Social Support in Couples: Marriage as a Resource in Times of Stress

Books

Carolyn E. Cutrona

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • SAGE Series on Close Relationships

    Series Editors

    Clyde Hendrick, Ph.D., and Susan S. Hendrick, Ph.D.

    In this series…

    • ROMANTIC LOVE

      by Susan S. Hendrick and Clyde Hendrick

    • COURTSHIP

      by Rodney M. Cate and Sally A. Lloyd

    • ADULT FRIENDSHIP

      by Rosemary Blieszner and Rebecca G. Adams

    • TWO CAREERS/ONE FAMILY

      by Lucia Albino Gilbert

    • SELF-DISCLOSURE

      by Valerian J. Derlega, Sandra Metts, Sandra Petronio, and Stephen T. Margulis

    • SEXUALITY

      by Susan Sprecher and Kathleen McKinney

    • FACEWORK

      by William R. Cupach and Sandra Metts

    • MEANINGFUL RELATIONSHIPS

      by Steve Duck

    • REMARRIED FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS

      by Lawrence H. Ganong and Marilyn Coleman

    • RELATIONSHIP CONFLICT

      by Daniel J. Canary, William R. Cupach, and Susan J. Messman

    • RELATIONSHIPS IN CHRONIC ILLNESS AND DISABILITY

      by Renee F. Lyons, Michael J. L. Sullivan, and Paul G. Ritvo with James C. Coyne

    • FRIENDSHIP PROCESSES

      by Beverley Fehr

    • SOCIAL SUPPORT IN COUPLES

      by Carolyn E. Cutrona

    • ADULT ATTACHMENT

      by Judith Feeney and Patricia Noller

    • GENDER AND CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS

      by Barbara A. Winstead, Valarian J. Derlega, and Suzanna Rose

    • MARITAL EQUALITY

      by Janice M. Steil

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    To Dan, Gina, and Jonathan

    Series Editors' Introduction

    When we first began our work on love attitudes more than a decade ago, we did not know what to call our research area. In some ways, it represented an extension of earlier work in interpersonal attraction. Most of our scholarly models were psychologists (although sociologists had long been deeply involved in the areas of courtship and marriage), yet we sometimes felt as if our work had no professional “home.” That has all changed. Our research has not only a home but also an extended family, and the family is composed of relationship researchers. During the past decade, the discipline of close relationships (also called personal relationships and intimate relationships) has flourished.

    Two aspects of close relationships research should be noted. The first is its rapid growth, resulting in numerous books, journals, handbooks, book series, and professional organizations. As fast as the field grows, the demand for even more research and knowledge seems to be increasing. Questions about close, personal relationships still far exceed answers. The second noteworthy aspect of the new discipline of close relationships is its interdisciplinary nature. The field owes its vitality to scholars from communication, family studies, human development, psychology (clinical, counseling, developmental, social), sociology, and other disciplines such as nursing and social work. This interdisciplinary wellspring gives close relationships research its diversity and richness, qualities that we hope to achieve in the current series.

    The Sage Series on Close Relationships is designed to acquaint diverse readers with the most up-to-date information about various topics in close relationships theory and research. Each volume in the series covers a particular topic in one area of close relationships. Each book reviews the particular topic area, describes contemporary research in the area (including the authors' own work, where appropriate), and offers some suggestions for interesting research questions or real-world applications related to the topic. The volumes are designed to be appropriate for students and professionals in communication, family studies, psychology, sociology, and social work, among others. A basic assumption of the series is that the broad panorama of close relationships can best be portrayed by authors from multiple disciplines so that the series cannot be “captured” by any single disciplinary bias.

    Modeling this interdisciplinary emphasis within her career, Carolyn E. Cutrona, a clinical psychologist, has worked extensively in the interface of clinical and social psychology with her research on social support. In the current volume, she applies the extensive social support literature to married couples and partnered relationships. Nowhere is social support more important than in the long-term partnered relationships in which we spend much of our lives.

    Addressing issues such as the interplay between social support and conflict during a health crisis, Cutrona skillfully weaves case examples into her presentation of the most up-to-date research in the area. The result is an important and much-needed addition to the social support literature.

    ClydeHendrick
    Susan S.Hendrick Series Editors

    Preface

    Since 1980, more than 4,000 journal articles have been published on social support. Most of these articles pose the same tired question over and over again: Does social support predict mental or physical health among individuals facing Stressor X? Stressor X has included childbirth, rape, war, diagnosis of AIDS, heart attack, caregiving for an Alzheimer's patient, unemployment, divorce, and almost any other taxing event one can imagine. Few of these studies have examined what actually goes on between people as they strive to deal together with life's problems. In this book, I have tried to delve into the everyday acts that communicate caring and concern in one specific relationship. I chose marriage because the most important sources of support are the people to whom we are closest. Although the studies I review deal almost exclusively with married couples, I imagine that many, if not all, of the findings apply equally well to other kinds of relationships characterized by commitment and emotional intimacy (e.g., lesbian and gay relationships, close friendships, some parent-child relationships).

    The book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate or graduate classes in the areas of close relationships, health psychology, and marital and family studies. It was also written for students and practitioners in the fields of social work, psychology, and marital and family counseling. For researchers, I hope that it provides a useful review of empirical research on the process and consequences of social support in the context of marriage.

    Chapter 1 provides an overview of definitions and conceptualizations of social support. A new definition of support that emphasizes responsivity to the other's needs is offered. This definition provides links to other topics in the study of close relationships, including interpersonal attachment. Whereas previous authors have linked social support primarily to the mental and physical health outcomes of individuals, Chapter 1 explores the potential benefits of frequent supportive exchanges to relationships. These include the growth of love, interdependence, trust, and commitment.

    In Chapter 2, gender-related differences in social support and coping are considered. Research on the differences between men and women regarding the benefits and costs they derive from the marital relationship is critically examined. More generally, problems that can arise when two people have stylistic differences in dealing with stress are considered—gender related or not.

