Reshaping Communication: Technology, Information and Social Change


Paschal Preston

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part 1: Introduction and Overview

    Part 2: Competing Theories of the Contemporary

    Part 3: Mapping a New Millennium and Multimedia Order

    Part 4: Alternative Prospects and Possibilities

  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Tables and Figures

    List of Tables
    • Table 2.1 Summary of typical ‘third-wave’ model and periodisation 29
    • Table 6.1 Typology of technology-based innovations 116
    • Table 6.2 Summary: four long waves of capitalist development 126
    • Table 7.1 Change in the economically active: North America, Europe, Japan and Asia, 1950–95 138
    • Table 7.2 Estimates of annual working hours and time spent on use of selected media, USA 1994–5 139
    • Table 7.3 Productivity and output growth in OECD countries, 1960–96 142
    • Table 7.4 Estimates of unemployment levels: selected years 1933–98 146
    • Table 7.5 Modified primary information sector (PIS): typology and description 152
    • Table 7.6 Numbers employed in selected PIS industries, USA 1980–98 155
    • Table 7.7 Percentage shares and changes in PIS employment, USA 1980–98 157
    • Table 8.1 Official data on distribution of income components across groups: selected countries, c. 1975–95 170
    • Table 8.2 Estimated shares of family income received by each fifth and top 5 per cent, USA, 1970–96 171
    • Table 9.1 Employment in ‘mature’ media and cultural industries, USA, 1970–98 197
    • Table 9.2 Selected media and cultural industries: estimated percentage share of GDP in USA, 1960–99 199
    • Table 9.3 Estimated growth of television channels in the EU15 area, 1980–95 202
    • Table 9.4 International communication access and connectivity indicators, 1996: country blocs by income group 213
    • Table 10.1 Models of commodification in public communication 242
    • Table 10.2 Public communication and forms of collectivity: competing conceptions 245
    • Table 11.1 Estimated long-run rates of growth in average income per person, 1500–1996 262
    List of Figures
    • Figure 6.1 Contrasting models of the technological-social change relation 111

    List of Abbreviations

    ECEuropean Commission
    ECUEuropean Currency Unit
    EUEuropean Union
    G7Group of Seven (leading industrial nations)
    GIIGlobal Information Infrastructure
    ICInformation and communication (industries, products, services etc)
    ICTInformation and communication technologies
    ISDNIntegrated Services Digital Network
    ISHInformation superhighway
    LFRLess Favoured Region (official EU term)
    MNTSMajor new technology system
    NIINational Information Infrastructure
    NTIAUS National Telecommunications & Information Administration
    POTSPlain old telephone service
    R&DResearch and development
    SEPSocio-technical paradigm
    SMESmall and Medium-sized Enterprises
    TEPTechno-economic paradigm


    A book, like any text, is really the product of many minds, exchanges and formal and informal learnings. This book has been a long time in the making and reflects a large set of different influences within the professional and personal circles in which I have moved. Thus I must acknowledge many debts and influences beyond those formally listed in the references. These include exchanges with many colleagues and students over the past decade, as well as colleagues in various interdisciplinary and transnational research networks. I also appreciate the encouragement and support of former mentors and colleagues in PCL, UEL and in Reading University, especially David Marsh, Sophie Bowlby, Peter Hall, Ash Amin, Ruth Muller and Linda Peake. I acknowledge the support of DCU colleagues such as Farrel Corcoran, Barbara O'Connor, Stephanie McBride and the various formal and informal exchanges and ‘learnings’ derived from a great crew of past and current research students, including Roderick Flynn, Aphra Kerr, Des McGuinness and Michael O'Gorman.

    Thanks too to Pauline Jones who has helped in the production of various drafts of the present text; to Julia Hall, Seth Edwards, Marion Steel and Rosie Maynard at Sage for their much-appreciated support and patience; and to two anonymous reviewers of an earlier draft.

    In a real sense, authors of books, or any other text, bear the stamp of many extra-textual and extra-discursive influences. I also want to note the many special friends who have shaped ‘the everyday life’ and stimulated much more than the intellectual zones and all those who have made my adult life adventures, in London and Dublin, all the more vibrant, stimulating and often joyful. Here I should also express my appreciation to that special crew who have added the essential spices to life in the capital of the so-called ‘celtic tiger’, Europe's own would-be ‘information age hub’. For their friendship craic and chats I want to express my thanks to: Kevin Maguire, Kozo Matsuda, Ruth Clarke-O'Daly, Miriam Lillis, Eilish Ward, Dennis Cahalane, Grainne Murphy, Stephen Sefton, Hitome Ebe, Clara Martin, Anne Tangy, Ana Pereda, Roisin Maguire, Angela O'Driscoll, Mary O'Sullivan, James Anderson, Roise Bhaoil, Lis Geary and Bernadette Clarke. And a special appreciation must go to Andrea Grisold for her very special friendship, support and intellectual exchanges.

    This book is dedicated to my father, James Preston (1922–2000).

