Shared Leadership: Reframing the Hows and Whys of Leadership

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Edited by: Craig L. Pearce & Jay A. Conger

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Conceptual Models of Shared Leadership

    Part II: Methodological Issues in the Study of Shared Leadership

    Part III: The Study of Shared Leadership in Applied Settings

    Part IV: Critique of Shared Leadership Theory

  • Dedication

    Dedicated to Clayton L. “Bud” Pearce Wilma “Sally” Pearce and Nathaniel Alden Conger Zoe Elise Conger

    Copyright

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    Preface

    Overview of the Book

    Leadership has historically been conceived around an individual and his or her relationship to subordinates or followers. As a result, the leadership field has focused its attention on the behaviors, mindsets, and actions of the leader in a team or organization. This paradigm has dominated our thinking in the organizational behavior field for decades. In recent years, however, a few scholars have challenged this notion, arguing that leadership is an activity that is shared or distributed among members of a group or organization. For example, depending on the demands of the moment, individuals can rise to the occasion to exhibit leadership and then step back at other times to allow others to lead. This line of thinking is gaining attention among leadership scholars. Yet our understanding of the dynamics and opportunities for shared leadership is still quite primitive. Given the infancy of the field, it is timely to introduce a volume on the subject that would significantly “jumpstart” our knowledge. Shared Leadership is designed to do just that. It brings together in one resource the foremost thinkers on the subject. Its aim is to advance our understanding along the many dimensions of the shared leadership phenomenon: its dynamics, moderators, appropriate settings, facilitating factors, contingencies, measurement, practice implications, and directions for future research.

    Why is Shared Leadership an Important Topic?

    Today, the fastest growing organizational unit is the team, specifically cross-functional teams. What distinguishes these groups from traditional organizational forms is often the absence of hierarchical authority. Although a cross-functional team may have a formally appointed leader, this individual is more commonly treated as a peer—opening the door to shared leadership. Leadership is therefore not determined by positions of authority but rather by an individual's capacity to influence peers and by the needs of the team in any given moment. In addition, each member of the team brings unique perspectives, knowledge, and capabilities to the team. At different junctures in the team's life, there are moments when these differing background characteristics provide a platform for leadership to be distributed among the team.

    Moreover, it is important to remember that teamwork and its implications for shared leadership are not limited to junior levels of the organizations. For example, at the very peak of corporations, there have been a growing number of experiments in which leadership is being shared. At Dell, for instance, there is an “office of the CEO” where the responsibilities of the chief executive are distributed among several executives. As organizations and their worlds grow more and more complex, it is increasingly difficult for a single individual holding the position of chief executive officer to lead. In many ways, organizations are today ripe for shared leadership across all levels.

    Although the need for shared leadership has grown, our knowledge of it lags seriously behind. Mentioned in our introductory chapter is the fact that the leadership field has focused almost entirely on conceptions of the leader as a single individual to the neglect of distributed forms of leadership. As a result, there have only been a small number of published studies to examine distributed forms of leadership. It seems timely in light of the growing demand and opportunities for shared leadership that a volume that pushes the boundaries of our current knowledge be produced.

    Audience for the Book

    This book will be attractive for a number of audiences. First, there is a large community of academics in the leadership, management, organizational behavior, industrial/organizational psychology, and social psychology fields who are concerned about team effectiveness, leadership, executive behavior, and organizational performance. They will find this volume full of new findings, theoretical advances, and future research directions. Second, Shared Leadership would be very appropriate as a text in an organizational behavior or general management course or as a principal text in a seminar devoted to teamwork or leadership. Finally, practitioners will have an interest in the book—specifically, individuals engaged in leadership and team development either as consultants or internal company resources. Managers who have a keen interest in building more effective teams and in their own approaches to leadership will find important lessons as well.

    Acknowledgements

    Many people deserve acknowledgement for their roles in helping this book become a reality. First, we are both thankful for the colleagues we have around us at our respective institutions. We would specifically like to thank Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Jean Lipman-Blumen for their helpful comments on our introductory chapter. Also, the administrative assistance of Tamer Awad and Sandra Dirks was indispensable in bringing together the final copy.

