Restorative Justice Today: Practical Applications


Edited by: Katherine S. van Wormer & Lorenn Walker

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Part I: Overview: Introduction to Restorative Justice

    Part II: Prevention Programs and Community Practice

    Part III: Pretrial: Before or after Arrest—Diversion Programs

    Part IV: In Correctional and Reentry Programs

    Part V: Community Restoration and Reparation

  • This book is dedicated to Audrey Sutherland, Ellen Langer, and the late Insoo Kim Berg, whose collective wisdom and courage to do what seemed impossible inspires us to believe justice can be restorative. Audrey swam around the North Shore of Moloka'i alone in 1962 at the age of 40; Ellen challenges us to “invent” our lives and world not merely “discover” things; and Insoo taught us to change our language to change our lives, and to help others who want to change theirs.


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    Criminology's love affair with restorative justice is now in its third decade, and it has been interesting to watch that love develop. Plato and the ancient Greeks famously distinguished between different types of love, differentiating eros (or the swooning sense of being “in love”) with agape, the deeper sense of “true love” one feels for a life companion after many years. Certainly, our feelings for restorative justice have developed in this sense over the years.

    We have passed through the puppy love and infatuation stage, endlessly scribbling its name inside heart shapes: “Crim Loves RJ,” “Crim loves RJ” at conferences and meetings. Such crushes quickly wane and can become a source of embarrassment and denial in retrospect. It is hard for any object of worship to live up to the expectations and imagination of the most smitten, so former devotees can turn quickly into denigrators. Indeed, there have even been hard times in the past few decades between criminology and restorative justice. We have fought and struggled and even discussed parting ways. We saw the relationship through those hard times, however, and we even formalized the relationship (made it “legit”). In the past few decades, restorative justice has gone from being a pie-in-the-sky revolution to being the subject of increasingly tedious academic conferences, textbooks, and journals to ultimately becoming part of the bureaucratic machinery of numerous criminal justice systems around the world. The first books on restorative justice had titles like Changing Lenses; newer books have titles like Institutionalizing Restorative Justice. Yes, our relationship has gotten very serious indeed.

    It is hard, of course, not to miss those early days with all of their radical hopes and dreams. We shared a vision for remaking justice as we knew it; it was hard not to get caught up in the excitement of it all. The restorative justice movement today feels less dangerous, less daunting, less dramatic, and less fun. We have moved from beautiful ideas to reality and seen the restorative justice alternative for what it is, warts and all. The movement has suffered missteps, attracted charlatans and con artists, and proven itself to be all too human, like any other social movement fueled and driven by, well, we humans. I understand and sympathize with those of my colleagues who have abandoned the movement and decided to look for another beautiful idea to come around, sweep them off their feet, and rekindle the giddiness of eros and excitement.

    Yet, the love that those of us still in “the movement” feel now is still very much real; it is just a more mature, more nuanced, and tempered affection. We see the limitations and shortcomings of the restorative framework, we know it is not perfect, but we continue to be deeply impressed by its wisdom and grace. It may no longer be trendy and cutting edge, but it has survived by proving instead to be timeless, based on ancient principles that accord with hard-wired human intuitions about fairness and morality.

    This collection of new empirical and theoretical essays, put together by two of the most interesting thinkers (and doers) in the restorative movement, reflects that wisdom and demonstrates why restorative justice is still an idea to be reckoned with—maybe the idea to be reckoned with—in justice debates. The ideas herein may no longer make us swoon with eros, but will strengthen and reaffirm the feelings of agape that so many of us have come to feel about restorative justice over these many years. You'll love it.

    ShaddMaruna Director, Institute of Criminology and Criminal Justice School of Law Queen's University Belfast


    We need to make the kind of society where it is easier for people to be good.

    Dorothy Day, The Long Loneliness

    Today, nationally, we are at a crossroads: some of us seeking after just deserts and harsh punishment, and others of us looking in a new direction. One path, the one we have been following blindly, stubbornly, up until now, leads further down into the mire of fear and darkness. But there is another path, one that is taken less often, that leads upward toward the light.