  • References

    ACARD (Cabinet Office – Advisory Council for Applied Research and Development) (1980) Information Technology. London: ACARD.
    Aglietta, M. (1979) A Theory of Capitalist Regulation. London: New Left Books.
    Aldrich, Michael (1982) Videotex: Key to the Wired City. London: Quitter Press Ltd.
    Altenpohl, D.G. (1985) Informatization: The Growth of Limits. Dusseldorf: Aluminium Verlag.
    Amin, Ash (ed.) (1994) Post-Fordism: A Reader. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Anon (‘A Group of Economists, Scientists and Technicians’) (1936) Britain WithoutCapitalists: A Study of What Industry in a Soviet Britain Could Achieve. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Askoy, Asu and Robins, Kevin (1992) ‘Hollywood for the 21st century: global competition for critical mass in image markets’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 16 (1): 1–22.
    Australia (Government of) (1994a) Creative Nation: Commonwealth Cultural Policy. Canberra: Dept. Of Industry, Science and Technology.
    Australia (Government of) (1994b) Commerce in Content: Building Australia's International Future in Interactive Multimedia Markets, Report by Cutler and Company for Dept. Of Industry, Science and Technology, CSIRO and Broadband Services Expert Group.
    Babe, Robert E. (1995) Communication and the Transformation of Economics. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Banks, Marion (1992) ‘Is more less?: the dynamics of the information industry’, in KevinRobins (ed.) Understanding Information: Business, Technology and Geography. London: Belhaven. pp. 61–73.
    Bannon, L., Barry, U. and Holst, O. (eds) (1981) Information Technology: Impact onthe Way of Life. Dublin: Tycooly International Publishing.
    Barthes, Roland (1967) Elements of Semiology. London: Jonathan Cape.
    Baudrillard, Jean (1981) For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign. St. Louis, MO: Telos Press.
    Baudrillard, Jean (1983) Simulations. New York: Semiotext(e).
    Baudrillard, Jean, (1988) Selected Writings. ed. MarkPoster, Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Baudrillard, Jean (1998) ‘The end of the millennium’, Theory, Culture and Society, 15 (1): 1–11.
    Beck, Ulrich (1992) Risk Society. [Original German edition,
    ] London: Sage.
    Beck, Ulrich, Giddens, Anthony and Lash, Scott (1994) Reflexive Modernization:Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bell, Daniel (1960) The End of Ideology. New York: Glencoe.
    Bell, Daniel (1973) The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in SocialForecasting. New York: Basic Books.
    Bell, Daniel (1976) The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism. New York: Basic Books.
    Bell, Daniel (1980) ‘The social framework of the info society’, in T.Forester (ed.) The Microelectronics Revolution. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Bell, Daniel (1989) ‘The third technological revolution and its possible socioeconomic consequences’, Dissent, Spring 1989: 163–76.
    Beniger, J.R. (1986) The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Originsof the Information Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Bennington, Geoff (1988) Lyotard: Writing the Event. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Bijker, Wiebe E. (1995) ‘Sociohistorical technology studies’, in S.Jasanoff, G.E.Markle, James C.Petersen and TPinch (eds) Handbook of Science and Technology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Inc. pp. 229–56.
    Bohme, Gernot (1997) ‘The structures and prospects of knowledge society’, Social Science Information, 36 (3): 447–68.
    Boulding, Kenneth E. (1971) ‘The economics of knowledge and the knowledge of economics’, in D.Lamberton (ed.) Economics of Information and Knowledge. London: Penguin. pp. 21–37.
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1984) Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1990a) In Other Words: Essays Towards a Reflexive Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1990b) ‘Social space and symbolic power’, in In Other Words: Essays Towards a Reflexive Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 123–39.
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1993) The Field of Cultural Production; Essays on Art and Literature. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bouwman, Harry and Christoffersen, Mads (eds) (1992) Re-Launching Videotex. Amsterdam: Kluwer.
    Braman, Sandra (1997) The Information Economy: An Evolution of Approaches. Paper to the ICA Conference, Montreal, 22–26 May 1997.
    Braman, Sandra and Sreberny-Mohammadi, Annabelle (eds) (1996) Globalisation, Communication and Transnational Society. Hampton, NJ: Hampton Press.
    Braverman, H. (1974) Labour and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work inthe Twentieth Century. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Brittan, S. (1988) A Restatement of Economic Liberalism. London: Macmillan.
    Brittan, S. (1987) ‘The Fight for Freedom in Broadcasting’, Political Quarterly, 58: 3–20.
    Bryant, A. (1988) ‘The info society: computopia, dystopia, myopia’, Prometheus, 6 (1): 61–77.
    Burck, Gilbert (1964) ‘Knowledge: the biggest growth industry of them all’, Fortune, Nov: 128–31, 267–70.
    Burnham, D. (1983) The Rise of the Computer State. New York: Pantheon.
    Cairncross, Frances (1997) The Death of Distance: How The CommunicationsRevolution Will Change Our Lives. London: Orion Business Books.
    Callinicos, Alex (1985) ‘Anthony Giddens: a contemporary critique’, Theory and Society, 14.
    Callinicos, Alex (1987) Making History. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Canada (1995) Connection, Community, Content: The Challenge of the InformationHighway. Final Report of the Information Highway Advisory Council. Ottawa: Industry Canada.
    CareyJohn (1995) The Faber Book of Science. London: Faber and Faber.
    Castells, Manuel (1996) The Information Age, Vol. 1: The Rise of the NetworkSociety. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Castells, Manuel (1997a) The Information Age, Vol. 2: The Power of Identity. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Castells, Manuel (1997b) The Information Age, Vol. 3: The End of the Millennium. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Cawkell, A.E. (ed.) (1987) Evolution of an Information Society. London: ASLIB.
    Cawson, Alan, Haddon, Leslie and Miles, Ian (1995) The Shape of Things to Consume. Aldershot: Avebury
    CEC (Commission of European Communities) (1994a) Growth, Competitiveness and Employment – Challenges for entering in the 21st century. (White Paper, colloquially called ‘the Délors Report’). Luxembourg: EC.
    CEC (1994b) Europe and the Global Information Society: Recommendations to theEuropean Council. (‘Bangemann Report’). Brussels: CEC. 26 May.
    CEC (1994c) Strategy Options to Strengthen the European Programme Industry in the Context of Audiovisual Policy of the EU. (Green Paper). Brussels: EC (COM, 94. 96 Final, 6.4.1994).
    CEC (1996a) Building the European Information Society for Us All: First Reflections of the High Level Group of Experts. Brussels: EC, DGV.
    CEC (1996b) People First: Living and Working in the European Information Society. Luxembourg: Bulletin of the European Union, Supplement 3/96.
    CEC (1997) Green Paper on the Convergence of Telecoms, Media and IT Sectors andImplications of Regulation: Towards an Info Society Approach. Brussels: EC. December 1997.
    CEC (1998) Industrial Aspects of the Information Society: ICT Investment in the Intangible Economy. Luxembourg: OOPEC. (Authored by Clark Eustace and Jorgen Mortensen, for DGIII/A-5.)
