Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan: A Guide for Principals and Leadership Teams
Publication Year: 2018
In Pursuit of Positive and Proactive Behaviors – The Challenge Every school wants to provide a safe, preventive, and positive learning environment, but recent shifts in societal and cultural norms have given rise to reactions that can be injurious, uncivil, and discriminatory. Creating and maintaining positive and proactive school discipline plans while preserving societal values and norms is more challenging than ever. Urges to get toughand enact zero tolerance policies may give impetus, but not tools. Schools are often left wondering how to address problematic behaviors, make real change happen, and accomplish their intended goals. Seven Steps shows practitioners and pre-service educators what, why, and how to build effective school-wide discipline practices using both data and documented successes. It offers a step-by-step process that maximizes ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Guiding Principles in Providing Quality Education for All Students
- Chapter 2: Understanding the Teaching–Learning Process
- Section II: Components of a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan
- Chapter 3: Step 1: Getting Started
- Chapter 4: Step 2: Developing Schoolwide Behavior Expectations
- Chapter 5: Step 3: Teaching the Behavior Expectations
- Chapter 6: Step 4: Maintaining the Behavior Expectations
- Chapter 7: Step 5: Correcting Problem Behavior
- Chapter 8: Step 6: Using Data Effectively
- Chapter 9: Step 7: Sustaining the Plan for the Long Haul
- Concluding Remarks
A SAGE Company
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver’s Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Copyright © 2018 by Corwin
All rights reserved. When forms and sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities that have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
All trademarks depicted within this book, including trademarks appearing as part of a screenshot, figure, or other image, are included solely for the purpose of illustration and are the property of their respective holders. The use of the trademarks in no way indicates any relationship with, or endorsement by, the holders of said trademarks.
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Colvin, Geoffrey. | Sugai, George M.
Title: Seven steps for developing a proactive schoolwide discipline plan : a guide for principals and leadership teams / Geoff Colvin, Behavior Associates, George Sugai, University of Connecticut.
Description: Second Edition. | Thousand Oaks, California : Corwin, A SAGE Company,  | Title of first edition: 7 steps for developing a proactive schoolwide discipline plan. | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2017032472 | ISBN 9781506328195 (Paperback : acid-free paper)
Subjects: LCSH: School discipline—United States. | School improvement programs—United States.
Classification: LCC LB3012.2 .C65 2018 | DDC 371.50973—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017032472
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Acquisitions Editor: Jessica Allan
Associate Editor: Lucas Schleicher
Editorial Assistant: Katie Crilley
Production Editor: Andrew Olson
Copy Editor: Jocelyn Rau
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Caryne Brown
Indexer: Nancy Fulton
Cover Designer: Candice Harman
Marketing Manager: Margaret O’Connor
To our neighbors Naoko and her five children, Youha, Kazuki, Sho-un, Haruka, and Whumie and to their parents/grandparents Tsuneo and Yumi who live in Japan −
For their inspiring resilience.Geoff Colvin
Like your bamboo walking stick, my work is reinforced by your purity, strength, longevity, and flexibility. Thank you, Mom and Dad.George Sugai
When we began the update of the 2010 version of this book, the task seemed relatively straightforward. We approached the revision from the usual perspective of addressing new implementation efforts, including recent research-based practices, and illustrating successful efforts to improve school climate and discipline. However, during the process, significant changes dramatically affected cultural norms, not only within American society but across the world at large. Relatively overnight, shifts in societal and global norms presented conflicts and contradictions to the norms and standards being established and promoted by educators in our schools and classrooms, places where the practices of this book were intended.
Specifically, reactions to the 2016 Presidential election process and outcomes were associated with unprecedented shifts in reporting of negativity, intolerance, and disrespect in our nation’s cultural norms and personal and interpersonal expression. For example, in two disturbing reports, the Southern Poverty Law Center (November, 2016a, b) reported the following:
In the ten days following the election, there were almost 900 reports of harassment and intimidation from across the nation. Many harassers invoked Trump’s name during assaults, making it clear that the outbreak of hate stemmed in large part from his electoral success.
People have experienced harassment at school, at work, at home, on the street, in public transportation, in their cars, in grocery stores and other places of business, and in their houses of worship. They most often have received messages of hate and intolerance through graffiti and verbal harassment, although a small number also have reported violent physical interactions. Some incidents were directed at the Trump campaign or his supporters.
Of course, hate crimes and lower-level incidents of racial or ethnically charged harassment have long been common in the United States. But the targets of post-election hate incidents report that they are experiencing something quite new.
The survey data indicate that the results of the election are having a profoundly negative impact on schools and students. Ninety percent of educators report that school climate has been negatively affected, and most of them believe it will have a long-lasting impact. A full 80 percent describe heightened anxiety and concern on the part of students worried about the impact of the election on themselves and their families.
[Page xii]In a similar vein and at the same time, visible and violent acts of terrorism have become increasingly frequent images across our social media and traditional entertainment and news outlets. Persistent and wide gaps in political, social, religious, and cultural positions offer little hope or prospect for peace, compromise, or discussion. These inhumane acts of terror and hate have triggered mass immigration by the innocent and defenseless bystanders who are being victimized. The international mood is a sense of helplessness, confusion, and fear that in some cases is escalating cries for justice and vengeance. Countries are becoming more isolated, needy, untrusting, and discriminatory.