    There is a growing recognition that as a society we are failing victims and failing offenders and the families of all concerned, that if people are to change, meeting evil with evil may not be the best way. There is a steady realization today of the traumatic impact of all forms of violence, including sudden, unexpected assaults and invasions of one's person and continuous bullying and name calling on the school yard and in the workplace. There is a steady realization, too, that the wrongdoers themselves are often the victims of their own lives and of the criminal justice system. In light of the fact that harmful behavior should not be ignored, a paradigm shift is in the wind, a new vision of restoring justice.

    The paradigm shift—restorative justice—is about seeking the good in people, about bringing people together face to face, about hearing the pain of woundedness, and about healing. The stories of restorative justice, and you will read of many in this book, are dramatic, beautiful, and life-changing; some have an almost spiritual flavor. You have probably heard of some of the more powerful examples as highlighted in the media and on talk shows. Others, equally moving, are known only in small circles of people who somehow have gotten involved or of professionals who have been to the trainings or workshops and heard the stories, read the narratives, and shared in a sense of awe and wonderment.

    Restorative justice is about righting a wrong not only for victims but also for offenders and communities. It is about making amends rather than punishment, restitution rather than retribution. In criminal justice, RJ is about healing individuals, communities, and even nations after harm caused from wrongdoing. While retributive justice asks, “What was the crime that was committed; how can we establish proof; and how harsh should the punishment be?” restorative justice asks, “What harm was done? Who was hurt and how can the harm be repaired? And how can we prevent this wrongdoing from occurring in the future?” The concern of restorative justice is threefold: It is for the victims and offenders, as well as for the community.

    Although the basic principles known as restorative justice go back thousands of years in many indigenous communities, it has only been since the 1970s that this way of responding to wrongdoing has been given a modern application. And since the 1970s, there has been a proliferation of restorative justice practices and research worldwide. Because of the recognition of RJ's potential to help right a wrong at the interpersonal level and at the macro peacemaking level, restorative justice is a movement endorsed by the United Nations and one of international ramifications.

    Restorative justice (RJ) takes shape in many forms. In the school setting, restorative justice is a meeting between a child who has engaged in tormenting another child and who must listen to the victim of the mistreatment express his or her pain. In child welfare, restorative justice exists in the form of a family group conference in which extended family members seek a solution to the abuse or neglect of a child. Behind prison walls a restorative process involves a facilitator-led session between a prison inmate and members of the family whose loved one was killed by this person. In a community, justice is restored as the perpetrators of the violence and collective abuse are held accountable and assume responsibility for their actions. Restorative justice on a global scale may take place following years of war and hate crimes inflicted upon opposing groups through public hearings involving extensive testimony and confession by the guilty parties. Whether on a small or large scale, when people from opposite sides of a crime or other wrongdoing come together in a carefully structured and prepared meeting and with community support, new understandings can emerge.

    Organizing Framework and Rationale

    An underlying assumption of this book is that the present system of criminal justice, with its heavy emphasis on standardized harsh forms of punishment and scant attention to the personal dimension, is flawed. For example, how the victim-survivor can be helped to heal and what can be done for the wrongdoer-offender to be reconciled with the community are basically ignored by the system. Relevant to both victims and offenders, an alternative approach is needed, one that can operate within the juvenile or criminal justice system or alongside it or entirely independent of it.

    We write this book in a spirit of guarded optimism. Our optimism stems largely from reported shifts in public opinion toward a belief in rehabilitation matched by a parallel belief that victim-survivors should be actively involved in the process. Progressive developments are evident, including a burgeoning interest by social scientists, lawyers, judges, teachers, and social workers in restoring justice where wrongdoing has occurred in a wide range of settings. Recent initiatives promote healing of victim-survivors and their families through victim-offender conferencing. At the same time, in the United States and in other democratic nations, an interest in setting up specialized courts is strong—for example, drug courts, mental health courts, and veterans courts.