    The authors of the chapters deserve special recognition. Not only did they agree to contribute chapters, but also they produced outstanding contributions that provide the foundations for advancing future scholarship in the realm of shared leadership. We would also like to thank Henry P. Sims, Jr., for his continued encouragement on this project. Finally, as the coeditors of a volume on shared leadership, we would like to recognize each other for mastering the sharing of leadership roles on this volume. We can say from our own experience that leadership can indeed be shared.

    Craig L.Pearce
    Jay A.Conger
  • Author Index

    About the Contributors

    Craig L. Pearce is Assistant Professor of Management at the Peter F. Drucker Graduate School of Management at Claremont Graduate University. His areas of expertise include leadership, teamwork, and change management. He has won several awards for his research, including an award from the Center for Creative Leadership for his research on shared leadership. His research has appeared in Organizational Dynamics, Journal of Management, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, Journal of Managerial Issues, Advances in Interdisciplinary Studies of Work Teams, Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Human Resource Management Review, Journal of Management Systems, The Future of Leadership Development, and Improving Leaderhip in Nonprofit Organizations as well as other publications. He serves on the board of directors of Small Potatoes, Inc., an agricultural biotech company. He is also the co-founder of the Risk Assessment Institute, an organization that works primarily with venture capital firms in conducting due diligence work on start-up organizations, as well as on mergers and acquisitions. One of the primary tools of the Risk Assessment Institute is the Top Management Team Evaluator, which can be viewed online at http://www.tmtevaluator.com.

    Prior to beginning an academic career, he worked as an international management consultant in the area of process reengineering, organizational development, and turnaround management. His clients have included AAI, ACNielsen, American Express, British Bakeries, GEICO Insurance, Land Rover, Mack Trucks, Manor Bakeries, Pickering Foods, Rayovac, The Rouse Company, Rover Cars, and Serono. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Maryland, his M.BA. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and his B.S. (hons.) from Pennsylvania State University.

    Jay A. Conger is Professor of Organizational Behavior at the London Business School and Senior Research Scientist at the Center for Effective Organizations at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. Formerly the executive director of the Leadership Institute at the University of Southern California, he is an expert on leadership. Business Week named him as number five on its list of the world's top ten management gurus. He has also been selected by Business Week as the best business school professor to teach leadership to executives. In 2001, he was awarded by the Center for Creative Leadership their H. Smith Richardson Fellowship for his research on leadership. Author of over 90 articles and book chapters and 10 books, he researches leadership, innovation, boards of directors, organizational change, and the training and development of leaders and managers. His articles have appeared in the Academy of Management Review, Harvard Business Review, the Journal of Organizational Behavior, the Leadership Quarterly, and Organizational Dynamics. His books include Corporate Boards: New Strategies for Adding Value at the Top (2001), Building Leaders (1999), and Charismatic Leadership in Organizations (1998). His book Charismatic Leadership in Organizations (1998) received the Choice Book Award in 1999. He received his B.A. from Dartmouth College, his M.B.A. from the University of Virginia, and his D.B.A. from the Harvard Business School.

    Bruce J. Avolio (Ph.D., University of Akron) is the Donald and Shirley Clifton Chair in Leadership at the University of Nebraska in the College of Business Administration. Previously, he was codirector of the Global Center for Leadership Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton. He has an international reputation as a researcher in leadership, having published over 80 articles and book chapters. He consults with a large number of organizations in North America, South America, Africa, Europe, Southeast Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and Israel. His research and consulting includes work with the militaries of the United States of America, Singapore, Sweden, Finland, Israel, South Africa, and Europe. His latest book is titled Full Leadership Development: Building the Vital Forces in Organizations (Sage, 1999). His forthcoming book is Leadership Development in Balance: Made/Born.

    C. Shawn Burke, Ph.D., is Research Associate at the University of Central Florida, Institute for Simulation and Training. Her primary research interests include teams, team leadership, team training and measurement, and team effectiveness. She has presented at numerous conferences, has published in several scientific journals on the topics of teams and team training, and serves as an ad hoc reviewer for the Human Factors journal. She earned her doctorate degree in 2000 from George Mason University in industrial and organizational psychology.

