• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

Addressing cognitive, behavior, literacy, and communication issues, these instructional interventions help teachers support students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds within an RTI framework.

Tier 4 Interventions
Tier 4 interventions
Introduction to Tier 4 Instructional Focus

Not all models consist of three tiers; some add a fourth tier. Generally, the fourth tier is considered referral and placement in special education. Some four-tier models are similar to the three-tier, problem-solving model with the fourth tier the individualized education plan (IEP) option. Some four-tier models are similar to three-tier standard protocol models where the fourth tier is proscribed as a result of poor student response to intervention (RTI).

Berkeley, Bender, Peaster, and Saunders (2009) state that in all three-tier models, special education placement is considered a separate process that occurs after RTI/RTII remediation interventions have been exhausted. However, they note inconsistencies regarding when the special education referral process can be initiated. Although most programs ...

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