Self and Social Change
Publication Year: 2007
This accessible and assured book offers readers a new take on the central question of the relation between the individual and society. It offers a thorough, informed and critical guide to the field. It demonstrates how global economic and employment structures, neo-liberal discourse, the role of emotion, irrationality, and ambiguity are factors that impact upon the shape and resilience of the self.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
© Matthew Adams 2007
First published 2007
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B I/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4129-0711-8 (pbk)
Library of Congress Control Number: 2006929865
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd., Chennai, India
Printed in Great Britain by Cromwell Press Ltd, Wiltshire
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
For the one on the way, as yet unnamed[Page vi]
What do you think are the most significant social changes of the last fifty years? Here are a selection of answers offered by friends and colleagues: the introduction of the contraceptive pill; the proliferation of television ownership; the globalization of capitalism; communications and information technology developments; prolonged dependency of offspring on parents; post-modern pessimism; a shift from production to consumption; reproductive technologies (e.g. IVF); gay visibility; increased opportunities for women and the end of apartheid.
You may or may not have come up with similar answers. In fact what we perceive to be important social changes will vary depending on our personal histories and relationships as well our current context. A social change, such as the fall of the Berlin wall, may have been experienced as tremendously significant for some, but irrelevant to others. Generalizing is difficult from the outset. But they are fascinating examples and invite us to explore the idea of social change further.
How can we make sense of these far-reaching changes? Social theory often attempts to find more general categories of social change to which more specific changes can be allotted. Whilst not losing touch completely with a micro-approach to social change – concern for the specific, localized perception of significant change – we will now turn to macro-approaches to social change. In one of the few existing overviews, Jordan and Pile describe the sociology of social change as ‘the investigation of the times and places when and where society becomes different… [as] necessarily dealing with situations when things are strange, when the new and the old rub up against each other or evolve into another social form’ (Jordan and Pile, 2002: xiv). This is a suitably broad description for a phenomenon as nebulous as social change, and it will serve as a working definition for the purposes of this book.
An overview of sociological accounts of social change is an intimidating prospect. So much sociology attempts to indicate what is new, emerging, or soon-to-be-common. Of course at the same time the light of the new casts a descriptive glow over what is lost; the soon to be distant memories of established patterns, the unravelling of once-familiar social habits, the now-you-mention-it obsolescence of formerly taken-for-granted practices and institutions. The process is rarely envisaged as simply one of the new replacing the old however. Social theorizing often posits a more subtle and sophisticated co-existence of old and new [Page x]patterns in the social fabric (e.g. Heelas et al., 1996; Rojek, 1995; Beck and Willms, 2004), from which social change emerges as a dynamic force.
In the sociological imagination a key dimension of significant social change is often argued to be its contemporariness. It is often argued that our current period is one of substantial social change against which the claims for change of previous eras fade by comparison. Hence Giddens argues that modernity was another form of traditional society until it finally shed its chrysalis and emerged as late modernity or post-traditional society: ‘For most of its history, modernity has rebuilt tradition as it has dissolved it…the persistence and recreation of tradition was central….’ (Giddens, 1994: 56). Despite this theoretical tendency radical upheaval has long been seen to be an inherent dynamism of society, now so often the point of crescendo. In the West, announcements of social discontinuity have coalesced to some extent around fin de siecle theorizing of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (Alexander, 1995), additionally punctuated by the aftermath of two world wars. Hence others are far more cautious in perceiving social transformation, emphasizing instead continuity, in terms of traditions, inequalities and broader social relations.
Amidst such breadth the scope of this book is modest, and will largely limit itself to more recent accounts of social change as utilized by prominent sociological theories of identity. The focus is the general mechanisms of the relationship between social change and self-identity and what they can reveal about their mutual nature, rather than the details of specific changes. More specifically, one of a number of dominant tropes will be the focus of each chapter. These tropes can be broadly defined in terms of the psychosocial processes they place at the heart of their analysis: psychosocial fragmentation in chapter two, extended reflexivity in chapter three, discursive regulation in chapter four, and cultural pathology in chapter five. Chapter six is an attempt to draw together some of the main critical points from the preceding chapters and develop a socially situated analysis of selfhood.Book Structure
Before engaging with these specific tropes in detail, an attempt will be made in the first chapter to broadly portray some of the kinds of transformations which tend to be assumed in any discussion of social change. Such a rudimentary sketch does not attempt to do justice to the many differences between key theorists of social change. The accounts of self in relation to social change tackled in subsequent chapters differ in important respects: in the kinds of social change they emphasize over others, the positive or negative value attributed to them, and the extent to which they signify a break from the past. These differences will be pursued as they become relevant. With these caveats in mind, it is possible to consider a number of social changes which have been argued to shape the recent and emerging history of the globe.
[Page xi]The theories of psychosocial fragmentation discussed in chapter two are perhaps the furthest removed from an explicit account of self-reflexivity, though they provide an important starting point. The key claim made there is that the self has become severed from its meaningful points of anchorage and ends up drifting in a sea of uncertainty and alienation. Accounts of psychosocial fragmentation have provided us with abundant accounts of social changes we are supposedly encountering, often with a polemical eloquence which is convincingly damning. Its influence is felt in almost all sociological accounts of self-identity. As illustrated in chapter two, as a trope on the sociological landscape the significance of theses of fragmentation has not waned, invigorated as it has been by the impact of post-modern perspectives. Nonetheless in its unreconstructed forms it rests on a one-dimensional understanding of agency and the social-psychological inter-relationship: social order fragments, the self fragments, alienating itself from itself in the process. Critical difficulties lie here in the dangers of conservatism and essentialism amongst others. Thus the formation of new communities, perhaps along different lines to those of more ‘traditional’ times are missed or marginalized; opportunities for more relational, less individualistic constructions of self-identity are unnecessarily denigrated; and creative and varied responses are portrayed as homogenous and passive. Such criticism forms the backdrop for a discussion of the extended reflexivity thesis in chapter three.
The extended reflexivity thesis is an attempt to flesh out a more dilemmatic approach to the psychological dynamics of psychosocial fragmentation. Giddens's work in particular, taken as a whole, is a sophisticated attempt to conceptualize a tripartite model of self (unconscious, practical consciousness, reflexivity) and the ways in which it is intertwined with changing social structures – structuration. Extended self-reflexivity is argued to be the ambivalent fruit of social change overlooked by standard accounts of psychosocial fragmentation. Whilst it may contain the potentially self-ruinous seeds of excessive uncertainty, meaninglessness, addiction, obsessiveness and narcissism, it also holds out hope for day-to-day reconstitution of institutions and the reappropriation of spheres of meaning, along reflexively organized lines rather than the ascribed doxa of previous socio-cultural eras. The thesis is summarized before moving on to a survey of its critical reception.
The extended reflexivity thesis is thought by some to have neglected the reality of relational, embodied selves with complex psychic structures. Giddens's version of unconscious and emotional life was claimed to be excessively ‘tidy’ and individualized, possibly in order to more easily accommodate his vision of extended reflexivity. The self-reflexive process is thus claimed to be a more partial, ambiguous and contradictory phenomenon than the extended reflexivity thesis tends to allow for. A more complex and multivious account of psychic life can arguably be found in psychoanalysis and this critical point is expanded upon here and underpins the later discussions in chapter five.
[Page xii]Critical commentary has also focused upon the extent to which the extended reflexivity thesis utilizes an unduly weakened concept of social structure. According to this counter-argument, social structures still differentially shape the ability of different social groups to be reflexive, and to connect reflexivity with genuine choices. This is an important argument pursued in some detail in chapter three and throughout this book. Finally, critical voices have suggested the analysis of reflexivity as an emerging process of self-identity transcending cultural boundaries masks its origins in, and perpetuation of, normative discourses of rationality, individualization and autonomy which now elide smoothly with the neoliberal politics and policies of contemporary capitalism. This interpretation forms the basis for a critical dialogue between the extended reflexivity thesis and Foucaultian analyses of self-identity in the context of social change, discussed in chapter four.