    This book is geared for students of criminal justice, criminology, and social work, as well as all those who work or plan to work in some capacity with people whose lives have been touched by wrongdoing or crime. Professionals who are already working in the field will find much of interest here. They include probation and parole officers who increasingly are expected to engage in case management of their probationers and parolees, counselors and therapists who work in the fields of victim-assistance programing, mental health, and substance abuse treatment, and of course correctional workers of all sorts. Pastoral counselors, nuns, priests, rabbis, and imams, similarly, will find ideas here to help people cope with the wrongs that have been done to them, including those perpetrated by the religious institutions themselves.

    The purpose of this book is twofold. The first and primary purpose is to introduce readers to restorative justice as a form of conflict resolution with practical applications for work with individuals as victims or offenders. Advocacy for social policy change in the criminal justice system is a part of this mission. The goal is to ensure that the interests of people who have been harmed or injured are met and that the wrongdoers, where appropriate, have the option of making restitution.

    A second major purpose in assembling this collection is to familiarize the reader with restorative strategies from across the globe. To this end we have invited theorists and policy makers actively involved in direct action in their countries to discuss innovations with which they have been involved. It is our belief that the values on which restorative principles are built are universal and that they can be applied cross-culturally with care to be culturally sensitive to unique cultural norms. You will see, for example, in the case histories presented in several chapters on the topic of school bullying that the anti-bullying programs that started in Norway have spread to North America, and are now established in Hong Kong. Clearly, the transfer of knowledge can benefit us all.

    A note concerning terminology: Mediation is a term we have taken pains to avoid in this book in the place of restorative justice dialogue or conferencing. The term is fine in its correct meaning as defined by the Oxford University Dictionary: “the process or action of mediating between parties in dispute to produce agreement or reconciliation; the state of being an intermediary.” Restorative justice is not about negotiation between parties. Restorative justice is for people who have been affected by wrongdoing. There is no “dispute between parties” that needs to be negotiated. Unfortunately, the first books in the field used the word mediation, so it is widely used, especially in Europe, for example, as victim-offender mediation. We use the terms conferencing and dialogue instead. For the person who directs the process, we use the term facilitator rather than mediator.

    Another term commonly used in the restorative justice literature that we avoid is the notion of reintegrative shaming. We recognize that shame is an emotion, which is different from the concept of “reintegrative shaming” that denotes a “regulatory practice” (Braithwaite & Braithwaite, 2001, p. 4). Reintegrative shaming is a concept widely used in Australia and Asian countries to describe a passage from community disapproval to reintegration. While reintegrative shaming is not the stigmatizing form of shaming as traditionally practiced in the criminal justice system, we come from a strengths-based and solution-focused perspective and wish to avoid any negativism that the term shaming connotes. Braithwaite and Braithwaite (2001), writing in their chapter, “Shame and Shame Management,” state that “it is imperative to distinguish between good and bad shaming and harmful and helpful shame. This does not mean that social movement advocates should actually use the word shame as part of their reform rhetoric; with restorative justice. … Responsibility and healing are likely to supply a more politically resonant and a more prudent neoliberal discourse than shame and reintegration” (p. 5). We support this strategy and prefer to use the positive concepts of responsibility and healing rather than shame to describe preferred restorative outcomes.

    Organization of the Book

    Following the introductory chapters, which provide a historical and theoretical overview, the chapters in this text basically are organized in order from the more individually based, small-group restorative rituals and interventions (for example, victim- offender conferencing), to family and community-level strategies and practices that can be provided by educational, correctional, and religious institutions (for example, Family Group Conferencing), to macro-level peacemaking commissions (for example, truth and reconciliation commissions in the aftermath of war).