    Jonathan F. Cox is a program manager with Dell Computer Corporation. Before joining Dell, he was a manager with the Change Leadership practice of Deloitte Consulting L.C. and an associate with the Center for the Study of Work Teams at the University of North Texas. His areas of expertise include change management, leadership, teamwork, and sociotechnical design. His work has appeared in Journal of Applied Psychology, Group and Organization Management, Advances in the Interdisciplinary Studies of Work Teams, and other publications. He has worked with a range of private- and public-sector clients representing telecommunications, insurance, industrial manufacturing, aerospace and defense, utilities, health care, law enforcement, and education. Representative clients include AT&T, IXC (now Broadwing), GEICO, Group NCH, Raytheon, Lockheed-Martin, Westinghouse, and Conectiv. He received his Ph.D. and M.A. in industrial and organizational psychology from the University of Maryland and his B.A. from Grinnell College.

    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi is C. S. and D. J. Davidson Professor of Psychology at the Peter F. Drucker Graduate School of Management at Claremont Graduate University and Director of the Quality of Life Research Center. He is also Emeritus Professor of Human Development at the University of Chicago, where he chaired the department of psychology. In addition to the influential Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (1990), which was translated into 15 languages, he is the author of 13 other books and some 210 research articles. His latest volume (with Howard Gardner and William Damon) is titled Good Work: When Excellence and Ethics Meet.

    Stephen M. Fiore, Ph.D., is Research Scientist at the University of Central Florida, Team Performance Laboratory. His research interests incorporate aspects of cognitive, social, and organizational psychology to investigate learning and problem solving. He is currently investigating the processes and products emerging from distributed learning environments and how advanced training technologies can accelerate perceptual learning processes. He serves as an ad hoc reviewer for journals such as Applied Cognitive Psychology, Human Factors, Group Processes, and Intergroup Relations.

    Joyce K. Fletcher is Professor of Management at the Center for Gender in Organizations, Simmons Graduate School of Management in Boston, and a Senior Research Scholar at the Jean Baker Miller Training Institute at the Wellesley College Centers for Women. She is the coauthor of a widely read Harvard Business Review article titled “A Modest Manifesto for Shattering the Glass Ceiling” and is a frequent speaker on the topics of women, power, and leadership. She is author of Disappearing Acts: Gender, Power and Relational Practice at Work (1999) and coauthor of a book on leading change titled Beyond Work Family Balance: Advancing Gender Equity and Workplace Performance (2002).

    Jay Galbraith is Professor Emeritus at the International Institute for Management Development (IMD) in Lausanne, Switzerland. He is also Senior Research Scientist at the Center for Effective Organizations at the University of Southern California. Prior to joining the faculty at USC, he directed his own management consulting firm. He has served on the faculties of the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania and the Sloan School of Management at MIT. His work focuses on the areas of organizational design, change, and development; strategy and organization at the corporate, business unit, and international levels; and international partnering arrangements including joint ventures and network-type organizations. His most recent book, Designing the Global Corporation, describes how leading multinational corporations address the demands of their increasingly global customers to provide solutions, not just products. Other books include Designing Organizations and Competing With Flexible Lateral Organizations. Edited volumes include Tomorrow's Organization and Organizing for the Future.

    John W. Garger is a doctoral candidate in the School of Management at State University of New York at Binghamton. He is pursuing his degree in management with a concentration in organizational behavior. His research interests include distance leadership, e-leadership, virtual teams, e-commerce, and the impacts of technology on the individual. His working papers include leader-member exchange in virtual teams, factors influencing individual adoption and use of web-based communication systems, and levels of analysis in e-leadership.

    Charles Hooker is a doctoral candidate in Emory University's joint J.D./Ph.D. program in Law and Religion. He holds an A.M. in Religious Studies from the University of Chicago, where he ventured into human development and began assisting Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi on the “Good Work” project. Following his time at Chicago, he worked for a year (2000–2001) as a Research Associate at the Quality of Life Research Center at the Peter F. Drucker School of Management at Claremont Graduate University. In conjunction with his doctoral work, he continues to research and write in the areas of mentorship, ethics in the professions, and cultural evolution.

    Jeffery D. Houghton, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Management at Abilene Christian University. His research specialties include the self-regulation of behavior and cognition, personality and individual differences, team performance and sustainability, and leadership. He has presented his research at various professional meetings and has published articles in a variety of respected journals. In addition to his research activities, he has given presentations and conducted training seminars for a number of organizations including the Bruce Hardwood Floors Company of Nashville, Tennessee.