Discursive accounts of regulation which draw on Foucault at first appear to have little in common with the extended reflexivity thesis. Theirs is a very different portrayal of social change and the subject, emphasizing the primacy of language, the ways in which discourses intermesh to form reality and the subsequent construction of socially differentiated subjects. Out of discursive formations emerges the particular shape of an embodied subjectivity, folding discourses into the reality of its own constitution through the techniques made available to it, always pre-existing it. However, Foucaultian accounts of governmentality have pointed to the emergence of self-surveillance as a historically contingent technology for regulating people in contemporary societies. According to this understanding individuals are increasingly invited to scrutinize themselves, according to principles of autonomy, self-realisation and self-mastery. It is such an invitation that brings a Foucaultian analysis into contact with the extended reflexivity thesis, for the phenomena of self-scrutiny and self-reflexivity overlap a great deal. The important critical difference is that for Foucaultian analyses, the reflexive process is embedded in the dominant discourses of a particular social order, rather than being capable of standing apart from and reworking them. As the examples of employee-identity illustrates there is argued to be a hijacking of self-reflexivity by state and corporate powers with the aim of ensuring a docile and compliant consumer-worker-citizen.
Criticisms of Foucault's over-determinism lead to a re-emergence of questions of agency and the possibility of reflexive autonomy. Despite offering a compelling critical inversion of the extended reflexivity thesis, modernist assumptions concerning the ‘self’ as origin of an awareness which transcends cultural constructions and interpolations resurface. Foucaultian analyses tend to do one of two contradictory things: either they deny the subject any interiority at all, frustrating a meaningful examination of the psychic power people invest in, and form attachments, to particular regimes of truth, forms of governmentality or techniques of self over another, which presumably play a key part in social differentiation; or they offer the hope of a critical self-reflexivity as an implicit or explicit [Page xiii]ideal, whilst critical of present manifestations of it as historically contingent discursive constructions. Furthermore, this invitation to self-mastery is as in danger of slipping into gendered and class-based notions of the bounded subject as those at the fore of the extended reflexivity thesis. The search for a model of selfhood which acknowledges and theorizes the investments and attachments which mutually bind self-identity and social structure, without valorizing processes of self-reflexivity, leads to an exploration of the concept of narcissism from a psychodynamic perspective.
Sociological accounts of narcissism parallel a Foucaultian emphasis upon the appropriation of intimate processes of subjectivity by dominant socio-cultural processes. A psychoanalytic framework brings a different inflection to the psychological processes involved however. According to this approach, early interactions with significant others forms the basis for one's psychological make-up amidst complex process of psychical interpenetration. The unconscious internalization of these early relations forms the basis of a self and continues to shape those relations across the life-span. The particular relational dynamics involved in the aetiology of narcissistic disorders have long been highlighted and continue to be refined in clinical literature.
Christopher Lasch and others have argued that the social changes we are now familiar with reproduce these dynamics at the level of individual families. They undermine the relations necessary to develop an individuated sense of self, ‘fixing’ the psyche in a narcissistic nexus into which the demands and seductions of late capitalist society steps, consolidating narcissistic disorders and initiating a cycle of narcissism as narcissistic adults go on to bring up narcissistic children. The characteristics of narcissism are thus argued to be familiar aspects of contemporary consumer culture: fear of death and old age, constant solicitation of the admiration of others, fear of dependence and so on. Some aspects of narcissism seem closely allied to what is elsewhere referred to as the reflexive project of selfhood such as pervasive self-scrutiny, a concern with self-actualisation, and a contractual approach to relationships. It is at this point of conjuncture that a Laschian analysis appears to invert self-reflexivity by portraying it as a pathological, disempowered response to a dominant social structure, draining the concept of the balanced ambivalence with which it is invested by Giddens and others.
The wedding of psychoanalysis and critical theory in Lasch's analysis, though by no means novel, serves as an example of the possibility of conceptualizing psychic life as it interpenetrates changing social structures without losing sight of either. Despite the potential of a creative use of object relations theory however, Lasch, like earlier theorists of psychosocial fragmentation, has been criticized for an excessively nostalgic view of the past and an excessively pessimistic view of the present in his broader cultural analyses. Consequently it is argued that he does not give adequate ground to the spaces for agency opened up by individuals and groups in the fissures of an eroding order, nor to the differential impact of the culture he decimates so thoroughly. Furthermore, in the denigration of [Page xiv]the psychodynamics of narcissism, he has been perceived to have reproduced the normative ideal of masculine individualism at the expense of the psychological value of relatedness. Lasch's account leads us to a more specific affirmation of what should be valued in the struggle for selfhood perhaps more explicitly and more thoroughly than most accounts covered in this book, but it is uncertain whether the problems which accompany such an affirmation outweigh its benefits.
While certain elements of all of the approaches discussed are of value, none of them alone capture the complexity of modern identity, and all of them contain some vital absences. The final chapter takes up the analysis of selfhood in terms of the notion of extended reflexivity again. It is an attempt to explore in more detail the social structuring and cultural situatedness of self-reflexive processes to create a more particularized account of the nature of contemporary identities. The importance of a global economic and employment structure is discussed, with an accompanying return to the issue of polarization, and the relationship between identity and the social allocation of resources is reassessed. What emerges in this final chapter is a heavily qualified version of the ‘reflexive project of selfhood’. The specific limitations argued to be inseparable from that conceptualization draw to some degree on the arguments and critiques raised in the previous chapters, but the account of identity outlined here also reiterates some of their limitations, and attempts to move beyond them.
Thanks to all my colleagues in the School of Applied Social Sciences at the University of Brighton for providing a convivial and dialogical environment in which to work; and to my old colleagues at Nottingham Trent who offered guidance, passion and inspiration stretching back to my undergraduate days. Thanks to my old friends, particularly Mat, Steve, Rik, Bobby, Fraser and John who still know how to get by in good faith and get together in good spirits. And in memory of Darren Cossou and all that he was in that short time. Thanks for the support of Viv and Steve Adams, and Sam and Eve along the way, who through an abundance of love; care; humility; good faith and healthy scepticism have provided living examples of the best kind of situated selfhood I can only aspire to. Thanks especially to Clare, Amelie and Dylan, whose love makes it all happen day in, day out. All this taken together is the guiding light behind everything that goes into this book; its shortcomings however, are all my own.
Only through the accounts of others have we come to know of our unity. On the thread of our history as told by the others, year by year, we end up resembling ourselves.