    The step-by-step processes of eliciting, providing, and receiving social support are described in Chapter 3. Factors that influence the decision of whether or not to disclose a stressful event to one's partner are considered as well as factors that influence the decision of whether to provide support once the desire or need for support has been expressed. Factors that influence the perceived helpfulness of support-intended acts are explored.

    In Chapter 4, the interplay between supportive and destructive interactions is addressed. A reciprocal relationship is described between supportive and hostile behaviors. For example, supportive acts can prevent the spiraling of marital disagreements into intense destructive fights. On the other hand, disappointed support expectations can lead to resentment and hasten the deterioration of a relationship.

    Special problems arise in the mutual give-and-take of social support when one member of a couple has a disabling illness. In Chapter 5, issues that arise when couples face the chronic stress of serious medical illness are discussed. These issues include dealing with anger, maintaining equity, and the dangers of fostering excessive dependence.

    Chapter 6 offers suggestions for marital therapists on how to help people increase the quality and frequency of support that they provide to one another. Based on the research summarized in the first five chapters, specific techniques are described for helping partners improve their skills in communicating support to one another, staying emotionally close during crises, and avoiding the pitfalls of excessive dependency.

    A research agenda for the future is outlined in Chapter 7. Basic research is needed on how social support fits into the array of close relationship constructs. Longitudinal studies are needed to trace the course of marriages that begin with high versus low levels of support. There is a particular need for observational research to identify the support strategies associated with high versus low levels of marital satisfaction and for tightly controlled support intervention studies.

    I have tried to provide a fresh perspective on social support and to suggest new ways that support might influence well-being. Supportive acts have remarkable power, especially when offered by someone we love.

    Carolyn E.Cutrona

    Acknowledgments

    I would like to acknowledge with sincere thanks the efforts of Nancy Rosenquist, who provided outstanding secretarial assistance in the preparation of this manuscript. In addition, I would like to thank Kari Dahlin, without whom I would never have finished the reference list.