    Cerf, Vinton G. (1996) ‘Foreword’, in MarkStefik (ed.) Internet Dreams: Archetypes, Myths and Metaphors. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Cherry, Colin (1978) World Communication: Threat or Promise? A Socio-technicalApproach. Chichester: Wiley.
    Chesnais, François (1986) ‘Marx's crisis theory today’, in C.Freeman (ed.) Design, Innovation and Long Cycles. London: Pinter. pp. 186–94.
    Chomsky, Noam and Herman, E.S. (1992) Manufacturing Consent: The PoliticalEconomy of the Mass Media. London: Vintage.
    Clarke, Colin (1940) The Conditions of Economic Progress. London: Macmillan.
    Clarke, S. (1990) ‘New utopias for old: Fordist dreams & post Fordist fantasies’, Capital and Class, 42: 131–53.
    Collins, R. (1990) Television: Policy and Culture. London: Unwin Hyman.
    Connor, Steven (1989) Postmodernist Culture. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Corcoran, Farrel and Preston, Paschal (eds) (1995) Democracy and Communicationin the New Europe: Change and Continuity in East and West. Creskill NJ: Hampton Press Inc.
    Crook, S. (1998) ‘Minotaurs and Other Monsters: everyday life in recent social theory’, Sociology, 32 (3): 523–40.
    Curran, J., Smith, A. and Wingate, P. (eds) (1987) Impacts and Influences: MediaPower in the Twentieth Century. London: Methuen.
    Curran, J. and Seaton, J. (1988) Power Without Responsibility: The Press andBroadcasting in Britain. London: Routledge.
    Debons, A., et al. (1980) Manpower Requirements for Scientific and TechnicalCommunication: An Occupational Surrey of Information Professionals. Pittsburg, KS: University of Pittsburg.
    De Certeau, M. (1984) The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    De Jonquières, Guy (1985) ‘Confounding Orwell's predictions’, Financial Times, 2 January.
    Dizard, W.P (1982) The Coming Information Age: An Overview of TechnologyEconomics and Politics. New York: Longman.
    Dosi, G., Freeman, C, Nelson, R., Silverberg, G. and Soete, L. (eds) (1988) TechnicalChange in Economic Theory. London: Frances Pinter.
    Douthwaite, Richard (1992) The Growth Illusion. Dublin: Lilliput.
    Downing, John, Mohammadi, Ali and Sreberny-Mohammadi, Annabelle (eds) (1995) Questioning the Media: A Critical Introduction. London: Sage.
    Drake, William (ed.) (1995) The New Information Infrastructure: Strategies for USPolicy. New York: Twentieth Century Fund Press.
    Drucker, Peter F (1968) The Age of Discontinuity. New York: Harper and Row.
    Drucker, P. (1985) Innovation and Entrepreneurship. London: Pan Books.
    DTI Communications Steering Group (1988) The Infrastructure for Tomorrow. London: HMSO.
    Dunlop, C. and Kling, Rob (eds) (1991) Computerization and Controversy: ValueConflicts and Social Choices. Boston, MA: Academic Press.
    Dutton, W.H. (1996) Information and Communication Technologies: Visions andRealities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Dyson, Esther (1998) Release 2.1: A Design for Living in the Digital Age. London: Penguin Books.
    Dyson, Esther, Gilder, George, Keyworth, George and Toffler, Alvin (1996) Cyberspace and the American dream: a Magna Carta for the knowledge age’, in The Information Society, 12 (3): 295–308.
    Elam, Mark (1994) ‘Puzzling out the post-Fordist debate’, in AshAmin (ed.) Post-Fordism: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 43–70.
    European Audiovisual Observatory (1998) Statistical Yearbook 1998. Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory.
    Evans, Christopher (1979) The Mighty Micro: Impacts of the Computer Revolution. London: Gollancz.
    Featherstone, Mike (1991) Consumer Culture and Postmodernism. London: Sage.
    Ferguson, M. (1986) New Communication Technologies and the Public Interest:Comparative Perspectives on Policy and Research:London: Sage.
    Feyerabend, P. (1988) Farewell to Reason. London: Verso.
    Finnegan, R., Salamon, G. and Thompson, K. (eds) (1987) IT: Social Issues. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    Forester, T. (ed.) (1980) The Microelectronics Revolution. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Forester, T. (ed.) (1985) The IT Revolution: The Complete Guide. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Foster, F.G. (ed.) (1981) Informatics and Industrial Development. Dublin: Tycooly International Publishing Ltd.
    Frank, Robert (1994) ‘Talent and the winner take-all society’, The American Prospect, no. 17, Spring: 97–107.
    Frankel, Boris (1987) The Post-Industrial Utopians. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Freeman, C. (1982) The Economics of Industrial Innovation. (
    2nd edition
    ) London: Pinter.
    Freeman, C. (ed.) (1984) Long Waves in the World Economy. London: Pinter.
    Freeman, C. (1985) ‘Long waves of economic development’, in TomForester (ed.) The IT Revolution: The Complete Guide. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Freeman, C. (ed.) (1986) Design, Innovation and Long Cycles in EconomicDevelopment. London: Pinter.
    Freeman, C. (1987) ‘The case for technological determinism’, in R.Finnegan (ed.) IT:The Social Issues. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    Freeman, C. (1994) ‘The economics of technical change’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 18 (5): 463–514.
    Freeman, C. (1995) ‘The “national system of innovation” in historical perspective’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 19 (1): 5–24.
    Freeman, C. (ed.) (1996) Long Wave Theory. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    Freeman, C. and Perez, C. (1988) ‘Structural crises of adjustment’, in G.Dosi et al. (eds) Technical Change and Economic Theory. London: Pinter. pp. 43–64.
    Freeman, C. and Soete, L. (eds) (1987) Technical Change and Full Employment. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Freeman, C. and Soete, L. (1994) Work for All or Mass Unemployment?London: Pinter.
    Froud, J., Haslam, C., Jahal, S., Leaver, A., Williams, J. and Williams, K. (1999) ‘The third way and the jammed economy’, Capital and Class, no. 67: 155–65.
    G7 (Group of Seven) (1995) General Conclusions of the G7. Brussels: EC. February. Document accessed via Internet.
    Gandy, Oscar H. Jnr (1993) The Panoptic Sort: A political economy of personalinformation. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Garnham, Nicholas (1979) ‘Contribution to a political economy of mass communication’, Media Culture and Society, 1 (1): 123–47.
    Garnham, Nicholas (1981) ‘The information society is also a class society’, in L.Bannon, Barry, U. and Holst, O. (eds) Information Technology: Impact on the Way of Life. Dublin: Tycooley International Publishing. pp. 284–92.
    Garnham, Nicholas (1990) Capitalism and Communication. London: Sage
    Garnham, Nicholas (1994) Whatever happened to the information society?’, in R.Mansell (ed.) Management of Information and Communication Technologies: Emerging Patterns of Control. London: ASLIB. pp. 42–51.
    Gates, Bill (with N.Myhrvold, P.Rinearson?) (1995) The Road Ahead. London: Viking.
    Gerbner, George, Mowlana, Hamid and Schiller, Herbert (eds) (1996) InvisibleCrises: What Conglomerate Control of Media Means for America and the World. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Gershuny, J.I. and Miles, I. D. (1983) The New Services Economy: The Transformation of Employment in Industrial Societies. London: Pinter.
    Gibbons, Luke (1998) ‘Alternative Enlightenments’, in M.Cullen (ed.) 1798: Two Hundred Years of Resonance. Dublin: Irish Reporter Publications.
    Gibbons, Michael, Limoges, Camille, Nowotny, Helga, Schwartzman, Simon, Scott, Peter and Trow, Martin (1994) The New Production of Knowledge: TheDynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. London: Sage.
    Giddens, Anthony (1985) ‘Reason without revolution? Habermas's Theory of Communicative Action, in Richard J.Bernstein (ed.) Habermas and Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 95–124.