Bibliography[Page 167][Page 184]2002) Below the Breadline: Living on the Minimum Wage. London: Profile Books(2006) ‘Hybridising habitus and reflexivity: Towards an understanding of contemporary identity’, Sociology, Vol.40(3): 511–528http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003803850663672(2003) ‘The reflexive self and culture: A critique’, British Journal of Sociology, Vol.54(2): 221–238http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0007131032000080212(2003) ‘Reflexivity: Freedom or Habit of Gender?’, Theory, Culture & Society, 20(6): 21–42http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276403206002(2002) Revisions: Gender and Sexuality in Late Modernity. Buckingham: Open University Press(1955) ‘Sociology and Psychology’, New Left Review (trans. Irving N.Wohlfarth), two parts: 46 (Nov.-Dec. 1967): 67–80; and 47 (Jan.-Feb. 1968): 79–97(1979 ) Dialectic of Enlightenment, London: Versoand (1996) The Global Age: State and society beyond modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press(1999) ‘Feminist Politics and Foucault: The Limits to a Collaboration’ in A.Dallery and C.Scott (eds) Crises in Continental Philosophy. Albany: SUNY Press(1996) ‘Critical Reflections on “Reflexive Modernization”’, Theory, Culture and Society, Vol.13(4): 133–138http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276496013004009(1995) Fin de Siècle Social Theory: Relativism, Reduction, and the Problem of Reason. London: Verso(2002) Home is Where the Start is: The Housing and Urban Experiences of Visually Impaired Children. Bristol: The Policy Press, , (American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,4th editiontext revision (DSM IV-TR), Washington, DC.1985) Watching Dallas: Soap Opera and the Melodramatic Imagination. London: Methuen(2003) ‘“Reflexive modernization” and other mythical realities’, Anthropological Theory, Vol.3(1): 27–41http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1463499603003001750(1997) ‘Hold the production line’, People Management (February 6, 1997): 22(2004) A New History of Identity: A Sociology of Medical Knowledge. Basingstoke: Palgrave(1980) ‘On Narcissism’, Telos, No. 44 (Summer 1980): 65–73(2003) Interactionism. London: Sageand (2000) ‘Entrapped by the “electronic panopticon”? Worker resistance in the call centre’, New Technology, Work & Employment, Vol. 15:1: 2–18http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-005X.00061and (2002) ‘Taylorism, Targets and the Pursuit of Quantity and Quality by Call Centre Management’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 17(3): 154–69http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-005X.00103, , and ([Page 168]2004) Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. California: University of California(1995) ‘Circuits of Schooling: A sociological exploration of parental choice of school in social-class contexts’, The Sociological Review, 43: 52–78., and (Baron, S., Field, J., Schuller, T., (eds) (2000) Social Capital: Critical Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press1982) ‘Narcissism and the Family: A Critique of Lasch’, New Left Review, I/135 (Sept.-Oct.): 35–48and (1982) The Anti-Social Family. London: Versoand (1990) Femininity and Domination: Studies in the Phenomenology of Oppression. London: Routledge(1988) ‘Foucault, femininity and the modernization of patriarchal power’ in I.Diamond and L.Quinby (eds), Feminism and Foucault: Reflections on Resistance. Boston: Northeastern University Press: 61–86(2002) ‘The Viability of Alternative Call Centre Production Models’, Human Resource Management Journal, 12(4): 14–34http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2002.tb00075.xand (2004) Identity. Cambridge: Polity Press(2001) The Individualized Society. Cambridge: Polity Press(2000) Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press(1998) Globalization: The Human Consequences. Cambridge: Polity Press(1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage(2002) Individualization: Institutionalized Individualism and its Social and Political Consequences. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218693and (1995) The Normal Chaos of Love. London: Polity Pressand (2003) Conversations with Ulrich Beck. Cambridge: Polity Pressand (1994) Reflexive Modernization. Cambridge: Polity Press, and (1973) The Denial of Death. New York: Free Press(1973) The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books(1996) Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. Berkeley: University of California Press, , et al. (2002) ‘The crisis of “identity” in high modernity’, British Journal of Sociology, Vol.53(1): 1–18http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00071310120109302(1988) The Bonds of Love: Psychoanalysis, Feminism and the Problem of Domination. London: Virago(1978) ‘Authority and the Family Revisited: Or, a World Without Fathers’, New German Critique, No.13: 35–57http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3115186(1993) ‘“Black Holes” as Sites for Self-Constructions’ in R.Josselson and A.Lieblich (eds) Making Meaning of Narratives in the Narrative Study of Lives, Vol.6. London: Sage(2000) ‘Medusa Appears: A Case Study of a Narcissistic Disturbance’, Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, Vol.36(3), 86–94http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6163.2000.tb00698.x(2005) ‘The Dialogical Self, Flexibility and the Cultural Production of Psychopathology’, Theory and Psychology, 15 (Apr. 2005): 183–206http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959354305051363(2001) Mass Hysteria: Critical Psychology & the Media. Basingstoke: Palgraveand (1997) Fortress America. Washington, DC: The Brookings Instituteand ([Page 169]2001) ‘Social capital and political fantasy: Robert Putnam's Bowling Alone’, Theory and Society, 30: 281–297http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010875611192(1987) The Shadow of the Object: Psychoanalysis of the Unthought Known. London: Free Association Books(2003) ‘Trolley dolly or skilled emotion manager? Moving on from Hochschild's Managed Heart’, Work, Employment & Society, Vol.17(2): 289–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017003017002004and (1993) Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western culture, and the Body. Berkeley: University of California Press(1998) Practical Reason: on the Theory of Action. Cambridge: Polity Press(1990b) The logic of practice (trans. R.Nice). Cambridge: Polity Press(1990a) In Other Words: Essays Towards a Reflexive Sociology (trans. M.Adamson). Cambridge: Polity Press(1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press(1999) The Weight of the World: Social Suffering in Contemporary Society (trans. Priscilla PankhurstFerguson). Cambridge: Polity Press, et al. (1992) An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Pressand (2002) ‘Bourdieu: From Class to Culture’, Theory, Culture and Society, Vol.19(3): 117–128http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327602401081558(2000) ‘Post-panopticism’, Economy & Society, 29(2): 285–307http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/030851400360505(1996) Fractured Identities: Changing Patterns of Inequality. Cambridge: Polity Press(2000) Myths at Work. Cambridge: Polity Press, , and (1996) Cartographies of Diaspora: Contesting Identities. London: Routledge(2005) ‘Individualisation, choice and structure: a discussion of current trends in sociological analysis’, The Sociological Review, Vol.53(3): 412–428http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2005.00559.xand (1997) ‘Explaining Educational Differentials: Towards a Formal Rational Act Theory’, Rationality and Society, 9(3): 275–305http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104346397009003002and (1986) ‘“The Mirror and the Mask”: On Narcissism and Psychoanalytic Growth’ in Morrison, A.P. (ed.) Essential Papers on Narcissism. New York: New York University Press: 438–466(2001) Children of the Self-Absorbed: A Grown-Up's Guide to Getting over Narcissistic Parents. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications(2001) ‘Psychology and the Art of Living’, Theory and Psychology, Vol.11(2): 171–192http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959354301112002(2000) ‘Beyond “identity”’, Theory and Society, 29(1): 1–47http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007068714468and (2004) The Disneyization of Society. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220122(2003) ‘The Lifeworld of the University Student: Habitus and Social Class’, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, Vol.34(2): 207–234http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156916203322847146(1993) ‘Liberal government and the techniques of self’, Economy and Society, 22(3): 266–282http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149300000018(Burchell, G., GordonC. and MillerP. (eds) (1991) The Foucault Effect. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester[Page 170]1999) Bodies of Thought: Embodiment, Identity and Modernity. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222256(1991) Social Selves: Theories of the Social Formation of Personality. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212769(1994) Deconstructing Developmental Psychology. London: Routledge(2003) ‘More Than You Need to Know?’, Guardian, Weekend Magazine (November 15, 2003)(2000) ‘Psychological distress and post-modern thought’ in D.Fee (ed.) Pathology and the Post-modern: Mental Illness, Discourse, and Experience. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217252and (1997) The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press(1990) Gender Trouble. London: Routledge(2003) ‘The Construction of Self: The Public Reach into the Private Sphere’, Sociology, Vol.37(3): 477–493http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00380385030373005and (2001) ‘Call centre employees responses to electronic monitoring: some research findings’, Work Employment and Society, 15:3: 595–605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09500170122119174, , , and (1996) ‘Fortified enclaves: the new urban segregation’, Public Culture, Vol.8(2): 329–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-8-2-303(2002) ‘“We Recruit Attitude”: the Selection and Shaping of Routine Call Centre Labour’, Journal of Management Studies, 39(2): 233–254http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00290and (2001) ‘Edwards Revisited: Technical Control and Call Centres’, Economic and Industrial Democracy, 22(1): 13–37http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143831X01221002and (2000) Good To Talk?London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217993(1997) The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Vol.11: The Power of Identity. Oxford: Blackwell ((2nd edition, 2004)1987) The Imaginary Institution of Society (trans. KathleenBlamey), Cambridge: Polity Press(1984) The Practice of Everyday Life (trans. S.F.Rendall), Berkeley, CA: University of California Press(2003) ‘Personal persistence, identity development and suicide’, Monographs for the Society for Research in Child Development, 68(2)., , and (2000) A Phenomenology of Working Class Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press(1985b ) Creativity and Perversion. London: Free Association(1985a ) The Ego Ideal. London: Free Association(1978) The Reproduction of Mothering. Berkeley: University of California Press(1982) ‘The fantasy of the perfect mother’ in Feminism and Psychoanalytic Theory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press: 79–96and (Claxton, G. (ed.) (1984) Beyond Therapy: The Impact of Eastern Religions on Psychological Theory and Practice. London: Wisdom Publications1989) Structuration Theory: Anthony Giddens and the Constitution of Social Life. London: Macmillan(1990) Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge: Belknap(1973) The Mathematics of Collective Action. London: Heinemann(1986) ‘Narcissism’ in A. P.Morrison (ed.) Essential Papers on Narcissism. New York: New York University Press: 112–143([Page 171]1998) Experiencing Identity. London: Sage(1992) Anthony Giddens. London: Routledge(2005) ‘Profiling the Personal: Configuration of Teenage Biographies to Employment Norms’, Sociology, Vol.39(2): 315–332http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038505050541(2003) ‘Self-Starters, Can-doers and Mobile Phoneys: Situations Vacant Columns and the Personality Culture in Employment’, The Sociological Review, 51(1): 109–128http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.00410(2005) ‘Class Analysis: Beyond the Cultural Turn’ in F.Devine, M.Savage, J.Scott and R.Crompton (eds) Rethinking Class: Culture, Identities and Lifestyle. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan: 186–203and (Crompton, R., Devine, F., Savage, M. and Scott, J. (eds) (1999) Renewing Class Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell1995) Constructing the Self, Constructing America: A Cultural History of Psychotherapy. Cambridge, MA: Perseus(2004) ‘A self-psychology approach to narcissistic personality disorder: a nursing reflection’, Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, Vol.40(1): 20–28http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6163.2004.00020.x(2004) ‘Planet of Slums: Urban Involution and the Informal Proletariat’, New Left Review (March 26/April 2004): 5–34(2002) ‘The regulation of the self’ in T.Jordan and S.Pile (eds) Social Change. Oxford: Blackwell: 229–272(1999) Governmentality: Power and Rule in Modern Society. London: Sage(1988) Foucault. London: Athlone(2005) ‘Symbolic interactionism and the concept of power’, The British Journal of Sociology, Vol.56(2): 191–213http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2005.00055.xand (2005) ‘The Cultural Turn, Sociology and Class Analysis’ in F.Devine, M.Savage, J.Scott and R.Crompton (eds) Rethinking Class: Culture, Identities and Lifestyle. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan: 1–23and (Devine, F., Savage, M., Scott, J. and Crompton, R. (2005) (eds) Rethinking Class: Culture, Identities and Lifestyle. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacmillanDiamond, I. and Quinby, L. (eds) (1988) Feminism and Foucault: Reflections on Resistance. Boston: Northeastern University Press1991 ) ‘The Mobilization of Society’ in G.Burchell, C.Gordon and P.Miller (eds) The Foucault Effect: studies in governmentality. Brighton: Harvester Wheatsheaf: 169–180(1979) The Policing of Families (trans. R.Hurley). New York: Pantheon(2004) ‘Against “Enterprise” (but not against enterprise, for that would make no sense)’Organization, Vol.11(1): 37–57http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508404039777(1997) ‘Organizing Identity: Making Up People at Work’ in P.Du Gay (ed.) Production of Culture/Cultures of Production. London: Sage: 285–344(1996) Consumption and Identity at Work. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221945(1996) Michel Foucault and the Politics of Freedom. London: Sage(1951 ) Suicide: A Study in Sociology. Glencoe: Free Press(1995) The Perfectible Body: the western idea of physical development. London: Cassell(2002) Nickel and Dimed: Undercover in Low-wage America. London: Granta(Ehrenreich, B. and Hochschild, A. (eds) (2003) Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy. Basingstoke: Palgrave1978/1939) The Civilizing Process, Vol.1: The History of Manners. New York: Pantheon Books(2004) ‘Psychoanalysis, Modernity, Postmodernism: Theorizing for a New Era’, Psychoanalysis, Culture and Society, 9: 63–73http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pcs.2100009([Page 172]2001) Concepts of the Self. Cambridge: Polity Press(2000) ‘Psychoanalysis and Social Theory’ in B. S.Turner (ed.) The Blackwell Companion to Social Theory. Oxford: Blackwell: 133–159(1999,(2nd edition) Social Theory and Psychoanalysis in Transition. London: Free Association Books1980) ‘The Self: Reborn, Undone, Transformed’, Telos, No.44 (Summer, 1980): 101–11(Elster, J. (ed.) (1986) Rational Choice, Oxford: Basil Blackwell1972) ‘Exchange Theory, Part I: A Psychological Basis For Social Exchange’ in J.Berger, M.Zelditch and B.Anderson (eds) Sociological Theories in Progress, Volume Two. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company(1980) ‘Femininity as Tragedy: Re-examining the “New Narcissism”’, Socialist Review, 53: 77–104(1950) Childhood and Society. New York: Norton(1994) ‘Towanda's Triumph: Social and Cultural Capital in the Transition to Adulthood in the Urban Ghetto’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 18: 88–111http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.1994.tb00252.x(1998) (Not) Hanging on the Telephone: Payment Systems in the New Sweatshops, Discussion Paper 390. Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economicsand (2004) ‘Getting the Measure of Emotion – and the Cautionary Tale of Emotional Intelligence’, Human Relations, 57(6): 719–740http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726704044953(2000) ‘Commodifying the Emotionally Intelligent’, in S.Fineman (ed.) Emotion in Organizations. London: Sage: 101–114http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446219850(1990) Thinking Fragments: Psychoanalysis, Feminism and Postmodernism in the Contemporary West. Berkeley: University of California Press(2002) ‘Looking for the Good Soldier, Svejk: Alternative Modalities of Resistance in the Contemporary Workplace’, Sociology, Vol.36(4): 857–873http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003803850203600404and (1991b) ‘Governmentality’ in G.Burchell, C.Gordon and P.Miller (eds) The Foucault Effect: studies in governmentality. Brighton: Harvester Wheatsheaf: 87–104(1991a) ‘Politics and the Study of Discourse’ in G.Burchell, C.Gordon and P.Miller (eds) The Foucault Effect: studies in governmentality. Brighton: Harvester Wheatsheaf: 53–72(1988b) ‘The Political Technology of Individuals’ in L. H.Martin (ed.) Technologies of the Self. University of Massachusetts Press: 145–162(1988a) ‘Technologies of the Self’ in L. H.Martin (ed.) Technologies of the Self. University of Massachusetts Press: 16–49(1986) The Care of the Self: The History of Sexuality, Vol.3. (trans. RobertHurley). New York: Random House(1985) The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality, Vol.2. (trans. RobertHurley). New York: Random House(1984) ‘What is Enligthenment?’ in P.Rabinow (ed.) The Foucault Reader. New York: Pantheon Books: 32–50(1982) ‘The subject and power’ in H. L.Dreyfus and P.Rabinow (eds) Michel Foucault: beyond structuralism and hermeneutics. Brighton: Harvester Wheatsheaf: 208–226(1980c) Language, Counter-Memory, Practice. New York: Cornell University Press([Page 173]1980b) ‘Truth and Power’ in C.Gordon (ed.) Power/Knowledge: Selected Writings 1972–1977 by Michel Foucault. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester: 109–133(1980a) ‘The eye of power’ in C.Gordon (ed.) Power/Knowledge: Selected Writings 1972–1977 by Michel Foucault. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester: 146–165(1979) The History of Sexuality. Volume 1: An Introduction (trans. R.Hurley). London: Allen Lane(1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (trans. A.Sheridan). London: Allen Lane(1965) Madness and Civilization (trans. R.Howard). London: Tavistock(1988) ‘Truth, Power, Self: An Interview with Michel Foucault’ in L. H.Martin (ed.) Technologies of the Self. University of Massachusetts Press: 9–15and (1996) ‘Michel Foucault: A Young Conservative?’ in S. J.Hekman (ed.) Feminist Interpretations of Foucault. Pennsylvania: Penn State University Press: 15–38(1998) ‘Beyond Bureaucracy? Work Organisation in Call Centres’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(6): 957–979http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/095851998340694, , and (1930 ) Civilisation and Its Discontents. London: Hogarth Press(1923) ‘The Ego and the Id’ in S.Freud (1984), On Metapsychology. Harmondsworth: Penguin: 1984: Vol.11(1922 ) Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. London: Hogarth Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11327-000(1920) ‘Beyond the Pleasure Principle’ in S.Freud (1984), On Metapsychology. Harmondsworth: Penguin: 7–64(1914) ‘On Narcissism: An Introduction’ in S.Freud (1984), On Metapsychology. Harmondsworth: Penguin: 67–102(2005) ‘Theorizing the Young Woman in the Body’, Body and Society, Vol.11(1): 63–85http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357034X05049851(1991) Identity Crisis: Modernity, Psychoanalysis and the Self. Palgrave: Macmillan(2003) ‘Taking a stand: Using psychoanalysis to explore the positioning of subjects in discourse’, British Journal of Social Psychology, 42: 39–53http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466603763276117, and (1992) The End of History and the Last Man. Harmondsworth: Penguin(2004) Therapy Culture: Cultivating Vulnerability in an Uncertain Age. London: Routledge(1997) Young people and social change: individualization and risk in late modernity. Buckingham: Open University Pressand (1993) The Panoptic Sort: A Political Economy of Personal Information. Boulder: Westview(1996) ‘Alterity and ethics: a dialogical perspective’, Theory, Culture and Society, Vol.13(2): 121–143http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327696013002009(1998) Adventures in Wonderland: A Decade in Club Culture. London: Headline(1996) The New Work Order. St. Leonards, NSW: Allen and Unwin, and (1987) ‘A philosophical critique of the concept of narcissism: the significance of the Awareness Movement’ in D. M.Levin (ed.) Pathologies of the Modern Self. New York: New York University Press: 251–304(1999) Runaway World: How Globalization is shaping our lives. London: Profile Books.([Page 174]1994) ‘Living in a Post-Traditional Society’, in U.Beck, A.Giddens and S.Lash, Reflexive Modernization. Cambridge: Polity Press: 56–109(1992) The Transformation of Intimacy. Cambridge: Polity Press(1991) Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge: Polity Press(1990) The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press(1984) The Constitution of Society. Cambridge: Polity Press(1981) A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. London: Macmillan(1979) Central Problems in Social Theory. London: Macmillan(1976) New Rules of Sociological Method. London: Hutchinson(1998c) Conversations with Anthony Giddens: Making Sense of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Pressand (2005) ‘Body Projects and the Regulation of Normative Masculinity’, Body and Society, Vol.11(1): 37–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357034X05049849, and (1987) The Political Economy of International Relations. Princeton: Princeton University Press(1993) Shattered selves: Multiple personality in a postmodern world. New York: Cornell University Press(1971) Relations in Public. London: Penguin(1961) Asylums. Harmondsworth: Penguin(1952) ‘On Cooling the Mark Out: Some Aspects of Adaptation to Failure’, Psychiatry, 15(4) 451–463(2000) ‘Forthcoming features: information and communications technologies and the sociologies of the future’, Sociology, Vol.34(1)(1998) ‘Rational Action Theory for Sociology’, British Journal of Sociology, 49(2): 167–192http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/591308(1998) Working With Emotional Intelligence. London: Bloomsbury(1996) Emotional Intelligence: Why it Can Matter More Than IQ. London: Bloomsbury(1992) Trapped in the Mirror: Adult Children of Narcissists in Their Struggle for Self. New York: HarperCollins(1991) ‘Governmental rationality: an introduction’ in G.Burchell, C.Gordon and P.Miller (eds) The Foucault Effect: studies in governmentality. Brighton: Harvester Wheatsheaf: 1–51(1987) ‘The soul of the citizen: Max Weber and Michel Foucault on rationality and government’ in S.Whimster and S.Lash (eds) Max Weber: Rationality and Modernity. London: Allen and Unwin: 293–316(1982) Farewell to the Working Class. London: Pluto(1989) New Essays on Narcissism. London: Free Association(1979) Narcissism: Psychoanalytic Essays. New York: International Universities Press(2000) ‘Virtual Virility, or, Does Medicine Make the Man?’, Men and Masculinities, Vol.2(4): 388–409http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1097184X00002004002(2004) Key Issues in Women's Work. London: Glasshouse Press(1992) ‘The Question of Cultural Identity’ in S.Hall, D.Held and T.McGrew (eds) Modernity and its Futures. Cambridge: Polity Press: 273–326(1989) ‘Encoding/Decoding’ in S.Hall, D.Hobson, A.Lowe and P.Willis (eds) Culture, Media, Language. London: Hutchison(Hall, S. and Jefferson, T. (eds) (1976) Resistance Through Rituals. London: Hutchison[Page 175]1997) ‘Imperfect panopticism: envisioning the construction of normal lives’ in G.Benko and U.Stohmayer (eds) Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell: 344–359(1997) Modest_Witness@Second_Millennium.FemaleMan©_Meets_ OncoMouse™ Feminism and Technoscience. London: Routledge(1989) The Condition of Postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell(1994) ‘Modernity & Self Identity: the “hollowing out” of social theory’, Arena Journal, Series No.2:45–76; reprinted in C.Bryant and D.Jary (eds) (1996) Anthony Giddens: A Critical Assessment. London: Routledge, and (1979) Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Methuenhttp://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203139943(1996) ‘Introduction: Detraditionalization and its Rivals’ in P.Heelas, S.Lash and P.Morris (eds) Detraditionalization. Oxford: Blackwell: 1–20(Heelas, P., Lash, S. and Morris, P. (eds) (1996) Detraditionalization. Oxford: Blackwell2000) ‘Beyond Identity: Feminism, identity