  • References

    Abbey, A., Abramis, D. J., & Caplan, R. D. (1985). Effects of different sources of social support and social conflict on emotional well-being. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 6, 111–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp0602_2
    Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.96.2.358
    Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., & Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.87.1.49
    Affleck, G., Pfeiffer, C., Tennen, H., & Fifield, J. (1988). Social support and psychosocial adjustment to rheumatoid arthritis: Quantitative and qualitative findings. Arthritis Care and Research, 1, 71–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.1790010203
    Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Antonucci, T. C., & Akiyama, H. (1987). An examination of sex differences in social support among older men and women. Sex Roles, 17, 737–749. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287685
    Austin, W., & Walster, E. (1974). Reactions to confirmations and disconfirmations of expectancies of equity and inequity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 208–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0036622
    Avorn, J., & Langer, E. (1982). Induced disability in nursing home patients: A controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 30, 397–400.
    Bach, G. R. (1969). The intimate enemy: How to fight fair in love and marriage. New York: William Morrow.
    Baldwin, M. W. (1992). Relational schemas and the processing of social information. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 461–484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.3.461
    Barbee, A. P. (1990a). Interactive coping: The cheering-up process in close relationships. In S.Duck & R. C.Silver (Eds.), Personal relationships and social support (pp. 46–65). London: Sage.
    Barbee, A. P. (1990b). Separate processes in the relation of elation and depression to helping: Social versus personal concerns. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 13–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2890%2990059-U
    Barbee, A. P. (1991, October). The role of emotions and cognitions in the interactive coping process: Mood regulation in close relationships. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Experimental Social Psychologists, Columbus, OH.
    Barbee, A. P., Druen, P. B., Gulley, M. R., Yankeelov, P. A., & Cunningham, M. R. (1993). Social support as a mechanism for the maintenance of close relationships. Unpublished manuscript, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.
    Barker, C. (1984). The helping process in couples. American Journal of Community Psychology, 12, 321–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00896753
    Barrera, M. (1981). Social support in the adjustment of pregnant adolescents: Assessment issues. In B. H.Gottlieb (Ed.), Social networks and social support (pp. 69–96). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Barrera, M., Jr., & Ainley, S. L. (1983). The structure of social support: A conceptual and empirical analysis. Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 133–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629%28198304%2911:2%3C133::AID-JCOP2290110207%3E3.0.CO;2-L
    Baxter, L. A. (1986). Gender differences in the heterosexual relationship rules embedded in break-up accounts. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 3, 289–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407586033003
    Beach, S. R. H., Fincham, F. D., Katz, J., & Bradbury, T. N. (in press). Social support in marriage: A cognitive perspective. In G. R.Pierce, B. R.Sarason, & I. G.Sarason (Eds.), Handbook of social support and the family. New York: Plenum.
    Beach, S. R. H., Martin, J. K., Blum, T. C., & Roman, P. M. (1993). Effects of marital and co-worker relationships on negative affect: Testing the central role of marriage. American Journal of Family Therapy, 21, 313–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01926189308251002
    Belle, D. (1982). The stress of caring: Women as providers of social support. In L.Goldberger & S.Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (pp. 496–505). New York: Free Press.
    Belle, D. (1987). Gender differences in the social moderators of stress. In R. C.Barnett, L.Biener, & G. K.Baruch (Eds.), Gender and stress (pp. 257–277). New York: Free Press.
    Berger, P., & Kellner, H. (1964). Marriage and the construction of reality. Diogenes, 46, 1–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/039219216401204601
    Berkman, L. F., & Breslow, L. (1983). Health and ways of living: Findings from the Alameda County Study. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Berkman, L. F., & Syme, L. (1979). Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: A nine-year follow-up study of Alameda County residents. American Journal of Epidemiology, 109, 186–204.
    Berscheid, E. (1994). Interpersonal relationships. Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 79–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.45.020194.000455
    Berscheid, E., Snyder, M., & Omoto, A. M. (1989). Issues in studying close relationships. In C.Hendrick (Ed.), Close relationships (pp. 63–91). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452220437
    Billings, A. G., & Moos, R. H. (1982). Social support and functioning among community and clinical groups: A panel model. Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 5, 295–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00846157
    Bilodeau, C. B., & Hackett, T. P. (1971). Issues raised in a group setting by patients of myocardial infarction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 105–110.
    Birchler, G. R., Weiss, R. L., & Vincent, J. P. (1975). Multimethod analysis of social reinforcement exchange between maritally distressed and nondistressed spouse and stranger dyads. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 349–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076280
    Bird, H. W., Schuham, A. I., Benson, L., & Gans, L. L. (1981). Stressful events and marital dysfunction. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 32, 386–390.
    Block, A. R., Kremer, E. F., & Gaylor, M. (1980). Behavioral treatment of chronic pain: The spouse as a discriminative cue for pain behavior. Pain, 9, 243–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959%2880%2990011-1
    Blood, R. D., & Wolfe, D. M. (1960). Husbands and wives: The dynamics of married living. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss (Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books.
    Bradbury, T. N., & Fincham, F. D. (1992). Attributions and behaviors in marital interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 613–628. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.63.4.613
    Braiker, H. B., & Kelley, H. H. (1979). Conflict in the development of close relationships. In R. L.Burgess & T. L.Huston (Eds.), Social exchange in developing relationships (pp. 136–168). New York: Academic Press.
    Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. O. (1978). Social origins of depression: A study of psychiatric disorder in women. New York: Free Press.
    Burish, T. G., & Lyles, J. N. (1983). Coping with the adverse effects of cancer treatments. In T. G.Burish & L. A.Bradley (Eds.), Coping with the chronic disease (pp. 159–189). New York: Academic Press.
    Burke, R. J., & Weir, T. (1977). Marital helping relationships: The moderators between stress and well-being. Journal of Psychology, 95, 121–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1977.9915868
    Cairns, D., & Pasino, J. A. (1977). Comparison of verbal reinforcement and feedback in the operant treatment of disability due to chronic low back pain. Behavior Therapy, 8, 621–630. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894%2877%2980191-3
    Campbell, A., Converse, P., & Rodgers, W. (1976). The quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluations, and satisfactions. New York: Russell Sage.
    Caplan, G. (1974). Support systems and community mental health: Lectures on conceptual development. New York: Behavioral Publications.
    Cassel, J. (1974). Psychosocial processes and “stress”: Theoretical formulations. International Journal of Health Services, 4, 471–482. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/WF7X-Y1L0-BFKH-9QU2