    Restorative Justice Today: Practical Applications, as the title suggests, provides descriptions of specific programming. The book is divided into five sections: Overview; Prevention Programs and Community Practice; Pretrial: Before or After Arrest—Diversion Programs; In Correctional and Reentry Programs; and Community Restoration and Reparation. Within each section, each contribution is preceded with an introduction by the editors and each chapter contains two critical thinking questions at the end. Seven of the chapters contain boxed readings placed by the editors to provide a more personal or contextual dimension to the text.

    The authors come from many parts of the world, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, El Salvador, Greece, Norway, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, and the United States. The topics are diverse as well and include the use of restorative strategies in situations of domestic violence, sexual assault, clergy abuse, juvenile justice, adult corrections, reentry to the community following incarceration, anti-bullying programming, practices related to drug courts and mental health courts, environmental justice, and reparations to tribal and racial populations who have been wronged by the society.

    About the Editors

    We editors bring to this project a dedication borne out of personal life experience and teaching. Both of us have done extensive research on the criminal justice system and have taught restorative justice in our classrooms.

    From Katherine S. van Wormer, MSSW, PhD, Professor of Social Work, University of Northern Iowa

    I grew up in New Orleans, was actively involved in two civil rights movements, one in North Carolina and the other in Northern Ireland. After I returned, I became a sociologist with a research interest in women in prison. I taught criminal justice at Kent State for five years and then returned to graduate school to become a social worker.

    Attending an international social work conference at the University of Calgary, I first learned of restorative justice. For me, this was a great eureka (I have found it!) moment. Spreading the word about this more humanistic form of justice has been a personal mission of mine ever since. My passion is writing, and in every book, I include sections on different aspects of restorative justice. My most recent books are Death by Domestic Violence: Preventing the Murders and the Murder-Suicides (Praeger, 2009); Women and the Criminal Justice System (coauthored with C. Bartollas, Prentice Hall, 2010); Working with Female Offenders: A Gender-Sensitive Approach (Wiley, 2010); Human Behavior and the Social Environment (Oxford, 2011); and The Maid Narratives (co-authored with D. Jackson and C. Sudduth, LSU Press, 2012).

    From Lorenn Walker, JD, MPH, University of Hawaii Honolulu Community College and Restorative Justice Practitioner, Hawai'i Friends of Justice and Civic Education

    I grew up in Japan and Santa Cruz, California, and have lived in Hawai'i most of my adult life. In Santa Cruz, I lived on my own at age 14, did not finish high school, and spent some time in jail. I became a Montessori preschool and kindergarten teacher when I was 19 and taught until I was 23. I was almost murdered by an unknown assailant, which helped motivate me to go to law school. Through my 30s I was a Hawai'i deputy attorney general representing state agencies and employees, including correctional officers, prisons, social workers, schools, teachers and the child welfare system. I also prosecuted people and later was a criminal defense attorney for indigent youth and adults. After becoming disillusioned with lawyering as a means to improve things, I studied public health. Since 1996 I have developed, provided, and evaluated nine restorative justice projects with a range of groups including juveniles; crime victims where no offenders are identified or participate; and people in prison. The projects were all developed and provided in collaboration with a variety of entities including courts, police, prisons, and nonprofits. As a college instructor, I have taught restorative justice for undergraduate and graduate students in criminal justice courses and for the last 10 years included it in personal and public speaking courses. I have visited prisons on all continents except Africa, and taught restorative justice workshops to thousands of people in the United States and internationally. I have facilitated restorative meetings for people involved in all ranges of harm including murders and other serious felony offenses.

    Braithwaite, J., & Braithwaite, V. (2001). Shame and shame management. In E.Ahmed, N.Harris, J.Braithwaite, & VBraithwaite (Eds.), Shame management through reintegration (pp. 3–59). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Katherine van Wormer would like to acknowledge her husband, Robert, for his helpful suggestions and careful proofreading of the text. She would also like to thank the University of Northern Iowa for their continuing support and encouragement.

