Rural Development: Principles, Policies and Management comprehensively addresses the basic concepts, elements, paradigms, determinants, policy instruments, strategies, programs, and management of rural development. The book emphasizes, in particular, the pivotal role of human resources as both a means and an end of development. New pedagogical featuers have been added in the Third Edition, including 'Learning Outcomes' at the start of each chapter, and 'Main Points' summaries and 'Questions for Discussion' at the end of chapters.

Measures of Development

Measures of development

Learning Outcomes

After having gone through this chapter, students should be able to

  • explain the necessity of rural development measurement for rural development policy makers and managers;
  • define various measures of level of rural development and use them;
  • define various measures of distribution of benefits from development and use them;
  • analyse through questions whether a particular area, region or nation is on a path of development or retrogression and
  • describe various concepts and measures of poverty and identify methodological problems in estimating rural poverty.


Statistical measurement of the level and pace of rural development is important for a number of reasons. Quantitative measures of rural development are needed to:

  • indicate the extent of economic and social well-being of the rural people;
  • serve as a benchmark for future ...
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