social Welfare: Structure and Practice


David Macarov

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: The Nature of Social Welfare

    Part II: Motivations for Social Welfare

    Part III: Influences on Social Welfare

    Part IV: Issues in Social Welfare

  • Dedication

    Dedicated to Charles I. Schottland and to the memory of Milton Wittman


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    Social welfare changes as society changes: Although certain aspects seem to remain constant, many others change, sometimes very rapidly. This book is an acknowledgment of both the constants and the changes in social welfare. It is a redesigned, rewritten, updated version of a textbook—The Design of Social Welfare—published in 1978 and now out of print. Permission to use some of the contents of that book has been graciously granted by the publishers, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

    As is true of every scholarly or scientific endeavor, “We may be pygmies, but we sit on the shoulders of giants.” Everyone who engages in writing owes an enormous debt to the writers, researchers, and teachers who have gone before. It is, truly, an irredeemable obligation, and one of which I am constantly mindful. Consequently, I have tried to recognize those persons or sources whom I have quoted directly; but I am unable to credit the myriads of people with whom I have spoken, whose lectures have informed me, and whose articles left deep impressions on me without my being aware of it at the time. I am also grateful to my students, who worked with me, challenged me, inspired me, and required me to put complex situations into understandable words. As the Ethics of the Fathers says: “Much have I learned from my teachers, but more have I learned from my students.”

    I nevertheless feel compelled to recognize the kindness of certain people in reading and commenting on what I have written, in helping me to locate sources, or in allowing me to quote from their published and unpublished works. These include Louise Skolnik, Mimi Abramovitz, Ralph Kramer, Leonard Schneiderman, Stuart Rees, and in particular, Armand Lauffer, whose extensive comments were extremely helpful.

    Because the proper role of educators is to clarify questions rather than to supply answers, I have tried to outline some of the complexities of social welfare without attempting to indicate in which directions my own preferences lie. I am aware that I have not always been successful in making this distinction, and I hope that readers will make allowances for this fallibility.

    David Macarov


    Social welfare is an enormous, varied, and complex institution. Changes in welfare policies, programs, and practices affect millions of people. Even experts have difficulty predicting the effects of what may at first seem to be relatively minor shifts in goals, methods, or activities. In the United States, social welfare has become so complex that entire fields of study are devoted exclusively to federal-state-local relationships and to each area of service, type of problem, and category of client. As needs constantly change, new agencies arise to deal with them. Here's just a sampling of the new volunteer agencies that have formed since the first edition of this book in 1978:

    MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving)

    OWL (Older Women's League)

    PWP (Parents Without Partners)

    PA (Parents Anonymous)

    SASG (Sexual Assault Support Group)

    ACOA (Adult Children of Alcoholics)

    GAIN (Greater Avenues to Independence)

    Mothers Without Custody


    Women for Sobriety

    New professional groups include ACORN (Association of Community Organizers for Reform Now), ACOSA (Association of Community Organizers and Social Administration), and AASWG (Association for Advancement of Social Work with Groups).

    As a result of its size and pervasiveness, today's social welfare system is often taken for granted. People don't think of the millions of fellow citizens who have been helped through a crisis or supported for long periods of inability to work. Neither do they usually consider those who collect social welfare payments not as a reward, but as a repayment. The media pay little attention to the health, education, or cultural attainments of social welfare programs, attainments that give legitimacy to welfare efforts.

    On the other hand, social welfare is constantly under fire from a number of directions. Those who design the programs and pay the bills invariably see social welfare as too costly. They may believe that it is destroying the moral fiber of recipients, including their incentive to work. Those who receive social welfare benefits criticize the low level of payments, the difficulty of working through the bureaucratic maze, and the stigma attached to accepting welfare payments. Most taxpayers, neither making the programs nor benefitting directly from them, see the system as clumsy, expensive, and inefficient—except when they, or a relative or friend, need to rely on welfare or Social Security payments.

    For social workers to practice within the existing welfare system, to use it properly to help their clients, to understand the reasons for criticisms, and—most important—to try to change it, they need insight into the deep-seated religious, moral, and ideological factors that created social welfare, as well as the political, economic, and social realities that shape it. Any change, no matter how small, must be reconciled with these forces if it is to succeed. Consequently, traditional methods of studying social welfare must be supplemented by an examination of the organizing concepts that inform the whole.