    Giddens, Anthony (1991) Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the LateModern Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Giddens, Anthony (1995) A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. (
    2nd Edition.
    ) Houndmills: Macmillan Press.
    Gillott, John and Kumar, Manjit (1995) Science and the Retreat From Reason. London: Merlin Press.
    Gitlin, Todd (1989) ‘Postmodernism: roots and politics’, in I.Angus and S.Jhally (eds) Cultural Politics in Contemporary America. New York: Routledge.
    Godelier, M. (1986) The Mental and the Material: Thought, Economy and Society. London: Verso.
    Godwin, Mike (1996) ‘Foreword’ in PeterLudlow (ed.) High Noon on the ElectronicFrontier: Conceptual Issues in Cyberspace. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Golding, P. and Murdoch, G. (1980) ‘Theories of Communication and Theories of Society’, in C.G.Wilhoit and de Bock, H. (eds) Mass Communication Rev. Yearbook: Vol. 1. London: Sage.
    Golding, Peter and Murdoch, Graham (eds) (1997) The Political Economy of theMedia. (2 vols). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    Goldsmith, Oliver (1759) Enquiry into the Present State of Polite Learning in Europe. Cited in LeoLowenthal (1961) Popular Culture and Society, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. p. 75.
    Goldsmith, Oliver (1759) Enquiry into the Present State of Polite Learning in Europe. Reprinted in 1985 in The Globe Edition: The Miscellaneous Works of Oliver Goldsmith. London: Macmillan. pp. 419–46.
    Goodwin, P. (1995) ‘British media policy takes to the superhighway’, Media, Culture and Society, 17 (4): 677–89.
    Gore, Al (1994a) ‘The global info infrastructure: forging a new Athenian age of democracy’, Intermedia, 22 (2): 4–7.
    Gore, Al (1994b) ‘Plugged into the world's knowledge: how global information systems will aid development’, Financial Times, 19 September.
    Gregory, Derek (1994) Geographical Imaginations. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    Groom, Brian (1998) ‘Call centres become a jobs phenomenon’, Financial Times, 23 April.
    Guback, Thomas (1969) The International Film Industry: Western Europe andAmerica Since 1945. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Guback, Thomas (1979) ‘Theatrical Film’ in BM.Compaine (ed.) Who Own theMedia?New York: Harmony Books.
    Guback, Thomas (ed.) (1993) Counterclockwise: Perspectives on Communication –Dallas Smythe. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Gudeman, S. (1986) Economics As Culture. London: Routledge.
    Habermas, J. (1976) Legitimation Crisis. London: Heinemann.
    Habermas, J. (1983) ‘Modernity – an incomplete project’, in HalFoster (ed.) The Anti-Aesthetic. Port Townsend, WA: Bay Press. (Reprinted in 1985 as Postmodern Culture.London: Pluto.)
    Habermas, J. (1985a) ‘Psychic Thermidor and the rebirth of rebellious subjectivity’, in Richard J.Bernstein (ed.) Habermas and Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 67–77.
    Habermas, J. (1985b) ‘Neoconservative culture criticism in the United States and West Germany’, in Richard J.Bernstein (ed.) Habermas and Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 78–94.
    Habermas, J. (1992) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Cambridge: Polity Press (originally published in German, 1962).
    Hall, Peter and Preston, Paschal (1988) The Carrier Wave: New InformationTechnology and the Geography of Innovation. London: Unwin Hyman.
    Hamelink, Cees, H. (1994) The Politics of World Communication. London: Sage.
    Haraway, Donna, J. (1997) Modest_Witness@Second_Milennium. New York: Routledge.
    Harkort, F. (1844) Bemerkungen uber die Hindernisse der Civilisation und die Emancipation der unteren Klassen, cited in E. J.Hobsbawm (1969) Industry and Empire. London: Pelican. pp. 65–66.
    Harvey, David (1989) The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Originsof Cultural Change. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Hatt, Paul and Foote, Nelson (1953) ‘On the expansion of the tertiary, quaternary and quinary sectors’, American Economic Review, May, cited in Bell (1973).
    Heap, Nick, Thomas, Ray, Einon, Geoff, Mason, Robin and Mackay, Hughie (eds) (1995) Information Technology and Society: A Reader. London: Sage.
    Herschman Leeson, Lynn (ed.) (1996) Clicking In: Hot Links to a Digital Culture. Seattle, WA: Bay Press.
    Hertz, J.C. (1997) Joystick Nation. London: Abacus.
    Hobsbawm, E.J. (1969) Industry and Empire. London: Pelican.
    Hollinger, Robert (1994) Postmodernism and the Social Sciences: A ThematicApproach. London: Sage.
    Howell, David (1994) ‘The skills myth’, The American Prospect, 18: 81–90. []
    Hughes, Tom P. (1983) Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society1880–1930. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    IDATE (1997) Electronic Publishing in Europe: Competitiveness, Employment and Skills (Flash Presentation of the Electronic Publishing Sector). Report commissioned and published by EC, DG XIII/E. October.
    ILO (International Labour Office) (1997) The Economically Active Population, 1950–2010. (Five Volumes). Geneva: ILO.
    Innis, Harold A. (1950) Empire and Communication. London: Oxford University Press.
    Innis, Harold A. (1951) The Bias of Communication. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Innis, Harold A. (1956) Essays in Canadian Economic History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Inose, H. and Pierce, J.R. (1984) Information Technology and Civilisation. New York: Freeman & Co.
    International Labour Organisation (1997) The Economically Active Population, 1950–2010. (3 vols) Geneva: ILO.
    International Labour Organisation (1998) World Employment Report. Geneva: ILO.
    ITAP (IT Advisory Panel, Cabinet Office) (1983) Making a Business of Information. London: HMSO.
    Ito, Yoichi (1981) ‘The “Johoka Shakai” approach to the study of communication in Japan’, in G. C.Wilhout and Bock (eds) Mass Communication Yearbook Vol. 2. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Ito, Y. (1991) ‘Johoka: a driving force of social change’, KEIO Communications Review, 12: 33–8.
    Itoh, Makoto (1997) ‘Ernest Mandel, 1923–1995’, Review of International Political Economy, 4 (1): 248–55.
    ITU (International Telecommunication Union) (1988) World TelecommunicationDevelopment Report. Geneva: ITU.
    ITU (1995) World Telecommunication Development Report. Geneva: ITU.
    Jameson, F. (1984) ‘Postmodernism or the cultural logic of late capitalism’, New Left Review, 146: 53–92.
    Jameson, F. (1988) ‘Postmodernism and consumer society’, in HalFoster (ed.) Postmodern Culture. London: Pluto Press. pp. 111–25.
    Jameson, F. (1990) ‘Postmodernism and the market’, in R.Miliband and J.Saville (eds) Socialist Register 1990: The Retreat of the Intellectuals. London: The Merlin Press.
    Jameson, F. (1991) Postmodernism or The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. London: Verso.
    Jasanoff, Sheila, Markle, Gerald E., Petersen, James C. and Pinch, Trevor (eds) (1995) Handbook of Science and Technology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Inc.
    Jessop, Bob (1994) ‘Beyond Fordism and the state’, in AshAmin (ed.) Post-Fordism: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 251–79.
    Jhally, Sut (1991) The Codes of Advertising, Fetishism and the Political Economy ofMeaning in the Consumer Society. New York and London: Routledge.
    Karunaratne, Neil D. (1986) ‘Issues in measuring the information economy,’Journal of Economic Issues, 13 (3): 51–68.
    Katz, James E. and PhilipAspden (1998) ‘Internet dropouts in the USA: the invisible group’, Telecommunications Policy, 22 (4/5): 327–39.