    Don Jung (Ph.D., State University of New York at Binghamton) is Associate Professor of Management at San Diego State University, where he teaches courses in organizational behavior, international management, and international negotiations. His research interests include transformational/charismatic leadership, cross-cultural leadership, team dynamics, and international management. His publications have appeared in many scholarly journals such as the Academy of Management Journal, Leadership Quarterly, Group and Organization Management, Group Dynamics, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Journal of Occupational Psychology.

    Katrin Käufer is a visiting scholar at the MIT Sloan School of Management and a founding research member at the Society for Organizational Learning. Her current research focuses on methods for leading profound change processes in organizations and on distributed forms of leadership. She won an innovation award (Stiftung für Industrieforschung, Germany) for the development of an integrated study program at 12 universities around the world. She has consulted with a global pharmaceutical company, the World Bank, a learning network of small- and mid-sized companies, and nonprofit organizations, and is currently working with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) on civic dialogue.

    Tiffany Keller is Director of the Brain Leadership Program at Baldwin-Wallace College. Her research focuses on leader-follower relationships, implicit theories of leadership, and levels of analysis issues, and appears in Human Relations, Leadership Quarterly, and Organizational Research Methods. She is a member of the Academy of Management, American Psychological Association, International Leadership Association, and Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. She received her Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Buffalo in organizational behavior.

    Yael Lapidot is an organizational consultant and Lecturer at the College of Management, Tel-Aviv University. She holds an M.A. in organizational behavior from Tel-Aviv University and is currently completing her doctorate at the School of Business Administration, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Her work has been published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Her research interests are leadership and trust in organizations.

    Edward E. Lawler, III is Distinguished Professor of Business and Director of the Center for Effective Organizations in the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California. He joined USC in 1978 and, during 1979, founded and became director of the University's Center for Effective Organizations. He has consulted with over 100 organizations on employee involvement, organizational change, and compensation and has been honored as a top contributor to the fields of organizational development, organizational behavior, and compensation. The author of over 300 articles and 30 books, his works have been translated into seven languages. His most recent books include The Ultimate Advantage (1992), Organizing for the Future (1993), From the Ground Up: Six Principles forCreating the New Logic Corporation (1996), Tomorrow's Organization (1998), Strategies for High Performance Organizations—The CEO Report (1998), The Leadership Change Handbook (1999), Rewarding Excellence (2000), and Corporate Boards: New Strategies for Adding Value at the Top (2001). His most recent book is Organizing for High Performance (2001).

    Robert C. Liden is Synovus Chair of Servant Leadership in the Institute for Leadership Advancement and Professor of Management in the Terry College of Business at the University of Georgia. His research focuses on interpersonal processes as they relate to such topics as leadership, groups, career progression, and employment interviews. In 2000, he was inducted into the Academy of Management Journal's Hall of Fame. He has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Management and the Academy of Management Journal. In 2000–2001, he served as division chair of the Academy of Management's Organizational Behavior Division.

    Edwin A. Locke is Dean's Professor of Leadership and Motivation (Emeritus) at the R. H. Smith School of Business at the University of Maryland, College Park. He has published over 220 chapters, notes, and articles in professional journals on such subjects as work motivation, job satisfaction, incentives, and the philosophy of science. He is also the author or editor of 9 books, including Study Methods and Study Motivation (1998), Goal Setting: A Motivational Technique that Works (1984, with G. Latham), A Theory of Goal Setting and Task Performance (1990, with G. Latham), Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behavior (2000), and The Prime Movers: Traits of the Great Wealth Creators (AMACOM, 2000). He is internationally known for his research on goal setting. A survey of over 100 scholars in industrial-organizational psychology and organizational behavior ranked Locke's goal setting theory as one of the two most valid and useful theories in the field. He was a winner of the Outstanding Teacher-Scholar Award at the University of Maryland, the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and the Career Contribution Award from the Academy of Management (Human Resource Division). He is a member of the board of advisors of the Ayn Rand Institute, and is interested in the application of the philosophy of objectivism to the behavioral sciences. He received a Ph.D. in industrial psychology from Cornell University in 1964.