    Chesler, M. A., & Barbarin, O. A. (1984). Difficulties of providing help in a crisis: Relationships between parents of children with cancer and their friends. Journal of Social Issues, 40, 113–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1984.tb01110.x
    Christensen, A. (1988). Dysfunctional interaction patterns in couples. In P.Noller & M. A.Fitzpatrick (Eds.), Perspectives on marital interaction (pp. 31–52). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    Clark, M. S., & Mills, J. (1979). Interpersonal attraction in exchange and communal relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 12–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.1.12
    Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38, 300–314.
    Cobb, S. (1979). Social support and health through the life course. In M. W.Riley (Ed.), Aging from birth to death: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 93–106). Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Cohen, S. (1978). Environmental load and the allocation of attention. In A.Baum, J. E.Singer, & S.Valins (Eds.), Advances in environmental psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 1–29). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Cohen, S. (1988). Psychosocial models of the role of social support in the etiology of physical disease. Health Psychology, 7 (3), 269–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.7.3.269
    Cohen, S., & McKay, G. (1984). Social support, stress, and the buffering hypothesis: A theoretical analysis. In A.Baum, J. E.Singer, & S. E.Taylor (Eds.), Handbook of psychology and health (pp. 253–267). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 319–357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310
    Coyne, J., & Smith, D. (1991). Couples coping with a myocardial infarction: A contextual perspective on wives’ distress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 404–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.61.3.404
    Coyne, J. C., & DeLongis, A. (1986). Going beyond social support: The role of social relationships in adaptation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 454–460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.54.4.454
    Coyne, J. C., & Downey, G. (1991). Social factors and psychopathology: Stress, social support, and coping processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 42, 401–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.42.020191.002153
    Coyne, J. C., Ellard, J. H., & Smith, D. A. F. (1990). Social support, interdependence, and the dilemmas of helping. In B. R.Sarason, I. G.Sarason, & G. R.Pierce (Eds.), Social support: An interactional view (pp. 129–149). New York: John Wiley.
    Coyne, J. C., Kessler, R. C., Tal, M., Turnbull, J., Wortman, C. B., & Greden, J. F. (1987). Living with a depressed person. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 347–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.3.347
    Coyne, J. C., & Smith, D. A. F. (1994). Couples coping with myocardial infarction: Contextual perspective on patient self-efficacy. Journal of Family Psychology, 8, 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.8.1.43
    Coyne, J. C., Wortman, C. B., & Lehman, D. R. (1988). The other side of support: Emotional overinvolvement and miscarried helping. In B. H.Gottlieb (Ed.), Marshalling social support: Formats, processes, and effects (pp. 305–331). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Cronkite, R. C., & Moos, R. H. (1984). The role of predisposing and moderating factors in the stress-illness relationship. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 25, 372–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136377
    Croog, S. H., & Fitzgerald, E. F. (1978). Subjective stress and serious illness of a spouse: Wives of heart patients. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 19, 166–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136532
    Cutrona, C. E. (1986). Objective determinants of perceived social support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 349–355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.50.2.349
    Cutrona, C. E. (1989). Ratings of social support by adolescents and adult informants: Degree of correspondence and prediction of depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 723–730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.4.723
    Cutrona, C. E. (1990). Stress and social support: In search of optimal matching. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 3–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1990.9.1.3
    Cutrona, C. E. (1996). The interplay of negative and supportive behaviors in marriage. In G.Pierce, B.Sarason, & I.Sarason (Eds.), Handbook of social support and the family. New York: Plenum.
    Cutrona, C. E., Cohen, B. B., & Igram, S. (1990). Contextual determinants of the perceived supportiveness of helping behaviors. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 553–562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407590074011
    Cutrona, C. E., & Russell, D. (1990). Type of social support and specific stress: Toward a theory of optimal matching. In I. G.Sarason, B. R.Sarason, & G.Pierce (Eds.), Social support: An interactional view (pp. 319–366). New York: John Wiley.
    Cutrona, C. E., & Suhr, J. A. (1992). Controllability of stressful events and satisfaction with spouse support behaviors. Communication Research, 19, 154–176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009365092019002002
    Cutrona, C. E., & Suhr, J. A. (1994). Social support communication in the context of marriage: An analysis of couples’ supportive interactions. In B. B.Burleson, T. L.Albrecht, & I. G.Sarason (Eds.), Communication of social support: Messages, relationships, and community (pp. 113–135). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Cutrona, C. E., Suhr, J. A., & MacFarlane, R. (1990). Interpersonal transactions and the psychological sense of support. In S.Duck & R.Silver (Eds.), Personal relationships and social support (pp. 30–45). London: Sage.
    Davidson, B., Balswick, J., & Halverson, C. (1983). Affective self-disclosure and marital adjustment: A test of equity theory. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45, 93–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351298
    DePaulo, B. (1982). Social-psychological processes in informal help seeking. In T. A.Wills (Ed.), Basic processes in helping relationships (pp. 255–279). New York: Academic Press.
    Derlega, V. J., Metts, S., Petronio, S., & Margulis, S. (1993). Self-disclosure. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Deutsch, M. (1969). Conflicts: Productive and destructive. Journal of Social Issues, 25, 7–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1969.tb02576.x
    Duck, S. (1981). Toward a research map for the study of relationship breakdown. In S.Duck & R.Gilmour (Eds.), Personal relationships: Personal relationships in disorder (pp. 1–29). New York: Academic Press.
    Duck, S. W., & Silver, R. C. (1990). Personal relationships and social support. London: Sage.
    Dunkel-Schetter, C., & Bennett, T. L. (1990). Differentiating the cognitive and behavioral aspects of social support. In B. R.Sarason, I. G.Sarason, & G. R.Pierce (Eds.), Social support: An interactional view (pp. 267–296). New York: John Wiley.
    Dunkel-Schetter, C., & Wortman, C. B. (1982). The interpersonal dynamics of cancer: Problems in social relationships and their impact on the patient. In H. S.Friedman & M. R.DiMatteo (Eds.), Interpersonal issues in health care (pp. 69–100). New York: Academic Press.
    Eckenrode, J. (1983). The mobilization of social supports: Some individual constraints. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 509–528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00896802
    Eidelson, R. J. (1980). Interpersonal satisfaction and level of involvement: A curvilinear relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 460–470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.39.3.460
    Ervin, C. V. (1973). Psychological adjustment to mastectomy. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 1, 42–65.
    Feshbach, S. (1986). Reconceptualization of anger: Some research perspectives. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4, 123–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1986.4.2.123
    Fincham, F. D., & Bradbury, T. N. (1990). Social support in marriage: The role of social cognition. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 31–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1990.9.1.31