    Kearney, Richard (1991) Poetics of Imagining: From Husserl to Lyotard. London: HarperCollins Academic.
    Kellner, Douglas (1989) Jean Baudrillard: From Marxism to Postmodernism andBeyond. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Kelly, Kevin (1998) New Rules for the New Economy: Ten Ways the NetworkEconomy is Changing Everything. London: Fourth Estate.
    Kennedy, N. (1989) The Industrialisation of Intelligence. London: Unwin Hyman.
    King, D.W., Roderer, N. and Olsen, H. (eds) (1983) Key Papers on the Economics ofInformation. New York: Knowledge Industry Publications.
    Kling, Rob (1994) ‘Reading “All About” computerization: how genre conventions shape non-fiction social analysis’, The Information Society10 (3): 147–72.
    Kubicek, H, Dutton, W.H. and Williams, R. (eds) (1997) The Social Shaping of the Information Superhighways: European and American Roads to the InformationSociety. New York: St Martins Press.
    Kuhns, William (1971) The Post-Industrial Prophets: Interpretations of Technology. New York: Weybright and Talley.
    Kumar, Krishan (1996) From Post-industrialism to Post-modern Society: New Theories of the Contemporary World. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Lamberton, D.M. (ed.) (1971) The Economics of Information and Knowledge. London: Penguin.
    Landow, George P. (1997) Hypertext 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary CriticalTheory and Technology. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Large, Peter (1985) ‘Information age needs realism’, The Guardian, 9 September.
    Lash, Scott (1990) Sociology of Postmodernism. London: Routledge.
    Lash, Scott and Urry, John (1987) The End of Organised Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity.
    Lash, Scott and Urry, John (1994) Economies of Signs and Space. Lond on: Sage.
    Latzer, M. and Thomas, G. (eds) (1993) Audiotex Services in Europe and the USA. Amsterdam: Kluwer.
    Lefebvre, Henri (1974) The Production of Space. (English translation, published 1984) Oxford: Blackwell.
    Lefebvre, Henri (1991) Critique of Everyday Life. London: Verso.
    Levin, Charles (1981) ‘Introduction’, in Jean Baudrillard, For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign. St. Louis, MO: Telos Press. pp. 5–28.
    Levinson, Paul (1999) Digital McLuhan: a Guide to the Information Millennium. London: Routledge.
    Lowenthal, Leo (1961) Popular Culture and Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Ludlow, Peter (ed.) (1996) High Noon on the Electronic Frontier: Conceptual Issuesin Cyberspace. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Lukacs, G. (1971) History and Class Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Lyon, D. (1988) The Information Society: Issues and Illusions. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Lyotard, Jean-François (1984) The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Machlup, F. (1962) The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the UnitedStates. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Machlup, F. (1980) Knowledge: Its Creation, Distribution and EconomicSignificance. Vol. I Knowledge and Knowledge Production. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Machlup, F. (1983) ‘The economics of information: a new classification’Intermedia11 (2).
    Machlup, F. (1984) Knowledge: Its Creation, Distribution and EconomicSignificance. Vol. III The Economics of Information and Human Capital. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Machlup, F. and Mansfield, Una (1983) The Study of Information: InterdisciplinaryMessages. New York: John Wiley.
    MacKenzie, Donald and Wajcman, Judy (eds) (1985) The Social Shaping of Technology: How the Refrigerator Got its Hum. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Maddox, Brenda (1972) Beyond Babel: New Directions in Communications. London: Andre Deutsch.
    Maffesoli, M. (1996) The Time of the Tribes. London: Sage.
    Mandel, E. (1972) Late Capitalism. London: NLB/Verso.
    Mandel, E. (1982) The Second Slump. London: New Left Books.
    Mandel, E. (1984) ‘Explaining Long Waves’, in ChrisFreeman (ed.) Long Waves in the World Economy. London: Pinter. pp. 195–202.
    Mandel, E. (1995) Long Waves of Capitalist Development: A Marxist Interpretation (
    2nd revised edition
    ). London: Verso.
    Mandel, E. (1996) ‘The international debate on long waves of capitalist development’, in ChristopherFreeman (ed.) Long Wave Theory. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. pp. 608–31.
    Mandela, Nelson (1995) ‘Towards a world-wide information society’, Intermedia23 (6): 46–7.
    Mansell, R. (ed.) (1994) Management of Information and CommunicationTechnologies: Emerging Patterns of Control. London: ASLIB.
    Mansell, Robin and Silverstone, Roger (eds) (1996) Communication by Design. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Marshall, T.H (1950) Citizenship and Social Class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Martin, James (1978) The Wired Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Marvin, C. (1988) When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking About Communications in the Late Nineteenth CenturyNew York: OUP
    Marx, Karl (1973) Grundrisse. (Tr. MartinNicolaus,) Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.
    Masuda, Yoneji (1980) Managing in the Information Society: Releasing SynergyJapanese Style. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Masuda, Yoneji (1982) ‘Vision of the global information society’, in L.Bannon, U.Barry and O.Holst (eds) Information Technology: Impact on the Way of Life. Dublin: Tycooley International. pp. 55–9.
    Masuda, Yoneji (1985) ‘Computopia’, in T.Forester (ed.) The IT Revolution. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Mattelart, A. (1979) Multinational Corporations and The Control of Culture: The Ideological Apparatuses of Imperialism. Sussex: Harvester Press.
    Mattelart, A. (1991) Advertising International: The Privatisation of Private Space. London: Routledge.
    Mattelart, A. (1996) The Invention of Communication. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Mattelart, A. and Mattelart, M. (1998) Theories of Communication. London: Sage.
    McBride Commission (1980) Many Voices, One World (Report for UNESCO). London: Kogan Page.
    McLuhan, Marshall (1951) The Mechanical Bride. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
    McLuhan, Marshall (1962) The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    McLuhan, Marshall (1964) Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. [Reprinted, 1987] London: RKP/Ark.
    McQuail, D. (1987) Mass Communication Theory: An Introduction. London: Sage.
    McQuail, D. and Siune, K. (eds) (1998) Media Policy: Convergence, Concentration and Commerce. London: Sage.
    Melody, William H. (1985) ‘The Information Society: unveiling some contradictions’, Special issue of Media, Culture and Society, 7 (3).
    Melody, William H. (1996). ‘Towards a framework for designing information society policies’, Telecommunications Policy, 20 (4): 243–59.
    Melody, William H. (ed.) (1997) Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and RegulatoryPractices. Lyngby, Denmark: Technical University of Denmark.
    MelodyW.H., Salter, L. and Heyer, P. (eds) (1981) Culture, Communication andDependency: The Tradition of H. A. Innis. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Miege, B. (1989) The Capitalisation of Cultural Production. New York: International General.
    Miles, Ian (1988) Home Informatics: IT and the Transformation of Everyday Life. London: Pinter.