    Charles C. Manz, Ph.D., is Charles and Janet Nirenberg Professor of Business Leadership in the Isenberg School of Management at the University of Massachusetts. He is the author of over 100 articles and book chapters and 12 books including the bestsellers Business Without Bosses, SuperLeadership (which won the Stybel-Peabody Prize), and The Leadership Wisdom of Jesus. His publications have especially focused on empowering leadership, self-leadership, and work teams and have been translated into several foreign languages. He has also served as a consultant and executive trainer to numerous organizations including many Fortune 500 companies.

    Margarita Mayo is Professor in Organizational Behavior at the Instituto de Empresa, Spain. Her current research interests include leadership, self-directed work teams, social network theory, and diversity. Her research has been published in professional journals such as The Academy of Management Journal and The Leadership Quarterly and she has received an award from the Center for Creative Leadership. She earned a Ph.D. in organizational behavior from the State University of New York at Buffalo and a M.A. in social psychology from Clark University. She was a Visiting Fulbright Scholar at Harvard University.

    James R. Meindl is the Carmichael Professor of Organization and Human Resources at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He is broadly interested in the interplay between microprocesses and macrostructures. He has published numerous articles and book chapters in such areas as leadership and decision making, power and influence, justice and cooperative behavior, information processing, and group relations. He has served on the editorial boards of the Academy of Management Journal, Administrative Science Quarterly, and Academy of Management Review. He is also coeditor of an annual series titled Advances in Managerial Cognition and Organizational Information Processing. He is the recipient of the Chancellor's Teaching Excellence Award. He is an active member of the Academy of Management, where he is an executive member of the Organizational Behavior Division. He received his Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Waterloo.

    William D. Murry (Ph.D., Virginia Polytechnic Institute) is Assistant Professor of Management at the A. J. Palumbo School of Business Administration at Duquesne University, where he teaches leadership, strategy, organizational behavior, and human resource management classes at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Previously, he has taught at the State University of New York at Binghamton, Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI), and Roanoke College. His research and publications include the areas of leadership, team building, organizational cultures, affirmative action, sexual harassment, personality, and genetic testing in the workplace. His publications have appeared in Leadership Quarterly, Group and Organization Management, Journal of Business Ethics, Journal of Personality Assessment, Education and Psychological Measurement, and in such books as Leadership: The Multiple Level Approaches, The Impact of Management, and Advances in Interdisciplinary Studies of Work Teams. He has also presented numerous symposia and papers at multiple professional conferences.

    Christopher P. Neck, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Management at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He has published over 50 journal articles and book chapters and 3 books, including Mastering Self-Leadership: Empowering Yourself For Personal Excellence and Medicine for the Mind: Healing Words to Help You Soar. He has been cited in numerous national publications including the Wall Street Journal, the Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, Entrepreneur Magazine, Runner's World, and New Woman Magazine. Organizations he has worked with include the United States Army, America West Airlines, American Electric Power, and Prudential Life Insurance. An avid runner, he has completed 12 marathons, including the Boston Marathon.

    James O'Toole is Research Professor in the Center for Effective Organizations in the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California. In 1994, he retired after a career of over 20 years on the faculty of USC's Graduate School of Business, where he held the University Associates' Chair of Management. At USC, he served as executive director of the Leadership Institute, editor of New Management magazine, and director of the Twenty-Year Forecast Project, where from 1974–1983 he interpreted social, political, and economic change for the top management of 30 of the largest American corporations. His research and writings have been in the areas of planning, corporate culture, and leadership. He has addressed dozens of major corporations and professional organizations and has published over 70 articles. One of his thirteen books, Vanguard Management, was named among the best business and economics books of 1985 by the editors of Business Week. Leading Change was published in the spring of 1995, and his latest book, Leadership A to Z, was published in 1999. He has served as a special assistant to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, Elliot Richardson; as chairman of the Secretary's Task Force on Work in America; and as director of Field Investigations for President Nixon's Commission on Campus Unrest. Most recently, he has been managing director of the Booz-Allen & Hamilton Strategic Leadership Center. He received his doctorate in social anthropology from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar.