and identity politics’, Feminist Theory, Vol.1(3): 289–308http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14647000022229245(Hekman, S. J. (ed.) (1996) Feminist Interpretations of Foucault. Pensylvania: Penn State University Press1995) Democracy and the Global Order. Cambridge: Polity Press(2005) ‘Founding principle called into question’, Guardian (November 8, 2005): 19(Henwood, F., Kennedy, H., Miller, N. (eds) (2001) Cyborg lives?: women's technobiographies. New York: Raw NerveHermans, H. J. M. (ed.) (2002) ‘The dialogical self’ (special issue), Theory and Psychology, 12(2).1999) ‘The polyphony of the mind: A multi-voiced and dialogical self’ in J.Rowan and M.Cooper (eds) The plural self: Multiplicity in everyday life. London: Sage: 107–131(1993) The Dialogical Self: Meaning as Movement. London: Academic Press Limitedand (2005) ‘The Contrasting Social Logics of Sociality and Survival: Cultures of Classed Be/Longing in Late Modernity’, Sociology, Vol.39(5): 855–872http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038505058369(1981) ‘The genesis of the social’, Politics and Power, Vol.3: 67–82(1983) The Managed Heart. Los Angeles: University of California Press(2002) Why is it Always About You? Saving Yourself From the Narcissists in Your Life. New York: Simon and Schuster(2002) ‘Reflecting on Habitus, Field and Capital: Towards a Culturally Sensitive Social Work’, Journal of Social Work, 2: 146–167http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146801730200200203(Hoy, D. C. (ed.) (1986) Foucault: A critical reader. Oxford: Blackwell2005) ‘Bringing emotion to work: emotional intelligence, employee resistance and the reinvention of character’, Work, Employment and Society, Vol.19(3): 603–625http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017005055675(1988) ‘Foucault, Freud and the Technologies of the Self’ in L. H.Martin (ed.) Technologies of the Self. University of Massachusetts Press: 121–144(1980) ‘Narcissism and the Crisis of Capitalism’, Telos, No.44 (Summer, 1980): 58–64(1975) Social Amnesia. Hassocks: Harvester(2001) ‘Marketing Molly and Melville: Dating in a Postmodern, Consumer Society’, Sociology, Vol.35(1): 39–57http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0038038501000037(1984) ‘Postmodernism, or the cultural logic of late capitalism’, New Left Review, No.146: 54–92([Page 176]1999) ‘Intimacy transformed: a critical look at the pure relationship’, Sociology, Vol.33: 477–494(1998) Intimacy: Personal Relationships in Modern Societies. Cambridge: Polity Press(1994) Downcast Eyes: The Denigration of Vision in 20th Century French Thought. Berkeley: University of California Press(1998) ‘Introduction’ in S. G.Jones (ed.) Cybersociety 2.0: Revisiting Computer-Mediated Communication and Community. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243689(2002b) ‘Totalities and Multiplicities: Thinking About Social Change’ in T.Jordan and S.Pile (eds) Social Change. Oxford: Blackwell: 273–316(2002) ‘Community, everyday and space’ in T.Bennett and D.Watson (eds) Understanding Everyday Life. Oxford: Blackwell: 229–270(1998) ‘A sociology of hackers’, Sociological Review, Vol.46(4): 757–780http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.00139and (1991) Enterprise Culture. London: Routledgeand (1991) ‘Introduction’ in H.Marcuse, One Dimensional Man (1964 ) Boston: Beacon Press(2001) ‘Managing Youth Transitions in the Network Society’, British Journal of the Sociology of Education, 22(1): 19–33http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425690020030765and (1986b) ‘Further Contributions to the Treatment of Narcissistic Personalities’ in A. P.Morrison (ed.) (1986) Essential Papers on Narcissism. New York: New York University Press: 245–292(1986a) ‘Factors in the Psychoanalytic Treatment of Narcissistic Personalities’ in A. P.Morrison (ed.) (1986) Essential Papers on Narcissism. New York: New York University Press: 213–244(1975) Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism. New York: Jason Aronson(2000) ‘“Fun and Surveillance”: The Paradox of High Commitment Management in Call Centres’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(5): 967–985http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/095851900422375, and (Kirkup, G., James, L., Woodward, K. and Hovenden, F. (eds) (2000) The gendered cyborg: a reader. London: Routledge/Open University Press1988 ) Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946–1963. London: Virago(1956) New Directions in Psychoanalysis. New York: Basic Books(1952) Developments in Psychoanalysis. London: Hogarth Press(2000) No Logo. London: Flamingo(2000) ‘ “Ain't misbehavin'?”: Opportunities for Resistance Under New Forms of “Quality” Management”’, Sociology, Vol.34(3): 421–436and (1986 ) ‘Forms and Transformations of Narcissism’ in A. P.Morrison (ed.) Essential Papers on Narcissism. New York: New York University Press: 61–88(1971) The Analysis of the Self. New York: International Universities Press(1977) The Restoration of the Self. New York: International Universities Press(2003) ‘ “Cam Era” – the contemporary urban Panopticon’, Surveillance & Society, 1(3): 292–313 (http://wws.surveillance-and-society.org)(2002) ‘Video surveillance, gender and the safety of public urban space: “Peeping Tom” goes high tech?’, Urban Geography, 23: 257–278http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-36126.96.36.1997(1988) The Radical Spirit. London: Free Association([Page 177]1982) The Age of Desire. New York: Pantheon(1980) ‘Narcissism and the family’, Telos, No.44 (Summer, 1980): 88–100(1970) The Krishnamurti Reader. London: Arkana(1984 ) Revolution in Poetic Language. New York: Columbia University Press(2004) Transmission. London: Hamish Hamilton(1977) Ecrits: A Selection. London: Tavistock(1975) The Seminar of Jacques Lacan, Book 1 (1953–4). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press(1967) The Politics of Experience and the Bird of Experience. Harmondsworth: Penguin(1960) The Divided Self: A Study in Sanity and Madness. London: Tavistock(1970) Sanity, Madness and the Family. London: Tavistockand (1995) The Revolt of the Elites. New York: Norton(1991 ) The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in An Age of Diminishing Expectations. New York: Norton(1984) The Minimal Self. New York: Norton(1981) ‘The Freudian Left and Cultural Revolution’, New Left Review, 129: 23–34(1974) Haven in a Heartless World: The Family Besieged. New York: Norton(1979) ‘A Symposium: Christopher Lasch and The Culture of Narcissism’ in Salmagundi (Fall, 1979)et al. (1999) Another Modernity, A Different Rationality. Oxford: Blackwell(1994) ‘Reflexivity and its Doubles: Structure, Aesthetics, Community’ in U.Beck, A.Giddens and S.Lash, Reflexive Modernization. Cambridge: Polity Press: 110–173(Lash, S. and Friedman, J. (eds) (1992) Modernity and Identity. Oxford: Blackwell1994) Economies of Signs and Space. London: Sageand (1993) We Have Never Been Modern (trans. CatherinePorter). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press(Lawler, S. (2005b) ‘Disgusted Subjects: the making of middle-class identities’, The Sociological Review, 3(3): 429–446http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2005.00560.x2005) ‘Introduction: Class, Culture and Identity’, Sociology, Vol.39(5): 797–806http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038505058365(2004) Up the Down Escalator: Why the Global Pessimists are Wrong. Harmondsworth: Penguin(1999) ‘The Killer Narcissists’, National Review (May 17, 1999)(Levin, D. M. (ed.) (1987) Pathologies of the Modern Self. New York: New York University Press2005) Hypermodern Times. Cambridge: Polity Press(1997) ‘Progressive politics, electronic individualism and the myth of community’ in D.Porter (ed.) Internet Culture. London: Routledge: 219–232(2000) ‘The embodied computer/user’ in D.Bell and B. M.Kennedy (eds) The Cyber Cultures Reader. London: Routledge: 477–487(2002) ‘New media and time-space reconfiguration’ in T.Jordan and S.Pile (eds) Social Change. Oxford: Blackwell: 139–184([Page 178]1979 ) ‘Autism and Symbiosis: Two Extreme Disturbances of Identity’ in The Selected Papers of Margaret S. Mahler, Vol.1. New York: Aronson: 261–279(1975) The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant: Symbiosis and Individuation. New York: Basic Books, and (1955) Eros and Civilisation: A philosophical inquiry into Freud. Boston: Beacon Press(1964 ) One Dimensional Man. Boston: Beacon Press(1988) ‘Truth, Power, Self: An Interview with Michel Foucault’ in L. H.Martin (ed.) Technologies of the Self. University of Massachusetts Press: 9–15(2001) The Surveillance Web: The Rise of Visual Surveillance in an English City. Devon: Willan Press.