    Miller, D. (1987) Material Culture and Mass Consumption. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Mills, C. Wright (1956a) White Collar: The American Middle Classes. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Mills, C. Wright (1956b) The Power Elite. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Mills, C. Wright (1959) The Sociological Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Mitchell, William J. (1995) City of Bits: Space, Place and the Infobahn. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Modigliani, Franco and La Malfa, Giorgio (1998) ‘Perils of unemployment’, Financial Times, 16 January, 1998.
    Mody, Bella, Bauer, JohannesM. and Straubhaar, Joseph D. (eds) (1995) Telecommunications Politics, Ownership and Control of the Info Highway in Developing Countries. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.
    Moody, F. (1996) I Sing the Body Electronic. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    Moore, Nick (1996) ‘How the State, not the market drives info industry policy in East Asia’, Intermedia, 24 (3): 26–9.
    Morley, D. and Robins, K. (1995) Spaces of Identity: Global Media, ElectronicLandscapes and Cultural Borders. London: Routledge.
    Mosco, V. (1996) The Political Economy of Communication. London: Sage.
    Mosco, V. and Wasko, J. (1988) The Political Economy of Information. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Moseley, Fred (1999) ‘The US economy at the turn of the century: entering a new era of prosperity?’, Capital and Class, 67: 25–45.
    Mowlana, Hamid (1997) Global Information and World Communications: New Frontiers in International Relations. London: Sage.
    Mulgan, G.J. (1991) Communication and Control: Networks and the NewEconomies of Communication. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Mumford, Lewis (1934) Technics and Civilization. New York: Harcourt Brace.
    Murdoch, G. (1993) ‘Communication and the constitution of modernity’, Media, Culture and Society, (15): 521–39.
    Murdoch, Graham and Golding, Peter (1974) ‘For a political economy of the mass communication’, in R.Miliband and J.Saville (eds) The Socialist Register, 1973. London: Merlin Press. pp. 205–34.
    Negrine, R. (ed.) (1989) Satellite Broadcasting: The Politics and Implications of theNew Media. London: Routledge.
    Negroponte, Nicholas (1995) Being Digital: The Road Map for Survival on theInformation Superhighway. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    Negt, Oskar and Kluge, Alexander (1993) Public Sphere and Experience: Toward an Analysis of the Bourgeois and Proletarian Public Sphere. (Tr. by PeterLabanyi) Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Noble, David F. (1977) America by Design: Science, Technology and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism. New York: Knopf.
    Noble, David F. (1984) Forces of Production: A Social History of Industrial Automation. New York: Knopf.
    Noble, David (1998) ‘Selling Academe to the Technology Industry’, NEA Higher Education Journal, Spring: 29–40.
    Nora, S. and Minc, A. (1980) The Computerisation of Society: A Report to the President of France. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Nordenstreng, K. and Schiller, H. (eds) (1993) Beyond National Sovereignty:International Communications in the 1990s. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Norris, Christopher (1990) What's Wrong with Postmodernism: Critical Theory and the Ends of Philosophy. Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    NTIA (National Telecommunications and Information Administration, US Department of Commerce) (1988) NTIA Telecom 2000: Charting the Course fora New Century. Washington: US Goverment Printing Office.
    OECD (1981a) Information Activities, Electronics and Telecoms Technologies:Impacts on Employment, Growth & Trade (Vol. 1). Paris: OECD: ICCP Report No. 6, Vol. 1.
    OECD (1981b) Information Activities, Electronics and Telecoms Technologies: Impacts on Employment, Growth & Trade (Vol. 2). Paris: OECD: ICCP Report No. 6, Vol. 2.
    OECD (1986) Trends of Change in the Information Economy. Paris: OECD: ICCP Report No. 11.
    OECD (1989) New Technologies in the 1990s: A Socio-Economic Strategy. Paris: OECD (PPh).
    OECD (1997) Global Information Infrastructure-Society (GII-GIS): PolicyRecommendations for Action. Paris: OECD (ICCP Committee Reports).
    OECD (1998) OECD Economic Outlook 62. Paris: OECD.
    OECD (1999) The Future of the Global Economy. Paris: OECD.
    OECD (2000) The Service Economy, (OECD Business and Industry Policy Forum Series). Paris: OECD.
    PA Consulting Group (1997) Opportunities for Content and Service Provision. Final version of report commissioned by the UK government's Department of Trade and Industry, April, 1997. London: DTI.
    Pendakur, M. (1992) Canadian Dreams and American Control: The PoliticalEconomy of the Canadian Film Industry. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
    Perez, Carlotta (1983) ‘Structural change and the assimilation of new technologies in the economic and social systems’, Futures, 15: 357–75.
    Perez, Carlotta (1985) Microelectronics, long waves and world structural changes: new perspectives for developing countries’, World Development, 13(3): 441–63.
    Piore, Michael and CharlesSabel (1984) The Second Industrial Divide. New York: Basic Books.
    Plant, Sadie (1997) Zeros + Ones – Digital Women and New Technoculture. London: Fourth Estate.
    Polanyi, Karl (1944) The Great Transformation. New York: Farrar Strauss.
    Pool, Ithiel de Sola (1983) Technologies of Freedom: On Free Speech in an ElectronicAge. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press/Harvard University Press.
    Pool, Ithiel de Sola and Inose, H. (1984) Communication Flows: A Census in theUSA and Japan. New York: North Holland.
    Pool, I. de Sola, Inose, H., Takasaki, N. and Hurwitz, R. (1984) CommunicationFlows: A Census in the US and Japan. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.
    Porat, M.U. (1976) The Information Economy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University (PhD Thesis).
    Porat, M.U. with the assistance of Rubin, M. R. et al. (1977) The Information Economy: Definition and Measurement. Washington DC: US Govt Printing Office (9 Vols).
    Porter, Vincent, Garnham, Nicholas and Askoy, Asu (1987) ‘Measuring and Classifying the Information Economy’, Supplement 2 to ‘PICT Report on the Information Sector and the ISIC. London: ESRC/PICT (mimeo).
    Poster, Mark (1990) The Mode of Information: Poststructuralism and SocialContext. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Poster, Mark (1995) The Second Media Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Preston, Paschal (1984) Innovation in Information Technology: Defining IT and Related Job and Wealth Creation Potential. Innovation in IT Project Working Paper 2.1.
    Preston, Paschal (1986) ‘The Tradeable Information Sector: Review of Definitional, Measurement and Data Issues’. LondonESRC (PICT CCU Working Paper, mimeo).
    Preston, Paschal (1987) ‘Technology waves and the future sources of employment and wealth creation’, in M.Breheny and R.McQuaid (eds) The Developmentof High Technology Industries: An International Survey. London: Croom Helm.
    Preston, Paschal (1989) Measuring the Information Economy: Proposals forUpdating the ISIC. Oxford: Economic and Social Research Council/PICT, ESRC/PICT Policy Research Paper, No. 6.
    Preston, Paschal (1993) ‘The Diffusion and Regulation of Audiotex Services in Ireland’, in M.Latzer and G.Thomas (eds) Audiotex Services in Europe and theUSA. Amsterdam: Kluwer.
    Preston, P. (1994) Neo-liberal regulation and the smaller and peripheral economies: an institutionalist perspective’, in H.Williams and M.Borman (eds) Telecommunication: Exploring Competition. Amsterdam: IOS Press.
    Preston, Paschal (1995) ‘Information and citizenship in a European context: competing conceptions and definitions’, paper presented at EU DGXIII Conference on Information and Citizenship’, Luxembourg, October 1995.