    Fiore, J., Becker, J., & Coppel, D. B. (1983). Social network interactions: A buffer or a stress?American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 423–439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00894057
    Flor, H., Kerns, R. D., & Turk, D. C. (1984). The spouse and chronic pain: A behavioral analysis. Unpublished manuscript.
    Flor, H., & Turk, D. C. (1984). Etiological theories and treatments for chronic back pain: 1. Somatic factors and interventions. Pain, 19, 105–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959%2884%2990831-5
    Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1980). An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21, 219–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136617
    Fordyce, W. E. (1976). Behavioral methods in chronic pain and illness. St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby.
    Fordyce, W. E. (1978). Learning processes in chronic pain. In R. A.Sternbach (Ed.), The psychology of pain (pp. 49–72). New York: Raven.
    Fordyce, W. E., Fowler, R. S., Lehmann, J., DeLateur, B., Sand, P., & Treischmann, R. (1973). Operant conditioning in the treatment of chronic pain. Archives of Physical Rehabilitation, 54, 486–488.
    Freedman, M. (1995). The effects of marital quality, sense of control, and SES on psychological distress in the context of a natural disaster: A prospective study. Unpublished master's thesis, Iowa State University, Ames.
    Fruzzetti, A. E., & Jacobson, N. S. (1990). Toward a behavioral conceptualization of adult intimacy: Implications for marital therapy. In E. A.Blechman (Ed.), Emotions and the family: For better or worse (pp. 117–135). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Funch, D. P., & Marshall, J. (1983). The role of stress, social support and age in survival of breast cancer. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 27, 77–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999%2883%2990112-5
    Gates, C. C. (1980). Husbands of mastectomy patients. Patient Counseling & Health Education, 2 (1), 38–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0738-3991%2880%2980028-0
    Geiss, S. K., & O'Leary, D. (1981). Therapist ratings of frequency and severity of marital problems: Implications for research. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 7, 515–520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1981.tb01407.x
    Gergen, M. M., & Gergen, K. J. (1983). Interpretive dimensions of international aid. In A.Nadler, J. D.Fisher, & B. M.DePaulo (Eds.), New directions in helping (pp. 329–348). New York: Academic Press.
    Gillis, C. L. (1984). Reducing family stress during and after coronary bypass surgery. Nursing Clinics of North America, 19, 1103–1111.
    Gotlib, I. H., & McCabe, S. B. (1990). Marriage and psychopathology. In F. D.Fincham & T. N.Bradbury (Eds.), The psychology of marriage (pp. 226–257). New York: Guilford.
    Gottlieb, B. H. (1985). Social support and the study of personal relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 351–375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407585023007
    Gottlieb, B. H., & Wagner, F. (1991). Stress and support processes in close relationships. In J.Eckenrode (Ed.), The social context of coping (pp. 165–188). New York: Plenum.
    Gottman, J. M. (1979). Marital interaction: Experimental investigations. New York: Academic Press.
    Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (1985). A valid procedure for obtaining self-report of affect in marital interaction. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 151–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.53.2.151
    Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (1986). Assessing the role of emotion in marriage. Behavioral Assessment, 8, 31–48.
    Gottman, J. M., Markman, H., & Notarius, C. (1977). The topography of marital conflict: A sequential analysis of verbal and nonverbal behavior. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 39, 460–477. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/350902
    Gove, W. R., Hughes, M., & Style, C. B. (1983). Does marriage have positive effects on the psychological well-being of the individual?Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 122–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136639
    Hall, J., & Taylor, S. E. (1976). When love is blind. Human Relations, 29, 751–761. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872677602900804
    Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.3.511
    Helmrath, T. A., & Steinitz, E. M. (1978). Death of an infant: Parental grieving and the failure of social support. Journal of Family Practice, 6, 785–790.
    Hendrick, S. S., & Hendrick, C. (1992). Romantic love. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Hirsch, B. J. (1979). Psychological dimensions of social networks: A multi-method analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology, 7, 263–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00890691
    Hobfoll, S. E. (1991). Gender differences in stress reactions: Women filling the gaps. Psychology and Health, 5, 95–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870449108400413
    Holmes, J. G., & Rempel, J. K. (1989). Trust in close relationships. In C.Hendrick (Ed.), Close relationships (pp. 187–221). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452220437
    House, J. S. (1981). Work stress and social support. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Husaini, B. A., Neff, J. A., Newbrough, J. R., & Moore, M. C. (1982). The stress-buffering role of social support and personal confidence among the rural married. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10, 409–426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629%28198210%2910:4%3C409::AID-JCOP2290100410%3E3.0.CO;2-D
    Huston-Hoburg, L., & Strange, C. (1986). Spouse support among male and female returning adult students. Journal of College Student Personnel, 27, 388–394.
    Hyman, M. D. (1971). Social isolation and performance in rehabilitation. Journal of Chronic Disease, 25, 85–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681%2872%2990144-0
    Izard, C. E. (1991). The psychology of emotions. New York: Plenum.
    Jacobson, N. S., & Margolin, G. (1979). Marital therapy: Strategies based on social learning and behavior exchange principles. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Jacobson, N. S., Waldron, H., & Moore, D. (1980). Toward a behavioral profile of marital distress. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 696–703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.48.6.696
    Jamison, K. R., Wellisch, D. K., & Pasnau, R. O. (1978). Psychosocial aspects of mastectomy: 1. The man's perspective. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 432–436.
    Johnson, E. H. (1990). The deadly emotions: The role of anger, hostility and aggression in health and emotional well-being. New York: Praeger.
    Julien, D., & Markman, H. J. (1991). Social support and social networks as determinants of individual and marital outcomes. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 8, 549–568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026540759184006
    Jung, J. (1987). Toward a social psychology of social support. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 8, 57–83.
    Kaplan, B. H., Cassel, J. C., & Gore, S. (1977). Social support and health. Medical Care, 15, 47–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-197705001-00006
    Kaplan, D. M., Smith, A., Grobstein, R., & Fischman, S. E. (1973). Family mediation of stress. Social Work, 18, 60–69.
    Kelley, H. H. (1973). The process of causal attribution. American Psychologist, 26, 107–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034225
    Kelley, H. H. (1979). Personal relationships: Their structure and process. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Kelley, H. H. (1983). Love and commitment. In H. H.Kelley, E.McClintock, L. A.Peplau, & D. R.Peterson (Eds.), Close relationships (pp. 265–314). New York: Freeman.
    Kelley, H. H., & Thibaut, J. W. (1978). Interpersonal relationship: A theory of interdependence. New York: John Wiley.
    Kerns, R. D., & Turk, D. C. (1984). Depression and chronic pain: The mediating role of the spouse. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 46, 845–852. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352532
    Kessler, R. C., & McLeod, J. D. (1984). Sex differences in vulnerability to undesirable life events. American Sociological Review, 49, 620–631. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095420
