Chapter Objectives

Using examples, this chapter:

  • Introduces ethnography as process and product.
  • Considers its main characteristics.
  • Confronts and responds to criticisms of its strengths and weaknesses.
  • Summarises key methods, notably ‘participant’ observation.
  • Examines recent developments in virtual ethnography.
  • Recommends a resurgence of interest.


Both ethnography and empirical studies of education leadership and management are at ‘crossroads’ moments in their development. The core intentions of ...

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