(1996) ‘Technologies of Truth and the Function of Gender’ in S. J.Hekman (ed.) Feminist Interpretations of Foucault. Pennsylvania: Penn State University Press(2000) ‘Reading the American Popular: suburban resentment and the representation of the inner-city in contemporary film and TV’ in D.Fleming (ed.) Formations: A 21st-Century Media Studies Textbook. Manchester: Manchester University Press(1999) Struggles for Subjectivity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139106870(1992) ‘A Globalized Society?’ in S.Hall, D.Held and A.McGrew (eds) Modernity and its Futures. Cambridge: Polity Press: 61–116(1996) ‘Power, Surveillance and Resistance: Inside the “Factory of the Future” ‘, in P.Ackers, C.Smith and P.Smith (eds) The New Workplace and Trade Unionism. London: Routledge: 279–300and (1964) Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. London: Routledge(1999). ‘Gender, habitus and the field: Pierre Bourdieu and the limits of reflexivity’, Theory, Culture and Society, 16(1): 95–117(1994) Foucault: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press(1992) Foucault and Feminism: Power, Gender and the Self. Cambridge: Polity Press(1996) The Playing Self: Person and Meaning in the Planetary Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511520907(1999) Anthony Giddens: The Last Modernist. London: Sage(1997) Postemotional Society. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250211(1986) ‘Depression and Grandiosity as Related Forms of Narcissistic Disturbances’ in A. P.Morrison (ed.) Essential Papers on Narcissism. New York: New York University Press: 323–347(2000) The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach. Oxford: Bergand (1990) ‘Governing economic life’, Economy and Society, Vol.19(1): 1–31http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149000000001and (2002) ‘“I don't know what I'd do without our mam”: Motherhood, identity and support networks’, The Sociological Review, Vol.50(4): 1–22http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2002.tb02789.xand (1980) The ‘Nationwide’ Audience: Structure and Decoding. London: British Film Institute(1988) ‘The pirate's fiancée: feminists and philosophers, or maybe tonight it'll happen’ in I.Diamond and L.Quinby (eds) Feminism and Foucault: Reflections on Resistance. Boston: Northeastern University Press: 21–42(1999) ‘Exploring post-traditional orders: Individual Reflexivity, “pure relations” and duality of structure’ in M.O'Brien, S.Penna and C.Hay (eds) (1999) Theorising Modernity. London: Longman: 83–97([Page 179]2005) ‘Reflexivity and Habitus: Youth Futures in Australia, Fiji and Indonesia’, unpublished paper.and (2002) ‘From personal to digital: CCTV, the Panopticon, and the technological mediation of suspicion and social control’ in D.Lyon (ed.) Surveillance as Social Sorting: Privacy, Risk and Digital Discrimination. London: Routledge: 249–281(1999) The Maximum Surveillance Society: The Rise of CCTV. Oxford: Bergand (1999) ‘Theorising modernity: Reflexivity, identity and environment in Giddens' social theory’ in M.O'Brien, S.Penna and C.Hay (eds) Theorising modernity. London: Longman: 17–38(1998) ‘The Sociology of Anthony Giddens: An Introduction’ in A.Giddens and C.Pierson, Conversations with Anthony Giddens: Making Sense of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press: 1–27(O'Brien, M., Penna, S. and Hay, C. (eds) (1999) Theorising Modernity: Reflexivity, Environment and Identity in Giddens's Social Theory. London: Longman2006) ‘Young People's Constructions of the Self: Late Modern Elements and Gender Differences’, Sociology, Vol.40(1): 107–124http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038506058437(2002) The Wizard of Oz and Other Narcissists: Coping with the One-Way Relationship in Work, Love, and Family. Julian Day Publications(2002) Promises, Promises: Essays on Literature and Psychoanalysis. London: Faber and Faber(2005) ‘Social Change and Social Identity: Postmodernity, Reflexive Modernisation and the Transformation of Social Identities in Australia’ in F.Devine, M.Savage, J.Scott and R.Crompton (eds) Rethinking Class: Culture, Identities and Lifestyle. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan: 163–185and (2002) ‘Social change and city life’ in T.Jordan and S.Pile (eds) Social Change. Oxford: Blackwell: 1–48(2000) ‘Symbolic Interactionism in the Twentieth Century’ in B.Turner (ed.) Blackwell Companion to Social Theory. Oxford: Blackwell(2003) ‘Longtitudinal qualitative studies and the reflexive self’, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, Vol.6(3): 213–222http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000091815and (1990) The Mode of Information. Cambridge: Polity Press(1988) Secretaries Talk. London: Verso(1986) ‘Narcissism: The Term and the Concept’ in A. P.Morrison (ed.) Essential Papers on Narcissism. New York: New York University Press: 91–111(2000) Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster(2001) ‘All in the mind’, Observer magazine (March 4, 2001): 49–50(1993) ‘Introduction’ in C.Ramazanoglu (ed.) Up Against Foucault: Explorations of Some Tensions between Foucault and Feminism. London: Routledge: 1–25(1993) ‘Women's Sexuality and Men's Appropriation of Desire’ in C.Ramazanoglu (ed.) Up Against Foucault: Explorations of Some Tensions Between Foucault and Feminism. London: Routledge: 239–264and (1993) ‘Feminism, difference and discourse: the limits of discursive analysis for feminism’ in C.Ramazanoglu (ed.) Up Against Foucault: Explorations of Some Tensions Between Foucault and Feminism. London: Routledge: 123–146(2005) ‘The trouble with television is that it can't stop shoving liberal values down our throats’, Guardian (November 11, 2005)([Page 180]2005) ‘Beyond Consciousness? The Psychic Landscape of Social Class’, Sociology, Vol.39(5): 911–928http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038505058372(1999) ‘ “I'll be a Nothing”: Structure, Agency and the Construction of Identity Through Assessment’, British Educational Research Journal, 25(3): 343–354http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192990250305and (2002) ‘Love is in the air: romance and the everyday’ in T.Bennett and D.Watson (eds) Understanding Everyday Life. Oxford: Blackwell: 51–90(1998) ‘The panopticisation of shopping: CCTV and leisure consumption’ in C.Norris, J.Moran and G.Armstrong (eds) Surveillance, Closed Circuit Television and Social Control. Aldershot: Ashgate: 69–87(1998) Energy Flash: A Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture. London: Picador(2005) Radical Feminism, Writing and Critical Agency. New York: SUNY Press(1989) Images of Freud: Cultural Responses to Psychoanalysis. London: Dent(2001 ) The Lonely Crowd: A Study of the Changing American Character. London: Yale Nota Bene(1992) Globalization: Social theory and global culture. London: Sage(1995) Decentring Leisure: Rethinking Leisure Theory. London: Sage(2000) ‘Decorative sociology: towards a critique of the cultural turn’, The Sociological Review, 4(48): 629–648http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.00236and (2000) ‘Community, citizenship and “the Third Way” ‘, in D.Meredyth and J.Minson (eds) Citizenship and Cultural Policy. London: Sage: 1–17http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218990(1996c) ‘Authority and the genealogy of subjectivity’, in P.Heelas, S.Lash and P.Morris (eds) Detraditionalization: critical reflections on authority and identity. Oxford: Blackwell: 294–327(1996b) ‘Assembling the modern self’, in R.Porter (ed.) The History of the Self. London: Routledge: 224–248(1996) Inventing Our Selves: Psychology, Power and Personhood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752179(1990) Governing the Soul: the Shaping of the Private Self. London: Routledge(1990) Turbulence in World Politics. Brighton: Harvester Wheatsheaf(Rowan, J. and Cooper, M. (eds) (1999) The Plural Self: Multiplicity in Everyday Life. London: Sage1981) ‘Cognitive psychology as ideology’, American Psychologist, 36: 730–743http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.36.7.730(2005) ‘Local Habitus and Working Class Culture’ in F.Devine, M.Savage, J.Scott and R.Crompton (eds) Rethinking Class: Culture, Identities and Lifestyle. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan: 95–122, and (1976) Communication and Cultural Domination. New York: M. E. Sharpe(2003) ‘Re-instating the Vague’, Sociological Review, Vol.51(3): 321–38http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.00423(1964) Collected Papers II: Studies in Social Theory. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff(1962) Collected Papers I: The Problem of Social Reality. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff(2001) ‘Our mother's daughters: autobiographical inheritance through stories of gender and class’ in T.Cosslett, C.Lury and P.Summerfield (eds) Feminism and Autobiography: Texts, Theories, Methods. London: Routledge: 128–140and (1972) ‘R. D. Laing: Self, Symptom and Society’ in R.Boyers and R.Orrill (eds) Laing and Anti-Psychiatry. Harmondsworth: Penguin:(1999) The Corrosion of Character. New York: Norton([Page 181]1977) The Fall of Public Man. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press(1972) The Hidden Injuries of Class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pressand (1993) The Body and Social Theory. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446215470(1987) The Female Malady: Women, Madness and English Culture 1830–1980. London: Virago(1950 ) ‘The metropolis and mental life’ in The Sociology of George Simmel (trans. and ed. K.H.Wolff). New York: The Free Press: 409–424(2005) ‘The Return of Panopticism: Supervision, Subjection and the New Surveillance’, Surveillance & Society, Vol.3(1): 1–20 (http://www.surveillance-and-society.org/articles3(1)/return.pdf)(1995) Foucault and the Political. London: Routledge(2005b) ‘The Making of Class and Gender through Visualizing Moral Subject Formation’, Sociology, Vol.39(5): 965–982http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038505058381(2005a) ‘The Re-Branding of Class: Propertising Culture’ in F.Devine, M.Savage, J.Scott and R.Crompton (eds) Rethinking Class: Culture, Identities and Lifestyle. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan: 46–68(2003) Class, Self and Culture. London: Routledge(2002b) ‘Mobile selves?: authority, reflexivity and positioning’ in T.May (ed.) Qualitative Research: Issues in International Practice. London: Sage(2002a) ‘Techniques For Telling The Reflexive Self’ in T.May (ed.) Qualitative Research In Action. London: Sage: 349–374(1997) Formations of Class and Gender. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217597(1991) Sociology of the Global System. Brighton: Harvester Wheatsheaf(1990) The Spectral Mother: Freud, Feminism and Psychoanalysis. New York: Cornell University Press(1998) The Victorian Internet. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson(2000) ‘Crime control, social policy and liberalism’ in G.Lewis, S.Gewirtz and J.Clarke (eds) Rethinking Social Policy. London: Sage(1983) Erik Erikson. Milton Keynes: Open University Press(2003) ‘Twenty-first century disease? habitual reflexivity or the reflexive habitus’, Sociological Review, 51(4): 528–549http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2003.00434.x(2003) ‘Subterranean worksick blues: humour as subversion in two call centres’, Organization Studies, 24:9: 1487–1509http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0170840603249008and (2004) ‘“India calling to the far away towns”: the call centre labour process and globalization’, Work, Employment & Society, Vol.19(2): 261–282http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017005053170and (1999) ‘“An Assembly Line in the Head”: Work and Employee Relations in the Call Centre’, Industrial Relations Journal, 30(2): 101–17http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2338.00113and (2002) ‘Work organization, control and the experience of work in call centres’, Work, Employment & Society, Vol.16(1): 133–150http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09500170222119281, , and (1999) ‘Welfare-to-work: national problems, local solutions?’, Critical Social Policy, Vol.19(4): 485–510and (1993) Customs in Common. Harmondsworth: Penguin(1995) The Media and Modernity: A Social Theory of the Media. Cambridge: Polity Press(2004) ‘Keeping Up Appearances: Recruitment, Skills and Normative Control in Call Centres’ in S.Deery and N.Kinnie (eds) Call Centres and Human Resource Management. Basingstoke: Palgrave: 129–152, and ([Page 182]2002) ‘Critical Moments: Choice, Chance and Opportunity in Young People's Narratives of Transition’, Sociology, Vol.36(2): 335–54http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038502036002006, and (1990) ‘Transport and Communication 1730–1914’ in R. A.Dodgshon and R. A.Butlin (eds) An Historical Geography of England and Wales ((2nd edition). London: Academic Press1968 [1835–1840]) Democracy in America. Glasgow: Collins(1957 ) Community and Society (trans. and ed. C.Loomis). New York: Harper and Row(2003) Hard Work: Life in Low-paid Britain. London: Bloomsbury(2000) ‘Becoming a character for commerce’, Management Communication Quarterly, 14(1): 90–128http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0893318900141004(2000) ‘Notes on queer “n” Asian virtual sex’ in D.Bell and B. M.Kennedy (eds) (2000) The Cybercultures Reader. London: Routledge(1998) Anthony Giddens and Modern Social Theory. London: Sage(1992) Regulating Bodies: Essays in Medical Sociology. London: Routledgehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203214183(1984) The Body and Society: Explorations in Social Theory. Oxford: Blackwell(2003) ‘I Shop Therefore I Am’, New Internationalist, 355: 13–15(1989) ‘The End of Organized Capitalism’ in S.Hall and M.Jacques (eds) New Times: The Changing Face of Politics in the 1990s. London: Lawrence and Wishart(1987) ‘On the Ambiguities of a Sociological Analysis of the Culture of Narcissism’, The Sociological Quarterly, Vol.28(4): 455–472http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1987.tb00306.xand (2003) ‘Two worlds prepare for a showdown in a Mexican nest of vipers’, Guardian (September 6, 2003)(1999) ‘Logics of urban polarization: the view from below’ in R.Crompton, F.Devine, M.Savage and J.Scott (eds) Renewing Class Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell: 107–119(1988) The Mastery of Reason. London: Routledge(2001) Growing up Girl: Psychosocial Explorations of Gender and Class. Basingstoke: Palgrave, and (1991) ‘The lessons of the 1980s’ in Geopolitics and Geoculture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press(2001) ‘Reincarnation, Modernity & Identity’, Sociology, Vol.35(1): 25–38http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0038038501000025(1986) ‘The Politics of Michel Foucault’ in D. C.Hoy (ed.) Foucault: A Critical Reader. London: Routledge: 51–68(1930) The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism (trans. TalcottParsons). London: Allen and Unwin(1999) The End of Privacy: How Total Surveillance is Becoming a Reality. New York: The New Press(1986) ‘Self Relations, Object Relations, and Pathological Narcissism’ in A. P.Morrison (ed.) Essential Papers on Narcissism. New York: New York University Press: 144–164(2003) ‘Irigaray and the Culture of Narcissism’, Theory, Culture and Society, Vol.20(3): 27–41http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02632764030203003(2003) ‘Flesh and the Free Market: (On taking Bourdieu to the Options Exchange)’, Theory and Society32(5–6): 679–723http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:RYSO.0000004950.74462.26(1999) ‘No body is “doing it”: cybersexuality’ in J.Price and M.Shildrick (eds) Feminist Theory and the Body. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press(1977) Learning to Labour. Farnborough: Saxon House([Page 183]1999) ‘Worrying Trend’, Guardian, G2 (August 2, 1999) (http://www.guardian.co.uk/health/story/0,,282167,00.html)(1974) Playing and Reality. Harmondsworth: Penguin(1965) The Maturational Process and the Facilitating Environment. London: Hogarth(1964) The Child, the Family and the Outside World. Harmondsworth: Penguin(2001) ‘Toward a network sociality’, Theory, Culture & Society, 18(6): 51–76(2002) ‘Up close and personal: the changing face of intimacy’ in Jordan and Pile (eds) Social Change. Oxford: Blackwell(1997) ‘Introduction’ in K.Woodward (ed.) Identity and Difference. London: Sage(1996) ‘May the Sheep Safely Graze?’ in S.Lash, B.Szerszynski and B.Wynne (eds) Risk, Environment and Modernity: Towards a New Ecology. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221983(2003) ‘Panoptic Power and the Pathologisation of Vision: Critical Reflections on the Foucaultian Thesis’, Surveillance & Society, 1(3): 254—271http://www.surveillance-and-society.org)(1957) Family and Kinship in East London. London: Routledge and Kegan Pauland (Zylinska, J. (ed.) (2000) The cyborg experiments: the extensions of the body in the media age. London: Continuum