    Lorenn Walker thanks her husband, Jim, for editing her articles; all of her co-authors, including Katherine van Wormer for inviting her to assist in editing; the Hawai'i Friends of Justice & Civic Education board and volunteers for supporting RJ programs; Hawai'i judges Leslie Hayashi, Steve Alm, Mike Wilson, Mark Browning, Matt Viola and Chief Justice Mark Recktenwald and retired Chief Justice Ronald Moon for promoting pono kaulike, which retired judge Michael Town introduced and for his continued service on the Parole Board, which she also thanks along with its dedicated parole officers; also David Hipp and Merton Chinen of the Hawai'i Office of Youth Services for helping our incarcerated youth learn through RJ; the Hawai'i prison director Ted Sakai, warden Mark Patterson and Larson Medina for helping bring RJ into our prisons and healing for our community; and big mahalo to Native Hawaiians and the other indigenous people who have never stopped practicing RJ.

    Both editors wish to thank Sage acquisitions editor Jerry Westby for his enthusiastic support of this project from start to finish. Dan Gordon did an outstanding job in the copy editing. Finally, we owe a debt of gratitude to all the contributors who willingly shared their expertise and hard work with us; the people who are willing to engage in restorative practices; those who promote it; and all those who might read this book and be compelled to learn more about RJ and help advance the field in the future.

  • Appendix

    Important Resources
    Australian Institute of Criminology


    The Australian Institute of Criminology provides information on both Australian and international perspectives on restorative justice. It gives details of the Australian projects RISE and SAJJ, together with the full text of a report published in March 2001: “Restorative Justice Programs in Australia: a Report to the Criminology Research Council” by Heather Strang. This website also lists a number of links to international restorative justice related websites.

    Restorative Justice Knowledge Base


    This website is maintained by Crime Concern in association with the Youth Justice Board. It is designed to provide Youth Offending Teams across England and Wales with information and resources, offering a discussion forum to allow practitioners to share their experiences. This website also provides links to international restorative justice websites.

    Restorative Justice Online


    A comprehensive website dedicated to all things related to restorative justice worldwide managed by Prison Fellowship International. It contains resources for those interested in researching restorative justice and for those seeking to implement a restorative justice scheme on the ground as well as case studies, conferences, and links to other restorative justice sites worldwide.


    Forgiveness: An Annotated Bibliography


    Center for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking, School of Social Work, Saint Paul, Minnesota: University of Minnesota. Collected by Mark Umbreit. This document provides a listing of publications related to the topic of forgiveness.

    Global Ministries (Methodist Church)


    Missouri Restorative Justice Coalition


    Victim Offender Mediation Association (VOMA)


    Provides a listing of the major books in the field.

    Relevant Websites

    AMICUS (now RADIUS):

    Apology & Forgiveness:

    Center for Justice and Peacebuilding, Eastern Mennonite University:

    Center for Restorative Justice and Peacemaking:

    Child, Youth and Family, New Zealand:

    The Compassionate Listening Project:

    The Forgiveness Project:

    Hawai'i Friends of Justice & Civic Education:

    International Institute for Restorative Practices:

    Lorenn Walker's website:

    Margaret Thorsborne & Associates:

    Minnesota Department of Corrections:

    National Institute of Justice: Restorative Justice:

    Restorative Justice Hosted by Tom Cavanagh:


    Restorative Justice Online:

    Restorative Justice in Scotland:

    Restorative Practices E Forum

    van Wormer's website:

    Films on Restorative Justice
    • Concrete Steel & Paint: A Film About Crime, Restoration and Healing.

      New Day Films, Harriman, N.Y. [KF1328 .C652 2009] DVD, 55 min.

      When men in a prison art class agree to collaborate with victims of crime to design a mural about healing, their views on punishment, remorse, and forgiveness collide. But as the participants begin to work together, mistrust gives way to genuine moments of human contact and common purpose. Their struggle and the insights gained are reflected in the art they produce.