    Kessler, R. C., & McLeod, J. D. (1985). Social support and mental health in community samples. In S.Cohen & S. L.Syme (Eds.), Social support and health (pp. 219–240). New York: Academic Press.
    Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Dyer, C. S., & Shuttleworth, E. C. (1988). Upsetting social interactions and distress among Alzheimer's disease family caregivers: A replication and extension. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 825–837. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00930895
    Kline, N. W., & Warren, B. A. (1983). The relationship between husband and wife perceptions of the prescribed health regimen and level of function in the marital couple post-myocardial infarction. Family Practice Research Journal, 2, 271–280.
    Koch, A. (1985). “If only it could be me”: The families of pediatric cancer patients. Family Relations, 34, 63–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/583758
    Kohen, J. A. (1983). Old but not alone: Informal social supports among the elderly by marital status and sex. The Gerontologist, 23, 57–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/23.1.57
    Krantz, S. E., & Moos, R. H. (1987). Functional and life context among spouses of remitted and non-remitted depressed patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 353–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.3.353
    Krause, N. (1987). Understanding the stress process: Linking social support with locus of control beliefs. Journal of Gerontology, 42, 589–593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/42.6.589
    Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On death and dying. New York: Macmillan.
    Kurdek, L. A. (1987). Sex role self schema and psychological adjustment in coupled homosexual and heterosexual men and women. Sex Roles, 17, 549–562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287735
    Kurdek, L. A. (1989). Relationship quality in gay and lesbian cohabiting couples: A 1-year follow-up study. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 6, 39–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026540758900600103
    Lakey, B., & Lutz, C. (in press). Social support and preventive and therapeutic interventions. In G. R.Pierce, B. R.Sarason, & I. G.Sarason (Eds.), The handbook of social support and the family. New York: Plenum.
    Lane, C., & Hobfoll, S. E. (1992). How loss affects anger and alienates potential supporters. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychobgy, 60, 935–942. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.6.935
    Lansky, S. B., Cairns, N. U., Hassanein, R., Wehr, J., & Lowman, J. T. (1978). Childhood cancer: Parental discord and divorce. Pediatrics, 62, 184–188.
    Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Coping and adaptation. In W. D.Gentry (Ed.), The handbook of behavioral medicine (pp. 282–325). New York: Guilford.
    Leatham, G., & Duck, S. (1990). Conversations with friends and the dynamics of social support. In S.Duck & R. C.Silver (Eds.), Personal relationships and social support (pp. 1–29). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Lefcourt, H. M. (1981). Locus of control and stressful life events. In B. S.Dohrenwend & B. P.Dohrenwend (Eds.), Stressful life events and their contexts (pp. 157–166). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Lehman, D. R., Ellard, J. H., & Wortman, C. B. (1986). Social support for the bereaved: Recipients’ and providers’ perspectives on what is helpful. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 438–446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.54.4.438
    Lehman, D. R., Lang, E. L., Wortman, C. B., & Sorenson, S. B. (1989). Long-term effects of sudden bereavement: Marital and parent-child relationships and children's reactions. Journal of Family Psychology, 2, 344–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0080505
    Leppin, A., & Schwarzer, R. (1990). Social support and physical health: An updated meta-analysis. In J.Weinman & S.Maes (Eds.), Theoretical and applied aspects of health psychobgy (pp. 185–202). London: Harwood.
    Levav, I. (1982). Mortality and psychopathology following the death of an adult child: An epidemiological review. Israeli Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 19, 23–28.
    Levenson, R. W., & Gottman, J. M. (1985). Physiological and affective predictors of change in relationship satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 85–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.49.1.85
    Levinger, G. (1983). Development and change. In H. H.Kelley, E. McClintock, L. A.Peplau, & D. R.Peterson (Eds.), Close relationships (pp. 315–359). New York: Freeman.
    Libman, E., Takefman, J., & Brender, W. (1980). A comparison of sexually dysfunctional, maritally disturbed and well-adjusted couples. Personality and Individual Differences, 1 (3), 219–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2880%2990054-9
    Lichtman, R. R., Taylor, S. E., & Wood, J. V. (1987). Social support and marital adjustment after breast cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 5, 47–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J077v05n03_03
    Lieberman, M. A. (1982). The effects of social supports on response to stress. In L.Goldberger & S.Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (pp. 764–784). New York: Academic Press.
    Lin, N. (1986). Conceptualizing social support. In N.Lin, A.Dean, & W.Ensel (Eds.), Social support, life events, and depression (pp. 17–48). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
    Liotta, R. F., Jason, L. A., Robinson, W., & LaVigne, V. (1985). A behavioral approach for measuring social support. Family Therapy, 12(3), 285–295.
    Lowenthal, M. F., & Haven, C. (1968). Interaction and adaptation: Intimacy as a critical variable. American Sociological Review, 30, 20–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2092237
    Marine, S. L., & Zautra, A. J. (1989). Spouse criticism and support: Their association with coping and psychological adjustment among women with rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 608–617. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.4.608
    Margolin, G., & Wampold, B. E. (1981). Asequential analysis of conflict and accord in distressed and nondistressed marital partners. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 554–567. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.49.4.554
    Maruta, T., Osborne, D., Swanson, D. W., & Hallnig, J. M. (1981). Chronic pain patients and spouses: Marital and sexual adjustments. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 56, 307–310.
    Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    McCubbin, H. I., & Patterson, J. M. (1983). Family adaptation to crises. In H. I.McCubbin, A. E.Cauble, & J. M.Patterson (Eds.), Family stress, coping, and social support (pp. 26–47). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Melamed, B. G., & Brenner, G. F. (1990). Social support and chronic medical stress: An interaction-based approach. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 104–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1990.9.1.104
    Menaghan, E. (1982). Measuring coping effectiveness: A panel analysis of marital problems and coping efforts. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 23, 220–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136631
    Newcomb, M. D. (1990). Social support by many other names: Towards a unified conceptualization. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 479–494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407590074005
    Newman, S. (1984). The social and emotional consequences of head injuries and stroke. International Review of Applied Psychology, 33, 427–455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1984.tb01448.x
    Nixon, J., & Pearn, J. (1977). Emotional sequelae of parents and siblings following the drowning or near-drowning of a child. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 11, 265–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00048677709159576
    Oakley, G. P., & Patterson, R. B. (1966). The psychological management of leukemic children and their families. North Carolina Medical Journal, 27, 186–192.
    O'Hara, M. (1986). Social support, life events, and depression during pregnancy and the puerperium. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 569–573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1986.01800060063008