Together, changes in our national norms related to respect, civility, and safety and the international climate of separatism and civil war have been associated with a shift in how we think about and act on diversity, equity, personal and collective responsibility, and individual and societal norms. In part because our schools are reflections of our larger societal norms, they have long been regarded as a microcosm of society. Consequently, when shifts in the cultural norms of society appear in our schools, educators struggle with how to respond to challenges that seem to be reflective of larger national and international influences.
We approached this edition of the “7 Step Schoolwide Discipline Plan” as critically important for educators and school leaders at all levels. In particular, a sense of urgency compels us to make our prevention efforts more formal, deliberate, explicit, and strategic to address the increased complexity and levels of unacceptable and uninhibited personal and interpersonal behavior occurring in our classrooms and schools. Urges to “get tough” and to enact strict “zero-tolerance” policies are likely reactions to increases in unsafe and disrespectful behavior in schools, especially if educators fail to increase their attention and investment in evidence-based practices derived from our prevention and behavioral sciences. Therefore, we urge all educators and school leaders to “double up” their efforts to maximize academic achievement; teach and encourage safe, civil, and responsible behavior; and establish teaching and learning environments that do not tolerate disrespectful and dehumanizing behavior and respond by promoting proactive personal and interpersonal behavior with and for all children, youth, and adults.
In sum, we are experiencing a historic time in our country and world where educators must become fully aware of the impact of shifts in societal and cultural norms and a tendency to react in injurious, uncivil, and discriminatory ways. Consequently, we must pursue with vigor and firm resolve the full implementation of a positive and proactive school discipline plan. While schools can reflect the values and norms of society, we also believe that schools can serve as a critical agency for change. Although schools may not be able to directly affect events and conditions at the national and international levels, educators do have six hours a day, 180 days a year to structure opportunities to shape today’s students into competent and contributing citizens of tomorrow. In her incredible and inspiring story of survival from terrorism, Malala Yousafzai (2013) expressed it most poignantly:
“Let us pick up our books and our pens. They are our most powerful weapons. One child, one teacher, one book, and one pen can change the world.”
About the Authors
Two broad concerns have challenged educators for decades and are still high priorities today. First, discrepancies in academic performance and achievement are ongoing and widespread among schools and districts. While some schools have maintained high standards and others have shown marked improvement, large numbers of schools and districts perform at mediocre or abysmally low levels. Several persistent factors contribute to failures to provide quality education to all students. For example, large funding disparities and efficiencies exist across districts and states. Teacher and leadership preparation and ongoing professional development are inadequate and misaligned in scope and detail to enable teachers to teach effectively and respond to the range of students in their classrooms. Scientifically supported practices are not given selection priority and not sustained in use. Schools are having more difficulty establishing and maintaining safe, preventive, and positive learning environments. The use of ineffective, reactive, “get-tough,” zero tolerance policies and procedures is increasing. Graduation rates remain below acceptable levels, and dropout rates continue to be high. Discipline referrals and consequences are alarmingly disparate across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. Administrators are not set up and supported to be instructional leaders and managers of struggling and challenging school and district funding. Finally, educators, parents, professionals, politicians, and community members cannot agree on operating priorities, resulting in poor collaborations, communications, and trust.
Second, schools’ and districts’ efforts have failed to achieve and sustain acceptable systemic levels of achievement for all students in all schools. Although our knowledge and access to effective educational practices are well established, educators have not implemented with sufficient fidelity and scope to accelerate and sustain performance levels of all their students. More important, students with learning failures, disabilities, and other risks have at best marginally improved or more often shown no meaningful improvement in achievement.
Although substantial research funds have been invested in model development, improved practices, and professional development, school and district adoption and implementation responses are inconsistent. Some schools initially implement with high fidelity, but it does not last long enough for the practice to become well established and implemented with sustainable fidelity. Others schools opt to implement parts of a practice or make modifications that change its core features and impact, and result in lowered student impact and progress. Many schools and districts do not implement a practice at all because of philosophical, theoretical, and/or personal differences about what the practice consists of, how they believe students learn, or whether using the practice is their responsibility. In addition, [Page xvi]school, district, and state organizational structures are often fragmented, isolated, redundant, overlapping, and not data informed, which results in inadequate internal communication, monitoring, and support, as well as inconsistent adoption, implementation, and student outcomes.
Our failure to address these challenges on an effective and meaningful scale has resulted in poor and disparate overall student achievement, low educator job satisfaction, and unfavorable and diminishing public support for education generally. To be fair, we believe that educators and school leaders work hard and want the best for students; however, we believe that the impact could be so much greater and access could be so much more equitable if priorities were on using data to guide decisions, selecting and sustaining implementation of scientifically supported educational practices, and providing organizational supports and systems to maintain a highly competent and efficient teaching workforce. So, if we know what effective teaching practices are needed to maximize student success, what is required to ensure that all students can truly benefit? The practices and approach presented in this book attempt to address this question.