    Juan-Carlos Pastor is Professor and Chair of Organizational Behavior and Human Resources at the Instituto de Empresa, Spain. Before, he taught management behavior in the Richard Ivey School of Business at the University of Western Ontario. He teaches courses on organizational behavior, leadership, and managing people skills. His research interests include a social psychological approach to leadership that emphasizes the cognitions and social environments of both leaders and followers. His research on leadership has been published in The Academy of Management Journal, Leadership Quarterly, Journal of Environment and Behavior, Best Paper Proceedings of the Academy of Management, The Diffusion and Consumption of Business Knowledge, and Diversity in Work Teams: Selected Research. His work has received a competitive award from the Center for Creative Leadership. He earned a Ph.D. in organizational behavior from the State University of New York at Buffalo and an M.A. in social psychology from Clark University. He was a Visiting Fulbright Scholar at Harvard University.

    Monica L. Perry is Associate Professor of Marketing at California State University, Fullerton, and has taught at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, the Richard Ivey School of Business in London, Ontario, and the Peter F. Drucker School of Management in Claremont, California. Her teaching and research focus on relationship marketing and technology. Her work has appeared in the Nonprofit Handbook, Journal of International Marketing, Industrial Marketing Management, and the Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management. She has consulted profit and nonprofit organizations and has worked in business-to-business marketing at Nortel, marketing research at 3M, and product management at CBS Educational and Professional Publishing. She earned her Ph.D. in marketing from the University of Maryland and her M.B.A. from Pennsylvania State University.

    Eduardo Salas, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology at the University of Central Florida and Program Director for the Human-Systems Integration Department at the Institute for Simulation & Training at UCF. He has coauthored over 200 journal articles and chapters, edited 11 books, serves on 10 editorial boards, and is currently editor of Human Factors. He is a fellow of Division 14 and 21 of the APA and a fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

    Anson Seers (Ph.D., University of Cincinnati) is Professor of Management at Virginia Commonwealth University. His major research interests have centered on work roles and working relationships, encompassing topics such as leader-member exchange relationships, team-member exchange relationships, emergent leadership, role conflict and role ambiguity, team and organizational commitment, work team effectiveness, and task force pacing. Prior to joining VCU, he held the Frank Anthony Rose Professorship in Leadership at the University of Alabama and was a visiting professor at Edith Cowan University in Perth, Western Australia.

    Scott E. Seibert, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor in the Department of Managerial Studies at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His interest in personality and interpersonal processes informs his work on careers, empowerment, organizational climate, leadership, and group processes. His work has been published in the Academy of Management Journal, the Journal of Applied Psychology, and Personnel Psychology. He received his doctorate from the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University.

    Boas Shamir is Professor at the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and held visiting positions at Suffolk University, Boston; Binghamton University; the Institute of Rural Management, Anand, India; and the National University of Singapore. He holds a Ph.D. in social psychology from the London School of Economics and Political Science. He has published over 70 journal articles and book chapters. His work has appeared in the Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, and the Journal of Applied Psychology. His main research interest is leadership in organizations.

    Nagaraj Sivasubramaniam (Ph.D., Florida International University) is Assistant Professor of Management in the A. J. Palumbo School of Business Administration at Duquesne University where he teaches courses in strategic management at the undergraduate and graduate levels. He previously taught at the State University of New York at Binghamton and at Southwestern University in Georgetown, Texas. His research interests include the effects of technology on business-to-business relationships, leadership roles and their impact in the virtual world, and the use of computer-mediated communications in organizations. His prior work has appeared in several scholarly journals including Leadership Quarterly, Group and Organization Management, Omega, and Advances in Interdisciplinary Studies of Work Teams. He has also presented his work at several national and international conferences.

    Raymond T. Sparrowe, Ph.D., is on the faculty of the John M. Olin School of Business at Washington University in St. Louis. His research interests include leadership, social networks, and group processes. His work has been published in the Academy of Management Journal, the Academy of Management Review, and the Journal of Applied Psychology. His doctorate is from the University of Illinois at Chicago.

    James M. Wilkerson is Assistant Professor of Management at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. His research interests include employee deviance, leader-member exchange relationships, work groups' effectiveness, and corporate social performance. In his earlier career, he was a human resource management professional in a variety of managerial, executive, and consultant roles with several manufacturing and service companies. He is a lifetime certified Senior Professional in Human Resources (SPHR) and also served in the U. S. Air Force as an ICBM combat crew commander, evaluator, and trainer. He earned his doctorate in organizational behavior at the Georgia Institute of Technology.


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