    O'Neil, J. M. (1981). Male sex role conflicts, sexism, and masculinity: Psychological implications for men, women, and the counseling psychologist. The Counseling Psychologist, 9, 61–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001100008100900213
    Parsons, T., & Fox, R. (1958). Illness, therapy, and the American family. Journal of Social Issues, 8, 31–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1952.tb01861.x
    Pearlin, L. I., & McCall, M. E. (1990). Occupational stress and marital support: A description of microprocesses. In J.Eckenrode & S.Gore (Eds.), Stress between work and family (pp. 39–60). New York: Plenum.
    Pearlin, L. I., & Schooler, C. (1978). The structure of coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 19, 2–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136319
    Peterson, D. R. (1983). Conflict. In H. H.Kelley, E.Berscheid, A.Christensen, J. H.Harvey, T. L.Huston, G.Levinger, E.McClintock, L. A.Peplau, & D. R.Peterson (Eds.), Close relationships (pp. 360–396). San Francisco: Freeman.
    Planalp, S. (1987). Interplay between relational knowledge and events. In R.Burnett, P.McGhee, & D. D.Clarke (Eds.), Accounting for relationships: Explanations, representation and knowledge (pp. 175–191). New York: Methuen.
    Procidano, M. E., & Heller, K. (1983). Measures of perceived social support from friends and from family: Three validation studies. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00898416
    Ptacek, J. T., Smith, R. E., & Zanas, J. (1992). Gender, appraisal, and coping: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Personality, 60, 747–770. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00272.x
    Rabkin, J. G., & Streuning, E. L. (1976). Life events, stress, and illness. Science, 194, 1013–1020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.790570
    Rainwater, L. (1969). Sex in the culture of poverty. In C.Broderick & J.Bernard (Eds.), Individual, sex, and society (pp. 129–140). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Raush, H. L., Barry, W. A., Hertel, R. K., & Swain, M. A. (1974). Communication, conflict, and marriage. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Repetti, R. L. (1989). Effects of daily workload on subsequent behavior during marital interaction: The roles of social withdrawal and spouse support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 651–659. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.4.651
    Revenson, T. A., & Majerovitz, S. D. (1991). The effects of chronic illness on the spouse. Arthritis Care and Research, 4, 63–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.1790040203
    Revenstorf, D., Vogel, B., Wegener, K., Hahlweg, K., & Schindler, L. (1980). Escalation phenomenon in interaction sequences: An empirical comparison of distressed and nondistressed couples. Behavioral Analysis and Modification, 4, 97–115.
    Rogers, C. (1942). Counseling and psychotherapy: Newer concepts in practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rook, K. S. (1984a). Research on social support, loneliness, and social isolation: Toward an integration. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 239–264.
    Rook, K. S. (1984b). The negative side of social interaction: Impact on psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 1097–1108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.46.5.1097
    Rosario, M., Shinn, M., Morch, H., & Huckabee, C. B. (1988). Gender differences in coping and social supports: Testing socialization and role constraint theories. Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 55–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629%28198801%2916:1%3C55::AID-JCOP2290160108%3E3.0.CO;2-U
    Rubin, Z. (1973a). Liking and loving: An invitation to social psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Rubin, Z. (1973b). Measurement of romantic love. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 265–273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0029841
    Ruble, D. (1988). Changes in the marital relationship during the transition to first time motherhood: Effects of violated expectations concerning division of household labor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 78–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.55.1.78
    Russell, C. S. (1988). Marriages under stress: A research perspective. In E. W.Nunnally, C. S.Chilman, & F. M.Cox (Eds.), Troubled relationships (pp. 17–29). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Sager, C. (1976). Marriage contracts and couple therapy: Hidden forces in intimate relationships. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Sarason, B., Sarason, I. G., Hacker, T. A., & Basham, R. B. (1985). Concomitants of social support: Social skills, physical attractiveness, and gender. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 469–480. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.49.2.469
    Schenk, J., Pfrang, H., & Rausche, A. (1983). Personality traits versus the quality of the marital relationship as the determinant of marital sexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 31–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542114
    Schuster, T. L., Kessler, R. C., & Aseltine, R. H., Jr. (1990). Supportive interactions, negative interactions, and depressed mood. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 423–438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00938116
    Schwarzer, R., & Leppin, A. (1989). Social support and health: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Health, 3, 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870448908400361
    Schwarzer, R., & Leppin, A. (1991). Social support and health: A theoretical and empirical overview. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 8, 99–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407591081005
    Shanfield, S. B., & Swain, B. J. (1984). Death of adult children in traffic accidents. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172, 533–538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198409000-00004
    Silver, R. L., & Wortman, C. B. (1980). Coping with undesirable life events. In J.Garber & M. E. P.Seligman (Eds.), Human helplessness: Theory and applications (pp. 279–375). New York: Academic Press.
    Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S., & Nelligan, J. S. (1992). Support seeking and support giving within couples in an anxiety-provoking situation: The role of attachment styles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 434–446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.62.3.434
    Spiegel, D., Bloom, J. R., & Gottheil, E. (1983). Family environment as a predictor of adjustment to metastatic breast carcinoma. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 1, 33–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J077v01n01_04
    Steck, L., Levitan, D., McLane, D., & Kelley, H. H. (1982). Care, need, and conceptions of love. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 387–411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.43.3.481
    Stehbens, J. A., & Lascari, A. D. (1974). Psychological follow-up of families with childhood leukemia. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 394–397. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28197407%2930:3%3C394::AID-JCLP2270300354%3E3.0.CO;2-L
    Stokes, J. P., & Wilson, D. G. (1984). The inventory of socially supportive behaviors: Dimensionality, prediction, and gender differences. American Journal of Community Psychology, 12, 53–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00896928
    Stone, A. A., & Neale, J. M. (1984). New measure of daily coping: Development and preliminary results. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 219–239.
    Suhr, J. (1990). The development of the social support behavior code. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
    Swanson, D. W., & Maruta, T. (1980). The family viewpoint of chronic pain. Pain, 8, 163–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959%2888%2990003-6
    Taylor, S. E., & Koivumaki, J. H. (1976). The perception of self and others: Acquaintanceship, affect, and actor-observer differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 403–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.33.4.403
    Taylor, S. E., Lichtman, R. R., & Wood, J. V. (1984). Attributions, beliefs about control, and adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 489–502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.46.3.489