Thus, the purpose of this book is to twofold. First, we closely examine the “whats,” “whys,” and “hows” of effective schoolwide discipline practices utilized in schools that have sound documented support from ongoing research. Second, based on these findings, we present a step-by-step process for developing and maintaining a proactive schoolwide discipline plan that sets the stage for maximizing teaching and learning, preventing problem behavior, and maintaining the desirable behavior that enhances school success. In addition, we emphasize the process for restructuring and utilizing resources to significantly increase the capacity of schools and districts in their efforts to address the academic and social needs of all students.
We did not design this book to take care of all academic and behavior issues but rather to be a necessary first step for creating a positive and supportive environment where all students are exposed to the best possible practices provided by all staff across all settings. If that goes well, the stage is set for assisting those students who require more intensive and differentiated academic and/or social behavioral supports. Although we emphasize the behavior and social aspects of classrooms and schools, we also acknowledge the critical importance of a comparable and integrated approach to academic programming and support.
The book is organized into two sections. In Section I, Foundations, we present the guiding principles that underlie the content for the procedural details of the proactive schoolwide discipline plan. These principles are derived from applied research and from schools and districts that have documented success in meeting the range of challenges facing educators today, particularly, in the area of problem behavior. In Chapter 1, we highlight those critical variables that must be effectively addressed so implementation fidelity is high and student outcomes are maximized. In Chapter 2, we describe in detail how teaching affects student learning. This understanding is critical for how instruction is designed, delivered, and adjusted and how students acquire, become fluent with, maintain, and generalize academic and behavioral skills over time.
[Page xvii]In Section II, we describe the 7 procedural steps for developing, implementing, and maintaining a proactive schoolwide discipline plan:
- Step 1: Getting started (Chapter 3)
- Step 2: Developing schoolwide behavior expectations (Chapter 4)
- Step 3: Teaching the behavior expectations (Chapter 5)
- Step 4: Maintaining the behavior expectations (Chapter 6)
- Step 5: Correcting problem behavior (Chapter 7)
- Step 6: Using the data effectively (Chapter 8)
- Step 7: Sustaining the plan for the long haul (Chapter 9)
We also designed this book so school personnel would carefully self-assess what they have in place in their school setting in the context of how their students are progressing academically and behaviorally. Using student data and information about local teaching and the learning context, educators can build upon effective components, eliminate ineffective practices, and adopt more effective practices. We place high priority on organizational supports and systems that give educators capacity to implement with high fidelity. While many service providers may benefit, we designed this book for four specific groups of professionals:
- Educators including school administrators, regular and special education teachers, school psychologists, counselors, educational specialists, and classified staff
- Inservice providers at school building, district, and state levels
- Preservice providers from colleges and universities who prepare teachers, administrators, school psychologists and counselors, social workers, etc.
- Other support staff members who shape school climate and interact with students and staff, including school resource officers, nurses, office administrative support staff, building maintenance staff, etc.
The Appendices section of the book contains checklists, forms, and plans that may be reproduced or adapted for personal use in the classroom, school, or district.[Page xviii]
Note: These appendices may be reproduced or adapted for personal use in the classroom, school, or district.[Page 114]Appendix A
Form 3.1 Checklist for Determining the Adequacy of an Existing Schoolwide Discipline Plan
YES NO 1. A school leadership team is in place.
YES NO 2. Schoolwide behavior expectations are clearly stated.
YES NO 3. Schoolwide procedures are in place to teach expected behaviors.
YES NO 4. Schoolwide practices are in place to recognize demonstrations of expected behavior.
YES NO 5. Staff members are clear as to which behavior should be dealt with by staff and which should warrant office referrals.
YES NO 6. Procedures are in place for staff to work together to address persistent, minor behavior.
YES NO 7. A continuum of steps is available to address serious office-referral–level behavior.
YES NO 8. Procedures are in place to use building resources to assist students who display chronic, serious behavior.
YES NO 9. Procedures are in place to address crises or emergencies.
YES NO 10. Data-keeping procedures are in place to track student behavior.
YES NO 11. Data are used to make planning decisions.
YES NO 12. Procedures are in place to sustain the plan.
___________ Number of YES items
___________ Number of NO items
____ More than eight YES responses: Maintain existing program and develop plan to address inadequacies, if necessary.
____ Fewer than eight YES responses: Establish and develop a building leadership team to assist staff in developing a proactive schoolwide discipline plan.
Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.[Page 115]Appendix B
Form 3.2 Leadership Team Meeting Record
School ____________________________________________ Date ____________________________________________
Present ____________________________________________ _____________________________________________
Time _________________ to ___________________ Location ____________________________________________
Items to Present to Faculty
Team Member(s) Presenting Items:
Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.[Page 116]Appendix C
Form 3.3 Checklist and Action Plan for Step 1, Getting Started
1. Has preliminary schoolwide discipline plan survey been conducted?
2. Has leadership team been developed?
3. Has need for the plan been established?
4. Has effectiveness of plan been communicated?
5. Has the plan been demonstrated to mesh with school goals and other plans?
6. Has the capacity of the district and schools been assessed?
7. Have roles and responsibilities been presented?
8. Have opportunities for full discussion been provided?
9. Has planning been made for the long haul?
10. Has a commitment been obtained from all stakeholders?
11. Has a comprehensive professional development plan been developed?
12. Has self-assessment checklist for implementation and action planning been developed?
Copyright © 2018 by Corwin. All rights reserved. Reprinted from Seven Steps for Developing a Proactive Schoolwide Discipline Plan by Geoff Colvin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, www.corwin.com. Reproduction authorized only for the local school site or nonprofit organization that has purchased this book.[Page 117]Appendix D
Form 4.1 Worksheet for Developing Schoolwide Expectations
Schoolwide Behavior Expectations
All students and staff at ___________________________________________ school are expected to:
_________________________________________________________________________[Page 118]Appendix E
Form 4.2 List of Major Common Settings in the School
Directions: List the common settings in your school.
8._________________________________________________________________________[Page 119]Appendix FForm 4.3 Common Settings Behavioral Expectations Matrix[Page 120]Appendix G
Form 5.1 Instruction Plan for Teaching Behavior Expectations to Younger Students
Step 1: Explain
Step 2: Specify student behaviors
Step 3: Practice
Step 4: Monitor
Step 5: Review[Page 121]Appendix H
Form 5.2 Teaching Behavior Expectations to Older Students and a Maintenance Plan for Younger Students
Schoolwide Behavior Expectation:
Provide Feedback:[Page 122]Appendix I
Form 5.3 Checklist for Generalizing the Teaching to All Common Areas
1. Utilize Schoolwide Behavior Expectations Matrix
2. Determine Priority Common Areas
3. Coordinate Preparation for Start Date
4. Review Progress
5. Conduct Periodic Reviews[Page 123]Appendix J
Form 6.1 Checklist for Systematic Review of Schoolwide Behavior Expectations
1. Select specific behaviors expectations from Schoolwide Behavior Expectation Matrix
2. Schedule when each behavior and common setting will be reviewed for the term or semester
3. List activities faculty will engage in to review student performance on the targeted behaviors
4. Provide feedback to faculty and students on the results of the review[Page 124]Appendix KForm 6.2 Schoolwide Recognition Matrix[Page 125]Appendix L
Form 7.1 Worksheet for Office-Referral Behaviors
The following behaviors should result in an office referral:
9. _________________________________________________________________________[Page 126]Appendix M
Form 7.2 Worksheet for Office-Referral Behavior Definitions
Definition[Page 127]Appendix N
Form 7.3 Middle School Office-Referral Form
Referred by ______________________________
Grade 6 7 8 Date __________________________
Homeroom Teacher ________________________
Reason for Referral
□ Repeated Minor Infraction(s)
□ Documentation Attached
□ Parent Contacted
□ Serious School Violation
□ Controlled Substance(s)
□ Misuse of Electronic Devices
□ Dress Code
□ Fighting, Assault
□ Off-Campus Violation
□ Serious Disruption
□ Verbal Abuse
□ Other ______________________________
Specify times, places, those involved, relevant conditions, and initial steps to address problem.
□ Recess □ Hallway
□ Classroom □ Gymnasium
□ Cafeteria □ Bus Stop
□ Library □ Bus
□ Media Center
□ Other _________________________
Action taken by administrator or designee
□ Conference with student
□ Parent contacted (phone/note)
□ Student suspended _____days
□ Referred to school behavior–support team
□ Principal’s hearing for possible expulsion __________________
□ Conference requested with teacher and student
□ Parent conference requested
□ Student placed on detention _____days
□ Community service
□ Police contacted
□ Lane County Youth Services contacted
□ Other __________________________
Administrator’s Signature Date
White: Office Yellow: Parent
Pink: Homeroom Teacher Gold: Referring Staff
To Parent or Guardian: This is a copy of an official referral for your son or daughter made by a staff member of Sydney Middle School, 8998 Snell Blvd., Eugene, Oregon 97435. The action taken is indicated.
Please sign and return or call 387-8856 to indicate receipt.
Parent’s or Guardian’s Signature Date[Page 128]Appendix O
Form 7.4 Teacher Team Meeting for Staff-Managed Behavior
□ Behavior Problem □ Academic Problem
Student Name: _________________ Grade: _____________ Date: ________________________
Teacher(s): _________________ # of Previous Behavior Reports/Staff Meeting: __________________
Staff Present: _________________________________________________________________________________
Problem Behavior(s) (2 minutes)
Expected Behavior(s) (2 minutes)
Strategies to Teach Expected Behaviors (select 1–3) (3 minutes)
□ Reminders □ Practice □ Parent contact
□ Reinforcers □ Individual contacts □ Counseling
□ Feedback □ Monitoring sheet □ Tutoring
□ Contract □ Self-management □ Modified assignments
Strategies to Correct Problem Behavior(s) (1 minute)
□ Time out □ Parent contact
□ Loss of privilege □ Detention
Action Plan (5 minutes)
Who What When
_________________________ _________________________ _________________________
_________________________ _________________________ _________________________
Tracking System: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Other:[Page 129][Page 130][Page 131]Appendix PForm 9.1 7-Step Checklist and Action Plan for Sustaining the Plan[Page 132]Appendix Q
Table 9.1 Evidence Base for PBIS Implementation and Sustainability
Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 3–16.