    Preston, Paschal (1996a) ‘Technology, space and cohesion: an Irish perspective on “Europe's Way to the Information Society”,’ in Special theme issue of Telematics and Informatics, 13 (2/3): 123–40.
    Preston, Paschal (1996b) ‘Content matters: a strategy for the “content” industries in the Irish information economy’, Commissioned consultancy report (unpublished).
    Preston, Paschal (1996c) Multimedia convergences or divergences?: the uneasy encounter between industrial innovation logics and the cultural/media spheres’, paper presented to 4S/EASST Conference. Bielefeld, Germany, 10–13 October 1996.
    Preston, Paschal (1996d) ‘Democratic and cultural issues along “Europe's way to the information society”’, paper to OGK conference ‘Time After Media’, Schloss Hagenburg, near Linz, 1–3 March 1996.
    Preston, Paschal (1997a) ‘The info superhighway and the less developed regions/smaller entities’, in H.Kubicek and R.Williams (eds) (1997) The Social Shaping of the Info Superhighway: European and American Roads to the Information Society. New York: St Martins Press. pp. 277–98.
    Preston, Paschal (1997b) ‘Information for citizenship: the Ireland case’, in JaneSteele (ed.) Information for Citizenship in Europe. London: Policy Studies Institute. pp. 108–46.
    Preston, Paschal (1997c) ‘The key challenges for TE's “information age town” project: context, challenges and prospects’, paper to conference ‘On Ireland in the Information Age: Developing a National Strategy’, Dublin City University, 19 September 1997.
    Preston, Paschal (1998a) ‘The media, public communications and “Europe's way to the information society”’, in theme issue ofKurswechsel Journal, 2: 101–116.
    Preston, Paschal (1998b) ‘Social science knowledge and “Europe's way to the Info Society”’, Paper to conference on ‘The role of the Social Sciences in the Making of the European Union’, organised by the Austrian Ministry of Science on the occasion of Austria's Presidency of the EC, Vienna, 10–12 December 1998.
    Preston, Paschal and Grisold, Andrea (1995) Unpacking the concept of competition in media policy making: the case of Ireland and Austria’, in F.Corcoran and P.Preston (eds) Democracy and Communication in the New Europe. Hampton, NJ: Hampton Press. pp. 67–96.
    Preston, Paschal and Lorente, Santiago (1995) ‘Competing visions of information superhighways: implications for users’, PICT International Conference on Social and Economic Implications of New Information and Communication Technologies, Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, London, 10–12 May 1995.
    Preston, Paschal and Kerr, Aphra (1998) Multimedia, technology and the nation state: cultural dimensions of multimedia “content”’, paper to Twenty-first Conference of International Association for Media and Communication Research, Glasgow, 26–30 July 1998.
    Preston, Paschal and Flynn, Roderick (1999) ‘The long-term performance and utility of national telecoms systems: a case study of Ireland, 1920–1998’, Telecommunications Policy, 23 (5): 437–58.
    Preston, Paschal and Flynn, R. (2000) ‘Overhauling universal service: citizenship, consumption norms and the telephone’, The Information Society, 16 (2): 91–9.
    Ramirez, Rafael (1998) Unchaining value in a new economic age’, Financial Times, 12–13, (Special Supplement on Mastering Global Business’).
    Reich, Robert (1998) ‘My Dinner with Bill,’The American Prospect, 38: 6–9.
    Rice, R.E. & Assoc (1984) The New Media: Communication, Research andTechnology. London: Sage.
    Robins, Kevin (ed.) (1992) Understanding Information: Business Technology andGeography. London: Belhaven Press.
    Robins, K. and Askoy, Asu (1990) ‘Hollywood for the twenty-first century? Global competition for critical mass in image markets’, paper to ICA Conference, Dublin.
    Rogers, Everett M. (1983) Diffusion of Innovations (
    Third Edition
    ). New York: Free Press.
    Rogers, Everett M. (1995) The Diffusion of Innovations (
    Fourth Edition
    ). New York: Free Press.
    Rogers, E.M. and Kincaid, L. (1981) Communication Networks: Towards a New Paradigm for Research. New York: Free Press.
    Rohm, Wendy Goldman (1998) The Microsoft File: The Secret Case Against Bill Gates. New York: Random House.
    Rorty, Richard (1998) Interview in Times Higher Education Supplement, 16 October 1998.
    Rose, Margaret A. (1991) The Post-modern and the Post-industrial. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Rosenberg, Nathan (1982) Inside the Black Box: Technology and Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Roszak, T. (1986) The Cult of Information: The Folklore of Computers and the True Art of Thinking. New York: Pantheon Books.
    Rubin, M.R. and Huber, M.T. (1986) The Knowledge Industry in the United States, 1960–80. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Salvaggio, J.L. (ed.) (1989) The Information Society: Economic, Social and Structural Issues. New York: L. Erlbaum.
    Sayer, Andrew (1989) ‘Post-Fordism in question’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 13: 666–95.
    Samarajiva, Rohan and Shields, Peter (1997) ‘Telecommunications networks as social space’, Media, Culture and Society, 19 (4): 535–56.
    Schement, J.R. and Lievrouw, L.A. (eds) (1988) Competing Visions, ComplexRealities: Social Aspects of the Information Society. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Schement, Jorge R. and Curtis, Terry (1995) Tendencies and Tensions of theInformation Age. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
    Schiller, H.I. (1981) Who Knows: Information in the Age of the Fortune 500. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Schiller, H.I. (1986) Information and the Crisis Economy. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Schlesenger, P. (1991) ‘Media, political order and national identity’, Media, Culture and Society, 13 (3): 297–308.
    Schor, Juliet (1991) The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure. New York: Basic Books.
    Schramm, W. (1964) Mass Media and National Development: The Role ofInformation in the Developing Countries. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Schumpeter, Joseph (1939) Business Cycles. New York: McGraw Hill.
    Schumpeter, Joseph (1943) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. London: Unwin Hyman.
    Schumpeter, Joseph (1954) History of Economic Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Shapiro, Carl and Varian, Hal (1998) Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to theNetwork Economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Shillingford, Joia (1996) Middle-sized companies most at risk in digital future’, Financial Times, 6 March 1996.
    Silverstone, Roger and Hirsch, Eric (eds) (1992) Consuming Technologies: Media andInformation in Domestic Spaces. London: Routledge.
    Sinclair, J., Jacka, Elizabeth and Cunningham, Stuart (eds) (1995) New Patterns inGlobal Television. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Singelmann, J. (1979) From Agriculture to Services. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Slack, J. and Fejes, F. (eds) (1987) The Ideology of the Information Society. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Sloterdijk, P. (1989) Critique of Cynical Reason. London: Verso.
    Smith, Adam (1776) [1981]An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth ofNations. Indianapolis: Liberty Press.
    Smith, A. (1980) The Geopolitics of Information. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Smith, Merritt Roe and Marx, Leo (eds) (1994) Does Technology Drive History? TheDilemma of Technological Determinism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Smythe, D. (1981) ‘Communications: blind spot of economics’, in W.H.Melody, L.Salter and P.Heyer (eds) (1981) Culture, Communication and Dependency: The Tradition of H.A. Innis. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Smythe, D. (1983) Dependency Road. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Soja, Edward (1989) Postmodern Geographies. London: Verso.