    Thoits, P. A. (1986). Social support as coping assistance. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 416–423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.54.4.416
    Thoits, P. A. (1991). Gender differences in coping with emotional distress. In J.Eckenrode (Ed.), The social context of coping (pp. 107–138). New York: Plenum.
    Thoits, P. A. (1992). Social support functions and network structures: A supplemental view. In H. O. F.Veiel & U.Baumann (Eds.), The meaning and measurement of social support (pp. 57–61). New York: Hemisphere.
    Thompson, S. C. (1992). Living with cancer. Unpublished manuscript, Pomona College, Claremont, CA.
    Thompson, S. C., Bundek, N. I., & Sobolew-Shubin, A. (1990). The caregivers of stroke patients: An investigation of factors associated with depression. Journal of Applied Psychology, 20, 115–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1990.tb00402.x
    Thompson, S. C., & Pitts, J. S. (1992). In sickness and in health: Chronic illness, marriage, and spousal caregiving. In S.Spacapan & S.Oskamp (Eds.), Helping and being helped (pp. 115–151). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Thompson, S. C., & Sobolew-Shubin, A. (1993). Overprotective relationships: A nonsupportive side of social networks. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 14, 363–383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp1403_8
    Thompson, S. C., Sobolew-Shubin, A., Graham, M. A., & Janigian, A. S. (1989). Psychosocial adjustment following a stroke. Social Science and Medicine, 28, 239–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2889%2990267-0
    Turner, R. J., Frankel, B. G., & Levin, D. M. (1983). Social support: Conceptualization, measurement, and implications for mental health. In J. R.Greenley (Ed.), Research in community and mental health (pp. 67–111). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Vachon, M. L. S. (1979, August). The importance of social support in the longitudinal adaptation to bereavement and breast cancer. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York.
    Vanfossen, B. E. (1981). Sex differences in the mental health effects of spouse support and equity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 130–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136289
    Vanfossen, B. E. (1986). Sex differences in depression: The role of spouse support. In S. E.Hobfoll (Ed.), Stress, social support, and women (pp. 69–84). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
    Vaux, A. (1985). Variations in social support associated with gender, ethnicity, and age. Journal of Social Issues, 41, 89–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1985.tb01118.x
    Vaux, A. (1988). Social support: Theory, research, and intervention. New York: Praeger.
    Vaux, A., Burda, P., Jr., & Stewart, D. (1986). Orientation towards utilizing support resources. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 159–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629%28198604%2914:2%3C159::AID-JCOP2290140207%3E3.0.CO;2-H
    Veroff, J., Kulka, R., & Douvan, E. (1981). Mental health in America: Patterns of help-seeking from 1957 to 1976. New York: Basic Books.
    Vess, J. D., Moreland, J. R., Schwebel, A. I., & Kraut, E. (1988). Psychosocial needs of cancer patients: Learning from patients and their spouses. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 6, 31–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J077v06n01_03
    Vinokur, A. D., & van Ryn, M. (1993). Social support and undermining in close relationships: Their independent effects on the mental health of unemployed persons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 350–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.2.350
    Vinokur, A. D., & Vinokur-Kaplan, D. (1990). In sickness and in health: Patterns of social support and undermining in older married couples. Journal of Aging and Health, 2, 215–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089826439000200205
    Walster, D. T., Berscheid, E., & Walster, G. W. (1973). New directions in equity research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25, 151–176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0033967
    Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 465–490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.96.3.465
    Weiner, B. (1980). A cognitive (attribution)-emotion-action model of motivated behavior: An analysis of judgments of help giving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 196–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.39.2.186
    Weisman, A. D. (1979). Coping with cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Weisman, A. D., & Worden, J. W. (1975). Psychological analysis of cancer deaths. Omega, 6, 61–75.
    Weiss, R. (1974). The provisions of social relations. In Z.Rubin (Ed.), Doing unto others (pp. 17–26). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Weiss, R. (1985). Men and the family. Family Process, 24, 49–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1985.00049.x
    Wellisch, D. K., Jamison, K. R., & Pasnau, R. O. (1978). Psychosocial aspects of mastectomy: 2. The man's perspective. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 543–546.
    Wethington, E., & Kessler, R. C. (1986). Perceived support, received support, and adjustment to stressful life events. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 27, 78–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136504
    Wheaton, B. (1980). The sociogenesis of psychological disorder: An attributional theory. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21, 100–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136730
    Wheeler, L., Reis, H., & Nezlek, J. (1983). Loneliness, social interaction, and sex roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 943–953. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.4.943
    Williamson, D. J., Brenner, G. F., Robinson, M., & Melamed, B. G. (1989, October). Social influences on pain behavior in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Pain Society, Phoenix, AZ.
    Wong, M. M., & Czikszintmihalyi, M. (1991). Affiliation motivation and daily experience: Some issues on gender differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 154–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.60.1.154
    Wortman, C. B., & Dunkel-Schetter, C. (1979). Interpersonal relationships and cancer: A theoretical analysis. Journal of Social Issues, 35, 120–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1979.tb00792.x
    Wortman, C. B., & Lehman, D. R. (1985). Reactions to victims of life crises: Support attempts that fail. In I. G.Sarason & B. R.Sarason (Eds.), Social support: Theory, research and applications (pp. 463–489). The Hague, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5115-0_24
    Yankeelov, P. A., Barbee, A. P., Cunningham, M. R., & Druen, P. (1991, June). Interactive coping in romantic relationships. Paper presented at the International Conference on Personal Relationships, Normal, IL.

    About the Author

    Carolyn E. Cutrona is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at Iowa State University. She also has an appointment at the Center for Family Research in Rural Mental Health at Iowa State. Prior to her present position, she was on the faculty at the University of Iowa for 12 years. A licensed clinical psychologist, she has taught graduate and undergraduate courses on depression, stress and coping, and marital and family therapy. She is currently a principal investigator on a large-scale collaborative longitudinal study of rural families that examines the role of community variables, network characteristics, social support, personal characteristics, and other factors in the prediction of mental health among both parents and children. She has studied social support processes in a number of stressed populations, including adolescent mothers, caregivers for Alzheimer's patients, spouses of cancer patients, and the elderly. She has published extensively in clinical psychology, social psychology, and interdisciplinary journals. She is a past Associate Editor of the Personality Processes and Individual Differences Section of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Her current interests include social support in marriage and families, observational methods for studying social support, and support processes in rural populations.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website