    • Several testimonials from victim-survivors who have engaged in RJ processes are available online from the Restorative Justice Council, UK, for example, The Meeting, Jo's Story: Surviving Rape, which can be viewed online at

    • A Healing River is a collection of passionate voices and heartfelt stories that take you on a journey through the paradigm shift that some call restorative justice. The film, which focuses on First Nations People, takes a thought provoking look at the issues of trauma, recovery and the psychological foundations of restorative process. Available at

    • Introducing Restorative Justice: A Positive Approach in the Schools. This British film is available for purchase at

    • Repairing the Harm: Restorative Justice. NEWIST/CESA 7 Productions, WI [KF1328 .R452 2007] DVD, 30 min. with 35-page guide. Documents restorative justice process as it is used in prisons, communities, and schools.

    • Restorative Practices in Hull: The First Restorative City. Produced by Nova Studios in partnership with Neighbourhood Training & Resource Centre, Department for Communities and Local Government, Goodwin Development Trust and Hull Centre for Restorative Practices. Order at

    • Victim Offender Mediation and Conferencing: A Multi-Method Approach. University of Minnesota Center for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking. [KF1328 .R472 2005] DVD, 22 min.

    • Victim Sensitive Offender Dialogue in Crimes of Severe Violence. Center for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking, University of Minnesota. [KF1328 .R472 2005] DVD, 70 min.

    • The Forgiveness Project in London, England, collects and tells stories of people who have forgiven many of the cruel and horrific injustices they have suffered. It has also produced films on people in prison who explore how restorative justice has helped them:

    • International Institute of Restorative Practices (IIRP) produces and distributes good films on restorative justice, including Facing the Demons, an award-winning Australian film about a young Pizza Hut employee and the men who shot him in a robbery. An IIRP list of many films:

    About the Contributors

    David K. Androff, MSW, Ph.D., assistant professor of social work at Arizona State University.

    Fred H. Besthorn, MSW, Ph.D. is associate professor of social work at Wichita State University. Besthorn is the coauthor of Human Behavior and the Social Environment, Macro Level.

    Gale Burford, MSW, Ph.D., is professor of social work at the University of Vermont. He is the coauthor with Joe Hudson of Family Group Conferencing: New Directions in Community-Centered Child and Family Practice.

    Micky Duxbury, journalist and author of Making Room in Our Hearts: Keeping Family Ties Through Open Adoption.

    Burt Galaway, MA, Ph.D., is retired professor of social work at the University of Manitoba and the University of Minnesota. Galaway has authored and coauthored a number of books including Family Group Conferences: Perspectives on Policy and Practice.

    Theo Gavrielides, LL.M, Ph.D., is the founder and director of Independent Academic Research Studies (IARS). He is also a visiting professorial research fellow at Panteion University of Social & Political Science (Greece), a visiting senior research fellow at the International Centre for Comparative Criminological Research (ICCCR) at Open University (UK) and a visiting scholar at the Centre for Criminology and Justice Research, Department of Justice, Mount Royal University (Canada).

    Rebecca Greening, JD, is a juvenile court public defender in Boston, Massachusetts, working for the Committee for Public Counsel Services. She clerked for Lorenn Walker and Hawai'i Friends of Justice & Civic Education Law, assisting in the provision of solution-focused reentry circles in the Hawai'i prisons, and is coauthor of Reentry & Transition Planning Circles for Incarcerated People. She received a JD from Northeastern University School of Law, a BS in social work from New York University, and she is a graduate of Boston Latin school.

    Anne Hayden, Ph.D., is cofounder of the Homicide Survivors Support Group (NZ) Inc., and author of the Restorative Conferencing Manual of Aotearoa New Zealand (2000), which was commissioned by the District Courts of New Zealand.

    Amy Holloway, MSW, is director of victim services at the Vermont Department of Corrections.