    Sokal, A and Bricmont, J. (1998) Intellectual Impostures. Berks: Profile Books.
    Sorensen, Knut and Berg, Anne-Jorune (eds) (1990) Technology and Everyday Life:Trajectories and Transformations, Report No. 5. Trondheim: NTU.
    Sparks, Colin (ed.) (1996) Special issue on ‘electronic democracy’, Media, Culture and Society, 18 (2).
    Splichal, Slavo, Calabrese, A. and Sparks, C. (eds) 1994) Information Society andCivil Society: Contemporary Perspectives on the Changing World Order. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press.
    Stanback, T.M. Jnr (1979) Understanding the Service Economy: Employment, Productivity, Location. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Stanback, T.M. Jnr and Knight, R.V (1980) The Metropolitan Economy. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Stanback, T.M. Jnr et al. (1981) Services: The New Economy. Totowa, NJ: Allanheld & Co.
    Stevenson, Nick (1995) Understanding Media Cultures: Social Theory and Mass Communication. Sage.
    Stevenson, R.L. (1988) Communications, Development and The Third World. New York: Longman.
    Stonier, T (1983) The Wealth of Information. London: Thames Methuen.
    Storper, M. (1989) ‘The transition to flexible specialisation in the US film industry: external economies, the division of labour and the crossing of industrial divides’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 13: 273–305.
    Storper, Michael (1993) ‘Flexible specialisation in Hollywood: a response to Askoy and Robins’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 17 (4): 479–84.
    Storper, Michael (1994) ‘The transition to flexible specialisation in the US film industry’, in AshAmin (ed.) (1994) Post-Fordism: A Reader. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. pp. 195–226.
    Storper, M. and Christophersen, S. (1987) ‘Flexible specialisation and regional industrial agglomerations: the case of the US motion picture industry’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 77 (1): 104–17.
    Strachey, J. (1956) Contemporary Capitalism. London: Victor Gollancz (Facsimile Reprint, 1994. London: William Pickering).
    Strange, Susan (1994) States and Markets. London: Pinter.
    Strange, Susan (1996) The Retreat from the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Streeter, Thomas (1996) Selling the Air: A Critique of Commercial BroadcastingPolicy in the USA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Survey of Current Business (1998, November issue) Washington DC: Bureau of Economic Analysis.
    Sussman, G. and Lent, J.A. (eds) (1991) Transnational Communication: Wiring the Third World. London: Sage.
    Taylor, J., Kramarae, Cheris and Ebben, M. (eds) Women, Information Technology and Scholarship. Urbana, IL: Center for Advanced Study.
    Techno-ZF.H. (1997) The Content Challenge: Electronic Publishing and the New Content Industries. Research report commissioned and published by CEC, DG XIII/E, October 1997.
    TechServ (1998) The Future of Content: Discussions on the Future of EuropeanElectronic Publishing. Research report commissioned by EC, DG XIII/E. Luxembourg: TechServ.
    Thompson, E.P. (1963) The Making of the English Working Class. London: Vintage Books.
    Thompson, John B. (1995) The Media and Modernity: A Social Theory of the Media. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Toffler, Alvin (1970) Future Shock. London: Pan Books.
    Toffler, Alvin (1980) The Third Wave. London: Pan Books.
    Toffler, Alvin (1983) Previews and Premises. London: Pan Books.
    Toffler, Alvin and Toffler, Heidi (1995a) Creating a New Civilization: The Politics of the Third Wave’. Atlanta: Turner Publishing Inc.
    Toffler, Alvin and Toffler, Heidi (1995b) ‘Getting Set for the Coming Millennium’, Futurist, 29 (2): 10–15.
    Toffler, Alvin and Toffler, Heidi (1995c) Interview (by Sam Whitmore) in PC Week Executive12 (15), 17 April 1995, E4–5.
    Toffler, Alvin, with Dyson, Esther, Gilder, George and Keyworth, George (1996) Cyberspace and the American dream: a Magna Carta for the knowledge age’, The Info Society, 12 (3): 295–308.
    Tomita, T et al. (1975) ‘The volume of information flow and the quantum evaluation of media’, Telecommunications Journal, 42 (6): 339–49.
    Tyler, C. (1997) ‘Darwin Still Gets Under the Skin’, Financial Times, 15 February 1997.
    UK (1982a) There's No Future Without IT. London: Ministry for IT, Department of Industry.
    UK (1982b) Information Technology: The Age of Electronic Information. London: Ministry for IT, Department of Industry.
    UNDP (1998) Human Development Report, 1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    UNDP (1999) Human Development Report, 1999. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    USA-NII (1994) The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action – Executive Summary. Washington DC.
    USA-NTIA (1988) Telecom 2000. Washington: NTIA.
    USA Bureau of the Census (1996) Statistical Abstract of the US, 1996. Washington DC: US Bureau of the Census.
    USA Bureau of the Census (1998) Statistical Abstract of the US, 1998. Washington DC: US Bureau of the Census.
    USA Department of Commerce (1999) The Emerging Digital Economy, II. Washington DC: Department of Commerce. Report obtained online from:
    Veljanovsky, Cento (ed.) (1989) Freedom in Broadcasting. London: Institute for Economic Affairs.
    Venturelli, Shalini (1998) Liberalising the European Media: Politics, Regulation, and the Public Sphere. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Wasko, Janet (1994) Hollywood in the Information Age: Beyond the Silver Screen. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Wasko, Janet, Mosco, Vincent and Pendakur, Manjunath (eds) (1993) Illuminatingthe Blindspots: Essays Honoring Dallas W Smythe. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Webster, F. and Robins, K. (1986) Information Technology: A Luddite Analysis. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Webster, Frank (1995) Theories of the Information Society. London: Routledge.
    Weizenbaum, J. (1976) Computer Power and Human Reason. San Francisco, CA: Freeman.
    Williams, Raymond (1958) Culture and Society: Coleridge to Orwell. London: Hogarth Press.
    Williams, Raymond (1961) The Long Revolution. London: Chatto & Windus.
    Williams, Raymond (1974) Television, Technology and Cultural Form. London: Fontana/Collins.
    Williams, Raymond (1983) Towards 2000. London: Chatto & Windus.
    Williams, Robin and Edge, David (1996) ‘The social shaping of technology’, Research Policy, 25: 865–99.
    Winner, Langdon (1977) Autonomous Technology: Technics-out-of-control as aTheme in Political Thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Winston, Brian (1996) Technologies of Seeing: Phototgraphy Cinematatography and TV. London: BFI.
    Winston, Brian (1998) Media, Technology and Society: A History. London: Routledge.
    Wired (1996) ‘The Wired Manifesto’. Wired. October 1996: 42–7.
    Wood, Ellen M. (1996) Modernity, postmodernity or capitalism’, Monthly Review: July-August, 21–40.
    Wood, Ellen Meiksins (1997) Modernity, postmodernity or capitalism?’, Review of International Political Economy, 4 (3): 539–60.
    Woodward, K (ed.) (1980) The Myths of Information: Technology and Post-Industrialist Culture. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Wright, Marc (1983) Tevolution: The Evolution of TV, Cable and Satellite. London: Pear Publications.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website