This latest edition of Resources for Nursing Research provides a comprehensive bibliography of sources on nursing research and includes references for books, journal papers and Internet resources. This Fourth Edition covers the disciplines of nursing, health care, and the social sciences.

Experimental Designs

Experimental designs

Sections 2.30–2.34 illustrate four types of experimental design. The use of standard notation is helpful in understanding alternative experimental designs.

R= Random assignment of subjects to experimental and control groups
O= Observation or measurement (O1 pre-test/O2 post-test)
X= Treatment or intervention

Pre-Test/Post-Test Design

Measurements of the outcomes or dependent variables are taken both before and after the intervention. This allows the measurement of change in individual cases.

The measurement process may influence change, thereby introducing difficulties in attributing this to the intervention on its own.


de Rond, M., de Wit, R. & van Dam, F. (2001) The implementation of a pain monitoring programme for nurses in daily clinical practice: results of a follow-up study in five hospitals. Journal of Advanced Nursing 35 (4) 590–8 34 References

Using a pre-test-post-test design, ...

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