Bradshaw, C. P. (2015). Translating research to practice in bullying prevention. American Psychologist, 70, 322–332.
Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Thornton, L. A., & Leaf, P. J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100–115.
Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Bevans, K. B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462–473.
Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133–148.
Bradshaw, C. P., Pas, E. T., Goldweber, A., Rosenberg, M. S., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Integrating school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports with tier 2 coaching to student support teams: The PBISplus model. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion 5, 177–193.
Bradshaw, C. P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K. B., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1–26.
Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics, 130(5), 1136–1145.
Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 15–25.
Goldweber, A., Waasdorp, T. E., & Bradshaw, C. P. (in press). Examining the link between forms of bullying behaviors and perceptions of safety and belonging among secondary school students. Journal of School Psychology.
Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J. (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133–145.
Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1–14.
McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, 146–154.
McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., & Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, 131–147.
Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53–62.
Sorlie, M., & Ogden, T. (2015). School-wide positive behavior support—Norway: Impacts on problem behavior and classroom climate. International Journal of School and Educational Psychology, DOI: 10.1080/21683603.2015.1060912.
Waasdorp, T. E., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). The impact of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) on bullying and peer rejection: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 116(2), 149–156
Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, 100–109.
References[Page 133]2015 ). Disaggregated data: The glossary of education reform. Retrieved from http://edglossary.org/disaggregated-data/(Ed.). (2003 ). On sustainability of project innovations as systemic change. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 14, 1–26., & (2013 ). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (, & (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.2011 ). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 3–16., , & (2014, January 23 ). The school to prison pipeline: By the numbers. Retrieved from http://america.aljazeera.com/watch/shows/america-tonight/america-tonight-blog/2014/1/23/school-to-prisonpipelineblackstudents.html(2011 ). Explicit instruction: Effective and efficient teaching. New York, NY: Guilford Press., & (2004 ). The sustained use of research-based instructional practice: A case study of peer-assisted learning strategies in mathematics. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 5–24., , , & (2002 ). Relationships between problem behaviors and academic achievement in adolescents: The unique role of attention problems. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10(4), 233–40., , , , , & (2007 ). Principal accomplishments: How school leaders succeed. New York, NY: Teachers College Press., , , & (2010 ). Learning to learn from data: Benchmarks and instructional communities. Peabody Journal of Education, 85, 205–225., , , , , & (2010 ). Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(3), 133–148., , & (2012 ). Effects of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics, 130, 1136–1145., , & (Buncombe Community High School, North Carolina. ( 2014–2015 ). CHS Schoolwide Discipline Plan & Policy. Retrieved from https://chs.buncombeschools.org/2007 ). School-based behavioral assessment: Informing intervention and instruction. New York, NY: Guilford Press., , & (2004 ). School characteristics related to the use of suspension. Education and Treatment of Children, 27, 509–526., , & (2012 ). The sustainability of schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports. Exceptional Children, 78, 407–422., & (2013 ). Focus on implementation: Assessing and promoting treatment fidelity. Teaching Exceptional Children, 45(5), 52–59., , , & ([Page 134] ( 2009 ). Managing noncompliance and defiance in the classroom: A road map for teachers, specialists, and behavior support teams. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.2010 ). Defusing disruptive behavior in the classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(1993 ). Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education. Education and Treatment of Children, 16, 361–381., , & (2015 ). Managing the cycle of acting-out behavior in the classroom (, & (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.2012 ). Managing the cycle of meltdowns for students with autism spectrum disorder. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (2007 ). Applied behavior analysis (, , & (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.2000 ). The schooling practices that matter most. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.(2015 ). Building positive behavior support systems in schools (, , & (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guildford.2004 ). Instructional classroom management: A proactive approach to behavior management (, & (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.2012 ). The power of habit: Why we do what we do in life and business. New York, NY: Random House.(2008 ). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 327–350., & (2016 ). Sustained implementation of school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports through continuous regeneration. Ed.D. Capstone Projects. Paper 8. http://digitalcommons.tacoma.uw.edu/edd_capstones/8, (2014 ). Successful and confident students with Direct Instruction. Eugene, OR: NIFDI Press.(2016 ). Theory of instruction: Principles and applications. Eugene, OR: NIFDI Press (Originally published 1982 by Irvington Publishers)., & (2006 ). Rubric for identifying authentic Direct Instruction programs. Eugene, OR: NIFDI Press., & (2012 ). Consideration of culture and context in school-wide positive behavior support: A review of current literature. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14, 209–219., , & (2013 ). Statewide implementation of evidence-based programs. Exceptional Children, 79(2), 213–230., , , & (2005 ). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. Tampa: University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network (FMHI Publication #231)., , , , & (2016 ). Relationship between school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports and academic, attendance, and behavior outcomes in high schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(1), 41–51., , , , , & (2006 ). Introduction to response to intervention: What, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 93–99., & (2009 ). Assisting students struggling with mathematics: Response to intervention for elementary and middle schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education Institute of Educational Sciences., , , , , , (2013 ). Measuring the implementation fidelity of student affairs programs: A critical component of the outcomes assessment cycle. Research & Practice Assessment, 8, 15–28., & (2012 ). Individualised positive behavior support in school settings: A meta-analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 33(5), 271–286., & (2012 ). Keeping kids in school: Restorative justice, punitive discipline, and the school to prison pipeline. Journal of Law and Education. Retrieved from https://works.bepress.com/thalia_gonzalez/6/([Page 135] Governing, The States and Localities. ( 2012 ). State high school graduation rates by ethnicity. Retrieved from http://www.governing.com/gov-data/education-data/state-high-school-graduation-rates-by-race-ethnicity.html2015, August 26 ). When schools are forced to practice race-based discipline. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/08/teachers-say-no-disparate-impact-discipline/402144/(2015 ). Aligning multiple initiatives for efficiency and effectiveness [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://www.pbis.org/Common/Cms/files/Forum15_Presentations/RDQ%2018%20Brief%20-%20System%20Alignment.pdf, , & (2010 ). The achievement gap and the discipline gap: Two sides of the same coin? Educational Researcher, 39, 59–68., , & (2011 ). An examination of problem behaviors and reading outcomes in kindergarten students. Journal of Special Education, 45, 131–148., , , , , & (2009 ). Toward developing a science of treatment integrity: Introduction to the special series. School Psychology Review, 38, 445–459., & (2010 ). School formative feedback systems. Peabody Journal of Education, 85(2), 130–155.(1980 ). Rules for data-based strategy decisions in instructional programs: Current research and instructional implications. In , , & (Eds.), Methods of instruction for severely handicapped students (pp. 159–192). Baltimore, MD: Brookes., , & (1978 ). The fourth R: Research in the classroom. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill., , , & (2015 ). Aligning PBIS for educational excellence. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/presentations(2016 ). Current status and emerging directions for PBIS [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/presentations(2014 ). Scaling up school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports: Experiences of seven states with documented success. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(4) 197–208., , , , , , . . . (2004 ). Illinois positive behavior interventions and support project: 2003-2004 progress report. Eugene: University of Oregon, Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Support and Springfield: Illinois State Board of Education., , , & (Implementing effective educational practices at scales of social importance. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review., , & (in press).2015 ). Is school-wide positive behavior support an evidence based practice? Retrieved from www.pbis.org/research, , & (2005 ). School-wide positive behavior support. In & (Eds.), Individualized supports for students with problem behaviors: Designing positive behavior plans (pp. 359–390) New York, NY: Guilford Press., , , & (2013 ). Construct validation of a measure to assess sustainability of school-wide behavior interventions. Psychology in the Schools, 50(10), 1003–1014., & (2014 ). Aligning collective impact initiatives. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 12(4), 14–16., & (2007 ). A new paradigm: Responsiveness to intervention. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 6–7.(2011 ). Strategies for social and emotional learning: Preschool and elementary grade student learning standards and assessment. Newton, MA: National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention, Education Development Center, Inc., , , & (1993a ). Punished by rewards. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.(1993b ). Why incentive plans cannot work. Harvard Business Review, 71(6), 42–43.(2006 ). The relationship of school-wide positive behavior support to academic achievement in an urban middle school. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 701–712., , & ([Page 136] ( 1988 ). The birth and death cycles of educational innovations. Principal, 68(1), 41–43.2012 ). Opportunities suspended: The disparate impact of disciplinary exclusion from school. Retrieved from University of California, Civil Rights Project website https://www.civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/resources/projects/center-for-civil-rights-remedies/school-to-prison-folder/federal-reports/upcoming-ccrr-research, & (2010 ). How does leadership affect student achievement? Results from a national US survey. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 21(3), 315–336., , & (2010 ). Investigating the links to improved student learning: Final report of research findings. University of Minnesota. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/Investigating-the-Links-to-Improved-Student-Learning.pdf, , , & (2012 ). Interventions promoting educators’ use of data: Research insights and gaps. Teachers College Record, 114(1), 1–15.(2013, January 29 ). Research finds teachers’ use of data both promising and worrisome. USC Rossier. Retrieved from https://www.civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/resources/projects/center-for-civil-rights-remedies/school-to-prison-folder/federal-reports/upcoming-ccrr-research(2009 ). The importance of treatment integrity in school-based behavioral intervention. In , , , & (Eds.), Behavioral interventions in schools: Evidence-based positive strategies (pp. 59–72). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association., & (2014 ). Art and science of teaching/review for retention. Educational Leadership, 71, 82–83.(2005 ). School leadership that works: From research to results. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development., , & (2014 ). Critical features predicting sustained implementation of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16, 168–178., , , & (2006 ). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, 146–154., , , & (2014 ). Recommendations for addressing discipline disproportionality in education. OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports., , , , & (2008 ). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, 131–147., , , , & (2015 ). Variables associated with enhanced sustainability of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 40(3), 184–191., , , , & (2017 ). Technical adequacy of the SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19, 3–13., , , , , , & (2013 ). Factors related to sustained implementation of schoolwide positive behavior support. Exceptional Children, 79, 293–311., , , & (2014 ). Perceptions of contextual features related to implementation and sustainability of school-wide positive behavior supports. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 16, 31–43., , , , , & (2007 ). Treatment integrity of school-based interventions with children in JABA. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 659–672., , , & (2009 ) Western guide to curriculum review. Ontario, Canada: The University of Western Ontario, Teaching Support Center.(2004 ). The importance of implementation fidelity. Emotional & Behavioral Disorders in Youth, 4(4), 81–89.([Page 137] Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support. ( 2015–2016 ). Annual Report. Retrieved from http://pbismissouri.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/MO_SW-PBS_2016_Annual_Report.pdfNational Implementation Research Network (NIRN), FPG Child Development Institute. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Retrieved from http://nirn.fpg.unc.eduNational Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Support. ( 2016 ). Training and professional development blueprint for positive behavioral interventions and supports. Eugene, OR. Retrieved from www.pbis.org2010 ). Meeting the needs of at-risk and adjudicated youth with behavioral challenges: The promise of juvenile justice. Behavioral Disorders, 36(1), 70–80., , , & (2012 ). A pilot study of a problem-solving model for team decision making. Education and Treatment of Children, 35, 25–49., , , , & (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). ( 2015 ). Program for international students assessment report. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisa-2015-results-in-focus.pdfOSEP Center on Positive and Behavioral Interventions and Supports. ( 2004 ). Schoolwide and behavior support implementer’s blueprint and support assessment. Eugene: University of Oregon.OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS). ( 2015 ). Retrieved from www.pbis.org2012 ). To sell is human: The surprising truth about moving others. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.(2015 ). Perceived enablers and barriers related to sustainability of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. Behavioral Disorders, 40(3), 171–183., , , , & (2003 ). Improving student bus-riding behavior through whole school intervention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36(4), 583–590., , , & (2006 ). Academic achievement and the implementation of school-wide behavior support. Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports Newsletter, 3(1). Available from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Academic+achievement+and+the+implementation+of+school-wide+behavior+support.&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiGztbLjrfUAhUY-mMKHfmeDmkQgQMIJjAA, , & (2012 ). Supporting student achievement through sound behavior management practices in schools and juvenile facilities: A spotlight on positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS). Washington, DC: National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC)., & (2012 ).The relationship between principal leadership skills and school-wide positive behavior support: An exploratory study. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(2), 69–77., , & (2006 ). Test-enhanced learning: Taking memory tests improves long-term retention. Psychological Science, 17, 249–255., & (2009 ). Effective behavior and instructional support. Journal of Positive Behavior Support, 11(1), 35–46., & (2015 ). The Sage encyclopedia of classroom management. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2017 ). Teaching behavior: Managing classrooms through effective teaching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2011 ). Managing classroom behavior using positive behavior supports. Columbus, OH: Pearson., , & (2013 ). Defining “effectiveness” for students with E/BD: Teacher, instruction, and management variables. Beyond Behavior, 22, 3–6., , , & ([Page 138] , , , , , , & ( 2014 ). Multi-tiered support framework for teachers’ classroom management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16, 179–190.2015 ). Classwide positive behavior interventions and supports: A guide to proactive classroom management. New York, NY: Guilford Press., & (2012 ). Explicitly teaching social skills school-wide: Using a matrix to guide instruction. Intervention in School and Clinic, 47, 259–266., , , , , & (2002 ). The color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender disproportionality in school punishment. The Urban Review, 34 (4), 317–342., , , & (2008 ). Safety without suspensions. Educational Leadership, 66, 38–43. Retrieved from http://sites.cde.state.co.us/sites/default/files/documents/pbis/download/pdf/safetywithoutsuspensions_skibasprague.pdf, & (2010, May 6 ). Data rich but information poor. Education Week., & (Southern Poverty Law Center. ( 2016a, November ) Ten days after: Harassment and intimidation in the aftermath of the election. Retrieved from https://www.splcenter.org/20161129/ten-days-after-harassment-and-intimidation-aftermath-election#IntroductionSouthern Poverty Law Center. ( 2016b, November ). The Trump Effect: The Impact of the 2016 Presidential Election on Our Nation’s Schools. Retrieved from https://www.splcenter.org/20161128/trump-effect-impact-2016-presidential-election-our-nations-schools2009 ). CHAMPS: A proactive and positive approach to classroom management, ((2nd ed.). Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.2014 ). Foundations: A proactive and positive behavior support system. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.(2014 ). Foundations: A proactive and positive behavior support system. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing., , , , & (2015 ). Strategies for integrating mental health into schools via a multi-tiered system of support. School Mental Health, 24(2), 211–232., , , & (2013a ). Examining the What Works Clearinghouse and its reviews of Direct Instruction programs. NIFDI Technical Report 2013-1. Eugene, OR: National Institute for Direct Instruction.