    This book deals with a number of those concepts. The intention is to illuminate (a) some of the major motivations resulting in social welfare policies, programs, and practices; (b) some important attitudes, values, and beliefs that influence the resulting structure; and (c) some contemporary problems.

    Structure of This Book

    This book is divided into four parts. To summarize briefly, Part I includes a thumbnail sketch of social welfare, both historically and in its modern U.S. incarnation. It also describes the human needs or problems social welfare is designed to solve.

    Part II consists of eight chapters examining the major motivations that gave rise to social welfare. These include the desire to engage in mutual aid, religious beliefs, political factors, economic reasons, and various ideologies that affect social welfare.

    Constantly acting on this congeries of motivations is a series of attitudes and beliefs that can be traced back to, or identified with, certain seminal philosophers. Part III includes two chapters that describe some of these important influences. The morality attached to work can be traced in large part to the influence of Martin Luther. Charles Darwin's “survival of the fittest” has been transmuted to apply to social institutions and to individuals, rather than to species, in the form of Social Darwinism. As a result of Adam Smith's laissez-faire economic theory, social welfare is often viewed as unwarranted interference by the government in the economic system.

    In Part IV, some of the salient contemporary challenges to social welfare are outlined: permanent poverty, ubiquitous unemployment, changes in the welfare state, and efforts at welfare reform.

    The future of social welfare is discussed in the final chapter.

    Definitions and Terminology

    Social welfare is not an easy concept to define. Like all definitions, it is beset with the problem of infinite regression—every word in the definition is itself subject to further definition, as is every word in that definition, and so on, ad infinitum.

    For example, one published definition of social welfare consists of only ten words—”Social welfare policy is collective strategy to address social problems”1—but this is followed by three pages defining collective, strategy, social, and problems. Indeed, the very words social and welfare are subject to many interpretations. The Encyclopedia of Social Work traces the term social welfare to the beginning of the twentieth century but notes that it was “never clearly defined.” For clarity, the following definition, derived from a definition in The Social Work Dictionary, will be used throughout this book:

    Social welfare is a nation's system of programs, benefits, and services that help meet those psychological, social, and economic needs that are fundamental to the well-being of individuals and society.

    Note that this definition speaks of people in general, not just the needy and disadvantaged, and that health and education are included. Also, the well-being of society, not just individuals, is social welfare's goal.

    This book deals with social welfare as an institution: an amalgam of money, manpower, and material providing a wide range of services, from public assistance for the poor, to care for the mentally retarded, to aid and support for the elderly. However, most of the chapters are involved with policies more than practice. Policies include both goals—the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) aims to sustain children growing up in poverty—and rules governing implementation—an AFDC policy requires that the assisted child must live in the home of a relative.

    Social welfare policies are implemented through social welfare programs carried out by social workers. Social workers usually hold a bachelor's or master's degree in social work, and they are certified by the state in which they practice. Most are members of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW). In 1991, NASW had more than 130,000 members. About 30,000 undergraduates were studying social work full time, and another 20,000 had proceeded to graduate work.2

    Style Used

    Finally, a word about style. Readers will find no parenthetical names and dates interspersed in the text to indicate sources of information, because these tend to distract from comfortable reading. A sprinkling of notes will provide the sources of direct quotations and statistical material, and a table, Read More About It, at the end of each chapter will direct readers to other works dealing more specifically with the chapter's topics. Both the notes and the tables are supplemented by a master reference list at the book's end. Newspaper articles are referenced by author or title when available.


    1. The definition is from Jansson (1984).

    2. The statistics are from the following sources: on NASW members, from “Data Study” (1993); numbers of students, from Council on Social Work Education (1992).

    Read more about it …
    For more information on:See these sources:
    New social welfare organizationsPerlmutter, 1988
    Definitions of social welfareBarker, 1991; Leiby, 1987; Rescher, 1972; Titmuss, 1974
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    About the Author

    David Macarov is Emeritus Professor at the Paul Baerwald School of Social Work, Hebrew University, Jerusalem. He has been Visiting Professor at Adelphi University, University of Melbourne, and University of Pennsylvania, among others. He is the founder of the Society for the Reduction of Human Labor and the Israel Chapter of the World Future Society and a Life Fellow of the International Society for Social and Economic Development. His two previous books published by Sage are Work and Welfare: The Unholy Alliance (1980) and Worker Productivity: Myths and Reality (1982). Other books include Quitting Time: The End of Work and Certain Change: Social Work Practice in the Future.

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