    Ida Hydle, MD, Ph.D., who is an anthropologist as well as a physician, is a senior researcher at the Norwegian Institute for Research on Child Development, Welfare, and Aging (NOVA) and professor at the Center for Peace Studies, University of Tromsø, Norway.

    Andrew Johnson, M.A., is a doctoral candidate in the Sociology Department at the University of Minnesota. As part of his dissertation research, he spent two weeks living inside the cells, as a recuperando, in two APAC institutions.

    Rudi Kauffman, MEd, Ph.D., is assistant professor of restorative justice at Bluffton University in Ohio.

    Heather Koontz, MSW, is assistant professor of social work at Bluffton University in Ohio.

    Gabrielle Maxwell, Ph.D., senior associate at the Institute of Policy Studies, University of Victoria, New Zealand. Maxwell is the coauthor of several books including Respectful Schools: Restorative Practices in Education.

    Stacey Miller, MA, EdD, director of residential life and special assistant to the president for Multicultural Initiatives at the University of Vermont.

    Laura Mirsky, MFA, is assistant director of communications and technology, International Institute for Restorative Practices, Mirsky has written numerous articles on restorative justice, including articles on North American Native rituals and concepts.

    Kay Pranis, is a Peace Circles trainer and the former restorative justice planner, Minnesota Department of Corrections, and is a consultant for the National Institute of Corrections and the National Institute of Justice. Pranis is the author of The Little Book of Circle Processes: A New/Old Approach to Peacemaking.

    Mary Roche, MA, is director of the Office of Victim and Restorative Justice Programs for the Iowa Department of Corrections.

    Marta Vides Saade, MDiv., JD, Ph.D., associate professor, Law Society Program, Ramapo College of New Jersey, is a consultant for Eseñanza en Educación Jurídica, Programa, a USAID-sponsored project in Monterrey, México.

    Ted Sakai, MBA, is the retired warden of WCF, and former director of the Hawai'i Department of Public Safety, which oversees all Hawai'i prisons.

    Mona Schatz, MSW, DSW, is director of the Division of Social Work at the University of Wyoming. Schatz is a c-author of 147 Practical Tips for Teaching Diversity.

    Carl Stauffer, Ph.D., assistant professor of Development and Justice Studies, Eastern Mennonite University.

    Rita Takahashi, MSW, Ph.D., professor of social work at San Francisco State University, has been a civil rights lobbyist in Washington, DC.

    Margaret Thorsborne, Dip. Ed., Graduate Diploma in Counseling, is a founding director and current vice chair of Restorative Practices International, a worldwide association of restorative practitioners. She is a fellow of the Australian Institute of Management and is the managing director of Transformative Justice Australia. Thorsborne is the author of several books, including Restorative Practices Bullying.

    Ted Wachtel, a former high school teacher and founder and president of the International Institute for Restorative Practices, Wachtel is the author of Real Justice.

    David Wexler, Ph.D., is professor of law and director, International Network on Therapeutic Jurisprudence, University of Puerto Rico, and distinguished research professor of law, emeritus, University of Arizona. Wexler is credited with first discussing the therapeutic jurisprudence perspective. He is a consultant on therapeutic jurisprudence to the National Judicial Institute of Canada. Wexler is the author of a number of books, including Rehabilitating Lawyers: Principles of Therapeutic Jurisprudence for Criminal Law Practice.

    Mary E. White, JD, Yuma County assistant district attorney, promotes restorative justice strategies in the courts.

    Dennis, S. W. Wong, Dip(Swk), Ph.D., associate professor, Department of Applied Social Studies at the City University of Hong Kong. Wong is a restorative justice pioneer in Hong Kong and author of numerous books, including School Bullying and Tackling Strategies.

    Howard Zehr, MA, Ph.D., is professor of restorative justice, Eastern Minnesota University. Zehr has been called “the godfather of restorative justice” and is the author of the groundbreaking Changing Lenses: A New Focus for Crime and Justice, a book that helped shape the restorative justice movement.

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