(2013b ). Technical support, fidelity, and retaining direction instruction in the Guam Public School System. Technical Report. Eugene, OR: National Institute of Direct Instruction.(1977 ). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 349–367., & (2005 ). Behavior support strategies in early childhood settings: Teachers’ importance and feasibility ratings. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(3), 131–139., , & (2006 ). A promising approach for expanding and sustaining school-wide positive behavior support. School Psychology Review, 35(2), 245–259., & (2009 , invited). Responsiveness-to-intervention and school-wide positive behavior supports: Integration of multi-tiered approaches. Exceptionality, 17, 223–237., & (2010 ). School-wide positive behavior support: “Implementers” blueprint and self-assessment. Eugene: University of Oregon. Retrieved from www.pbis.org/implementation/implementers_blueprint.aspx, , , , , , . . . (1990 ). Project PREPARE: Promoting responsible, empirical and proactive alternatives in regular education for students with behavior disorders. Eugene: College of Education, University of Oregon., , & (2016 ). School climate: Academic achievement and social behavior competence. [Technical brief]. Storrs: University of Connecticut, Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports., , , , & (2012 ). A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14, 197–208., , & (2012 ). School leadership and school-wide positive behavior support. In , , & (Eds.), Handbook of leadership and administration for special education (pp. 297–314). New York, NY: Routledge., , , & (2016 ). Capacity development and multi-tiered systems of support: Guiding principles. Australasian Journal of Special Education, 40(2), 80–98. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1017/jse.2016.11, , , & ([Page 139] , , , , & ( 2013 ). Intervention fidelity in special and general education research journals. Journal of Special Education, 47, 3–13.1999 ). Predicting violence at school, chronic discipline problems, and high school outcomes from sixth graders’ school records. Journal of Emotional Disorders, 7, 40–53., & (2012 ). Fidelity measures to improve implementation of positive behavioural support. International Journal of Positive Behavioural Support, 2(2), 12–19., , , , & (2011 ). Effects of team-initiated problem solving on meeting practices of schoolwide behavior support teams. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 27, 42–59., , , , & (2003 ). Beyond islands of excellence: What districts can do to improve instruction and achievement in all schools – a leadership brief. Washington, DC: Learning First Alliance., & (2013 ). The Relationship of the implementation of positive behavior interventions and supports to improve academic achievement. Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research Paper 127. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cehsedaddiss/127(2002 ). A blueprint for schoolwide positive behavior support: Implementation of three components. Exceptional Children, 68, 377–402., , , , , , . . . (U.S. Department of Education. ( 2011 ). Prevalence and implementation fidelity of research-based prevention programs in public schools. (Final report). Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/other/research-based-prevention.pdfU.S. Department of Education. ( 2011 ). Supportive school discipline initiative. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/school-discipline/appendix-3-overview.pdfU.S. Department of Education. ( 2014 ). Guiding principles: A resource guide for improving school climate and discipline. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/school-discipline/index.htmlU.S. Department of Education. ( 2015 ). Wide ranging education access and equity data collected from our public schools. Civil Rights Data Collection. Retrieved from http://ocrdata.ed.gov/U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development. ( 2011 ). Teachers’ ability to use data to inform instruction: Challenges and supports. Washington, DC.U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. ( 2005 ). Prison statistics. Washington, DC: Author.U.S. Government Accountability Office. ( 2013 ). Standards needed to improve identification of racial and ethnic overrepresentation in special education. Report to the chairman, committee on health, education, labor, and pensions, U.S. Senate (Report GAO-13-137). Washington, DC: Author.2006 ). Integrating early intervening frameworks from early childhood intervention and school psychology to accelerate growth for young children. School Psychology Review, 35, 519–534., & (1995 ). Early Screening Project: A proven child-find process. Longmont, CO: Sopris West., , & (2011 ). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, 100–109., & (2015 ). District Capacity Assessment. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill., , , , , , . . . & (2016 ). Graduation rate gap exists between black, white males. State News: The Council of State Governments. Retrieved from http://www.csg.org/pubs/capitolideas/enews/issue6_3.aspx(West Virginia Department of Education. ( 2002 ). Expected behavior in safe and supportive schools. (Policy 4373). Retrieved from http://wvde.state.wv.us/healthyschools/ElectronicManual4373New.html[Page 140] White House, President Obama. ( 2014 ). My Brother’s Keeper initiative. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/my-brothers-keeper1980 ). Exceptional teaching (, & (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill.2012 ). Positive behavior support in secondary schools: A practical guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press., , , & (2013 ). I am Malala: The girl who stood up for education and was shot by the Taliban. New York, NY: Back Bay Books.(
This page constitutes an extension of the copyright page. Every effort has been made to trace the ownership of the copyrighted material and to secure permission from copyright holders. In the event of any issue regarding the use of material in this book, we will be pleased to make any corrections for future printings.
Thanks are due to the following authors, publishers, and agencies for permission to use the material indicated.
Chapter 8: Figures 8.1, 8.3. Source: www.pbis.org, OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Figures 8.2, 8.4, 8.6. Source: Courtesy of Educational Resource Associates, Eugene, Oregon. Figures 8.5, 8.7, 8.8. Source: Courtesy of Anchorage School District, Anchorage, Alaska.[Page 142]